This paper presents aninvestigationontheeffectsof various components ofjustice including distributive justice, interactional justice and procedural justiceon building a mutual trust among customers ininsurancefirms. The proposed study of this paper uses a questionnaire originally developed by Daniels [Daniels, N. (1996). Justice and justification: Reflective equilibrium in theory and practice (Vol. 22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] and designs a questionnaire for measuring trust. The study was performed among 384 people who had used insurance services in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alphas for two questionnaires ofjustice and trust are 0.799 and 0.935, respectively, which are well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Spearman correlation test, the study has detected that two justice components, interactional justice and procedural justice, positively influence on customers’ trust, significantly.
Brand plays essential role onthe success of most organizations and it has been considered as organizational assets. Therefore, brand management is important in today’s structure of organizations. A good brand helps gain new customer and future preferences, which leads to customer retention. Brand loyalty is one ofthe most important components of brand management. It can raise firm’s market share and it has close relationship with firm’s return of investment and profits. This research tries to answer this question and finds out more about the relationship between customer satisfaction, trust, brand equity, brand image and customer loyalty. The study uses a sample of 384 regular customers who use insurance services in Iran. Using Pearson correlation ratio as well as structural equation modeling, the study has detected positive and meaningful relationship between brand equity and other factors such as customer satisfaction, trust, etc.
customer including previous purchases, needs and demands are utilized for making an adaptable framework, which would increase customers’ demand (Buttle, 2012; Kumar, 2010). IT-CRM as a customer-oriented strategy is increasingly used by different companies and banks and there are a lot of investments on this method (Kim et al., 2010). To implement customer-orientation, some important issues like accountability to customer demand i.e. service diversification and new initiative services have to be taken into account. Regarding electronic world concept in these days, banks must use electronic banking tools and patterns to be successful (Ayadi, 1996). In recent years, many banks have spent large amount of budgets to develop electronic banking services to increase competition. These services have developed for all the society and many Iranian banks such as Mellat Bank, Tejarat bank and Saderat bank try to encourage their customers to switch to newly introduced online banking. Therefore, many banks look for services used in all societies to increase their profitability and surviving remains as the main goal for a private bank. In addition, it must be mentioned that the main profitability of a bank comes from few number of customers. Banks must concentrate their budget on innovative services, which benefit customers and revise their previous services although all the society can benefit from these services. We must investigate to see if changes inthe bank’s structure is favorable to benefit customers and has its potential to absorb and maintain customers; onthe other hand to see whether electronic banking services help us reach CRM goals or not. In this study we seek to measure electronic banking services effectson CRM and also to determine each component of electronic services.
Hollenstein (2004) tried to explain timing and intensity of a firm’s adoption of ICT using a large sample offirms. The analysis was based onthe rank and the epidemic framework of technology adoption. The explanatory variables included various dimensions of anticipated advantages from and expenses of technology adoption, what provides to capture the effect of uncertainty and adjustment costs. They described the role of “New Workplace Organization” as a determinant ofthe adoption of ICT, as well as the reverse relationship. Jalava and Pohjola (2007) analyzed theeffectsof ICT on output and labor productivity growth in Finland over the period 1995–2005. They reported that ICT could be accounted for 1.87 percentage points ofthe observed labor productivity growth at the average rate of 2.87 per cent.
Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used onthe tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface ofthe steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting ofthe surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties ofthe materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting ofthe surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting with the arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
The paper presents a statistical assessment ofthe effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies onthe choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis ofthe reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have onthe mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after
X-ray structural examinations carried out on a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer using filtered radiation of cobalt anode tube ( λK α = 1,79Å) and Siemens D500 diffractometer producing monochromatic radiation of a tube with copper anode ( λK α = 1,54Å). The measurement conditions were as follows: angle step Δ2θ = 0,02°, count time τ =5÷10 seconds, angle measuring range 2 θ = 20÷120°.
Molten metal with the composition of high-aluminium cast iron was superheated to a temperature of 1510°C, and then samples were cast at 1420°C for metallographic examinations. To thus prepared liquid cast iron, vanadium was next introduced inthe form of ferroalloy The titanium to second heat was introduced in figure of scraps of titanic sheet metal. Consequently, cast iron ofthe chemical composition given in Table 1 was obtained. Samples were poured into dry moulds prepared from the traditional bentonite-bonded sand. From these samples, metallographic specimens were prepared.
