Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography) of urban surface. In the literature the spatial dependence and heterogeneity of urban thermal landscape is widely observed based on thermal infrared remote sensing within the urban environment. Urban surfacewarming is conceived as a big contribution to urban warming, the study of urban surfacewarming possesses significant meaning for probing into the problem of urban warming.The urban thermal landscape study takes advantage of the continuous surface derived from thermal infrared remote sensing at the landscape scale, the detailed variation oflocalsurface temperature can be measured and analyzed through the systematic investigation. At the same time urban environmental factors can be quantified with remote sensing and GIS techniques. This enables a systematic investigationof urban thermal landscape with a link to be established between local environmental setting and surface temperature variation. The goal of this research is utilizing GeographicallyWeightedRegression (GWR) to analyze the spatial relationship between urban form and surface temperature variation in order to clarify the localeffectsonsurfacewarming, moreover to reveal the possible dynamics in the local influences of environmental indicators on the variation oflocalsurface temperature across space and time. In this research, GWR analysis proved that the spatial variation in relationships between environmental setting and surface temperature was significant with Monte Carlo significance test and distinctive in day-night change. Comparatively, GWR facilitated the site specific investigation based onlocal statistical technique. The inference based on GWR model provided enriched information regarding the spatial variation oflocal environment effect onsurface temperature variation which global model cannot approach.
a continuous surfaceof parameter values. An important aspect of GWR is that spatial autocorrelation is present within the sampled data. As a result, it is assumed that data near point i will have more influence regarding the estimation of the continuous function at point i than data further away from i. This method has a high importance because it addresses one of the fundamental principles of geographi- cal analysis: to evaluate the possibility of spatial variability in the sta- tistical models (Comber et al., 2011). The choice of bandwidth tends to be very demanding, since n regressions can be used at each step (Charlton et al., 2009). In the development of this model, an adaptive kernel type was used instead of a fixed type. With the adaptive type, the bandwidth distance will change according to the spatial density of each feature in its input. The bandwidth thus becomes a function of the number of the closest neighbours, each local estimate being based on the same number of features. Instead of a specific distance, the number of neighbours used for the analysis is taken into account (Charlton et al., 2009). For the analysis of the GWR models, we used the adjusted R 2 results. R 2 assumes that each variable explains the
Geographicallyweightedregression (GWR) is a geographicallylocal modeling technique specifically designed to deal with spatial non-stationarity in the modeled relationships . GWR performs one weighted ordinary least squares regression per observation in the analyzed dataset. Weights are applied as a (typically inverse) function of the distance from the location of the ‘focal’ data point. Of importance, modeling is carried out at a scale smaller than the study extent, defined by the distance decay (‘bandwidth’) of the weighting function. Thus, GWR should not be used as an alternative to global regression models but as a complementary technique for quantifying spatial variability (non-stationarity) in relationships between the predictor and response variables . By allowing regression model parameters to vary in space and then mapping these coefficients, GWR makes it possible to quantify and test the spatial variability in the species–environmental relation- ships. GWR is increasingly used for analyzing species richness patterns [6,10,22,29,30,31], and some of these studies [22,29,30] have produced results that are in agreement with the predictor shifts conjectured by Hawkins et al. . However, no study has to date applied GWR in a formal test of this hypothesis.
Wild yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa-137, which was isolated from the soil of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and previously identified (11), was used throughout this study. The culture was maintained by monthly transfers to yeast malt-agar (YM) slants containing 0.3 g l -1 yeast extract, 0.3 g l -1 malt extract, 0.5 g l -1 peptone, 10 g l -1 glucose and 20 g l -1 agar, and was stored at 4 °C. Each starter culture was prepared by inoculating one loop of a slant culture into 200 ml of YM medium in a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask and incubating at 25 °C with shaking at 200 rpm for 72 h in a rotary shaker. Fermentation was carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 200 ml of media prepared with different combinations of initial pH and levels of glucose, yeast extract, MgSO 4 .7H 2 O and KH 2 PO 4 . Each flask was inoculated with 7.5
This table presents regression estimates for both equally weighted portfolios and value weighted portfolios with the Dow Jones US Healthcare Index as benchmark (panel A) and the general market index as benchmark (panel B) using the full conditional one factor model during period from 31/01/2002 to 30/09/2014. It shows abnormal performance estimates (conditional alphas), conditional systematic risk (betas) and the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. Rsq). Three predetermined public information variables are used: the short term interest rate level (tb), the slope of term spread (ts) and the dividend yield (dy). Wald 1, Wald 2 and Wald 3 correspond to the null hypothesis that the coefficients of conditional alphas, conditional betas, and conditional alphas and conditional betas, respectively, are jointly equal to zero. Standard errors are corrected, whenever appropriate, for the presence of heteroskedasticity using the correction presented by White (1980), or for the presence of autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity using the procedure suggested by Newey and West (1987). t-statistics are presented in parenthesis. Asterisks (***, **, *) indicate statistically significant values at the 1%, 5% and 10% levels, respectively. The number of individual funds presenting positive (N+) and negative (N-) alphas is reported, the number of those which are statistically significant at the 5% level are reported in brackets.
is a process in which a voltage is applied across two electrodes, where at least one electrode is covered by an insulating material. Under atmospheric conditions the applied voltage causes ionization of the air in the gap between the two electrodes, generating cold plasma. Reactive species are generated by electron collisions in the discharge initiating different reaction paths, leading to the production of reactive intermediates. These reactive intermediates provide a convenient resource for surface activation of polymeric materials, including cellulosics, resulting in surface oxidation, increased surface energy, and the generation of free radicals which can readily react with additives to generate new surface grafted material (Kogelschatz 2003; Vander Wielen et al., 2006). In this regard, plasma deposition can be used to create molecular monolayer coatings, which require very small amounts of raw materials. Typically, DBD plasma treatment is believed to oxidize only the surfaceof pulp fibers without altering bulk properties (Sahin et al., 2002). With a porous substrate such as uncoated paper it has been shown that plasma treatment may also permeate to inner layers (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2002, Zemljic et al., 2009).
1.2 mm were cut with a diamond wafer saw microtome (Model SP 1600; Leica Microsystems GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) under water-cooling from mid-coronal dentin perpendicular to the long axis of the teeth. The apical sides of the discs were cut as close as possible to the pulp horns, and the coronal aspects were free from enamel (Figure 1). The discs were rinsed with water, immersed in 0.5 M EDTA solution (pH 7.4), and ultrasonicated for two minutes in order to remove the cutting smear and open the dentinal tubules before a
Figures 3,4,5 show changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system. Figure 3 illustrates the quartz wetting characteristics using an unmodified binder, while Figures 4 and 5 show the results of analogical measurements taken for the binder modified with 1 or 3 wt.% of the modifier.
which profiles should have terminated. This was true for clouds as well as the Pinatubo aerosol layer. Versions 6.0 and later employ a substantially improved single Sun-edge algorithm and, as such, exhibit a far superior performance around optically thick layers. For instance, in V5.93 clouds were frequently observed above the tropopause but in V6.0 and later, with the exception of polar stratospheric clouds, cloud frequency above
In recent years, there has been good progress on information and communication technology influencing businesses with a new emerging concept called customer relationship management (CRM) and it has made significant changes in electronic banking. The primary objective of this paper is to survey electronic banking effectson key CRM components in one of Iranian banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The survey designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts in one of selected regions and the results are verified based on t-student and Freedman tests. Results show that all electronic banking services influence on CRM. In addition, that there are no significant differences among effectsof electronic services on CRM but each CRM component has different effectson electronic services. In fact, according to freedman test, improving customer relationship process is the most important factor followed by providing appropriate service for each customer, providing appropriate service on appropriate time for each customer and providing appropriate service by appropriate channel for each customer.