Inthe paper the numerical solution ofthe inverse problem consisting inthe identification ofthe heat flux onthe continuous casting surface is presented. The additional information results from the measured surface or interior temperature histories. In particular the sequential function specification method using future time steps is applied. Onthe stage of numerical computations the 1st scheme ofthe boundary element method for parabolic equations is used. Because the problem is strongly non-linear the additional procedure 'linearizing' the task discussed is introduced. This procedure is called the artificial heat source method. Inthe final part ofthe paper the examples of computations are shown.
health care, and opportunities for participation in public arenas, which worsens when men have moved to urban centers leaving their women inthe rural areas. While it is recognized that women play fundamental roles inthe socio-economic development of their communities, they are often excluded from local decision-making processes because their views are not solicited and their interests are not taken into consideration by their counterparts (Opare, 2005). Society as a whole would benefit greatly if women had adequate access to decision-making opportunities. Women have been and continue to be subordinated to men in several ways that adversely affect their well-being. The Beijing Platform for Action emphasized that “women’s equal participation in decision making is not only a demand for justice or democracy, but can also be seen as a necessary condition for women’s interests to be taken into account. Without the
on overall company evaluations‖. Murray and Vogel (1997) have investigated the effect of associated CSR practices on consumers and presented similar findings. The CSR activities mentioned inthe research are, for instance, environmental protection practices (energy conservation), engagement in acts to promote human welfare, corporate social marketing (electric safety education for schoolchildren), contribution to the economic development ofthe region, and consumer protection program. Their research found that CSR programs lead to improved customer attitudes towards the firm, including beliefs about the company‘s honesty, consumer responses, and increased support for the firm in labor or government disputes. Mohr et al. (2001) conducted a consumer interview project for investigating the impact offirms‘ CSR on consumer behavior. How well are consumers aware ofthe CSR level of individual firms? Are the purchase decisions of consumers affected by a firm‘s CSR, and how much? How do consumers think about firms‘ motivation for being socially responsible? Mohr et al. (2001) found that consumers are positive to business in general. It is not wrong to pursue economic interests. Consumers expect firms to be socially responsible. The attitudes of consumers toward socially responsible firms are more positive than toward irresponsible firms. Consumers are aware that socially responsible firms are helping themselves by practicing CSR. But this perception of consumers does not harm the positive consumer evaluations toward socially responsible firms. The study of Mohr et al. (2001) is enlightening for researchers, managers and policy makers. For managers specifically, it is clear that consumers do care about a firm‘s CSR and act accordingly. Some consumers are highly ethical in
Studies were conducted using a T-01M Tester with a ball-on- disc system, designed to evaluate the tribological properties of materials used for parts of machinery and equipment constituting the friction pairs. With this device it is possible to determine the wear resistance and friction coefficient ofthe material in sliding pairs, depending onthe sliding velocity, surface pressure, presence and type of lubricant, contamination and other factors. The study was conducted in accordance with the methods set out inthe ASTM G99 and DIN 50324 standards.
Inthe quality assurance system for components cast using the lost wax method, the object of evaluation is the grain size onthe surface ofthe casting. This paper describes a new method for evaluating the primary grain parameters onthe surface of aircraft engine turbine blades. Effectiveness ofthe method has been tested on two macrostructures distinguished by a high degree of diversity inthe grain size. The grounds for evaluating the grain parameters consist of geometric measurement ofthe turbine blade using a laser profilometer and of approximation ofthe measurement results using a polynomial of a proper degree. The so obtained analytical non-planar surface serves as a reference point for an assessment ofthe parameters of grains observed onthe real blade surface of a variable curvature. The aspects subjected to evaluation included: the grain areas, shape and elongation coefficients of grains on a non-planar surface ofthe blade airfoil, using measurements taken on a perpendicular projection by means of a stereoscopic microscope and image analysis methods, and by making calculations using the Mathematica ® package.
Price Comparison Search Engines, also known as shopping agents or shopping robots, are a class of search engines, which access and read Internet pages, store the results, and return lists of pages, which match keywords in a query. They consist of three parts: (i) a crawler, (ii) an index, and (iii) the relevance algorithm. The Crawler, or spider, is a program that automatically accesses Internet pages, reads them, stores the data, and then follows links to other pages. The Index, or catalog, is a database that contains the information the crawler finds. The Relevance Algorithm is a program that looks inthe index for matches to keywords, and ranks them by relevance, which is determined through criteria such as link analysis, or, click-through measurements. This description refers to crawler-based systems, such as Google or AltaVista. There are also Directories, like Yahoo was initially, in which lists are compiled manually. Most systems are hybrid.
In this paper, we present an empirical investigationon various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates theeffectsof product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence oncustomer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts ofthe first four factors but theeffectsofthe other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results ofthe survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role oncustomer choice.
From the analysis, it was found that lands were acquired majorly by inheritance and the resultant effect of this is the fragmentation of land during the acquisition and sharing of either family or community lands. The evident of this was seen onthe sizes ofthe land cultivated by both the male and female farmers of which majority of both sexes cultivate a small farm size of 0.1-2.0ha of land with just a few who cultivate a reasonable land size this can also be seen onthe number of bag of both garri and fufu produced yearly. However this Land holding in hectares favors more males than females inthe study area and females had better production in cassava than male.
The era of globalization is impact onthe necessity for each country to be able to compete with the world competition that tends indefinitely. It is synonymous with the concept of state sovereignty reduction, technological sophistication, and world space narrowing and trade transactions development as a thinking the implementation of free trade. Globalization has had an impact onthe escalation ofthe nation‘s defense and security threats in border region. As awareness for the perception of border region between countries to encourage policy makers to develop an assessment about the arrangement of border region equipped with the formulation of security system. As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has more than 17.504. islands with a coastline of more than 80.290 km, and borders with 10 neighboring countries. On land areas, Indonesia borders with 3 (three) countries, i.e Malaysia, Papua Nugini and Timor Leste, while on sea areas, border with 10 (ten) countries, i.e India, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Philippines, Palau, Papua Nugini, Australia and Timor Leste. The area of this border has strategic value, in both aspects of defense and security; the border region is the territorial limits ofthe Republic of Indonesia are very influential on national‘s defense and security.
The digital inthe banking system started as a service provider that has no time or place restrictions. In Portugal, banks aim that a high number of clients use digital and mo- bile channels. However, the digital has implied structure costs that have a relevant impact on cost-to-income and banks now aim to lower that indicator. Clients do not want financial products and services whose risks are not visible at a time of economic growth but which can be serious inthe future. However, through the app, clients may deposit or withdraw money at the entrance of their company or home. Sched- uling the meeting is rather simple. A bank agent drives a car that has deposit and with- drawal capabilities, a service that assists shop owners. This is not fiction. Banks will offer more and more mobile services. This is true today and will continue to expand. The Polish bank, Idea Bank, founded in 2010, offers this service and is highly suc- cess in Poland in view of its innovative nature, namely, mobile deposit service. Idea Bank clients are nowadays mainly business owners. In Portugal, Attico Bank, which belong to Millenium BCP, has now an ex- tended schedule (it is open until 8 p.m.) and has optimized its branch network. Barclays Bank has provided its client managers with XXX, allowing then to create new client accounts in fifteen minutes. These are all strategies to reduce the distance between banks and their clients, thus making clients aware of a new type of branch that will provide them with the services offered in traditional ones.
It is important to highlight that our results apply to a specific institutional framework, given that we studied theeffectsof oil discoveries onthe local development of only one country. For instance, the U.S. has a more widespread ownership of resources than Brazil. There are thousands of oil companies inthe U.S., in contrast to the historical monopoly of Petrobras in Brazil. Furthermore, results are likely to differ between developed and developing countries. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that oil discoveries positively affect local development of oil municipalities but have adverse effects at the national level (through, for example, a nominal appreciation and pork barrel politics). We show that at the local level, oil discoveries are not a curse per se, and the pure market effect (i.e., when fiscal windfalls are small) benefits development. In light ofthe results on fiscal windfalls inthe literature, it appears that the impact ofthe windfall effect of resource wealth is strongly dependent onthe institutional setting. While natural resource extraction can foster local growth, defining good policies and institutions for use ofthe associated fiscal windfalls thus remains a key policy challenge for developing countries.
This paper investigates the persistence of earnings components and pricing test of abnormal changes in cash for selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The proposed study gathers the necessary data from 166 firms over the period 2004-2012 from firms whose shares were actively traded on TSE market. The study uses Panel data and with the implementation of linear regression technique examines four hypotheses. The results indicate that abnormal negative changes in cash are more persistence than positive abnormal changes. In addition, both positive and negative abnormal changes are more persistence than accruals. Market also has a good perception on abnormal positive and negative changes in cash.