Cohen-Charash and Spector (2001) measured distributive, procedural, and interactional justice using 190 studies samples, totaling 64,757 participants and reported that the distinction between the three justice kinds to be merited. In this study, while organizational practices and outcomes were associated with three justice items, demographic characteristics of the perceiver did not confirm such correlation. Job performance and counterproductive work behaviors, considered to be output of perceived justice, were mainly associated with procedural justice, whereas organizational citizenship behavior was similarly forecasted by distributive and procedural justice. Colquitt (2001) explored the dimensionality of organizational justice and provided some evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. They measured the items by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature and they were validated in two separate studies. Colquitt et al. (2001) investigated the issue of justice by performing a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.
In addition, Moskowitz (1972) reports that socially responsible mutual funds may attract investors by requiring managers’ requisite skills to run a superior company. As a result, socially responsible mutual funds might outperform non-screened funds, which means a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance can appear. Moreover, several arguments are put forward to support a positive relationship between corporate social responsibility and financial performance. The stakeholder theory considers that the integration of all stakeholders’ interests creates value for shareholders, thus resulting in a higher financial performance (Freeman, 1984). In support of the above argument, Hill et al. (2007), and Kempf and Osthoff (2007) conclude that SRI portfolios benefit from improved performance in the long run. Kempf and Osthoof (2007) argue that SRI portfolios perform better then less responsible funds. They used the ratings of the Kinder Lydenberg Domini (KLD) (social responsibility based on annual data from 1991 to 2003, and used a strategy of buying shares of companies with high ratings and sell stocks of companies with low ratings. These ratings are defined according to qualitative criteria and exclusion criteria. As regards the qualitative criterion, the rule would include filters such as community relations, diversity, labour relationships, environment, human rights and product.
effect on Earth’s climate. Greenhouse effect is the phenomenon that happens when gases absorb the thermal radiation emitted by Earth’s surface and as a result the atmosphere heats up. In fact, average surface temperatures are projected to increase between 1.1ºC to 4.8ºC (Figure 1) in the next decades (IPCC 2013). While trends in temperature are somewhat variable (Lima et al. 2007), the overall warming trend is clear for virtually all parts of the Earth. Since there is a continual exchange of heat between the oceans and the atmosphere, oceans are also warming up. The average temperature of the upper layers of the ocean has increased by 0.6ºC in the past 100 years (IPCC 2013). This increase of temperature is potentially the most important change occurring in the oceans in the last centuries, as it influences physiological and ecological processes at all biological levels, from genes to ecosystems (Kordas et al. 2011). Today, it is widely accepted that human activities are causing these environmental changes (IPCC 2013), and that they have a high ecological impact on natural systems (Halpern et al. 2008). This impact is changing the global biodiversity at unprecedented rates (Dobson 2005).
so complex and interdependent that their solutions for real fluids were not possible in 1960s and 1970s, even with computer. Jiang et al (1991) method was used to measure the ozone concentration in this study. Both axial and radial ozone concentrations profiles were provided. The baffle effectson reactor performance were examined under the different solid gas velocity and circulating flow velocity . Benjapen et al (2010) examined the non-uniform distribution of solid particles in fluidized beds with circulating in two-dimensional form. They used Eulerian- Eulerian approach in their simulation and solved the ruling equations using FLUENT 6.1 software. The results showed that configuration of baffle ring had significant effect on reactive system . Syamelal et al (1987) investigated the fluidized beds with circulating flow using two-phase fluid model (Euler-Euler) that includes the kinetic theory of granular flows. They also studied the function modeling parameters of drag and solid shear viscosity as well as Granular temperature to
The sampling unit used for the laboratory analysis of broiler meat quality, pH and color was the pectoralis major muscle, i.e., the breast meat. The color was determined by reading three parameters defined by the CIE-L*a*b* method at the Food Engineering Laboratory of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG). The color parameters of lightness (L*), red (a*) and yellow (b*) content were measured using a colorimeter (ColorQuest II, Hunterlab®, USA). The readings, which were performed in quadruplicate, were taken after 24 hours of refrigeration. pH was measured with a digital pH meter for meat products (TESTO 205, TESTO®, Germany), with automatic temperature compensation. The final value obtained was the result of the measurements taken at three different points (cranial, caudal and mediolateral) of the sampling unit one hour and 24 hours post mortem.
sub-catchment of the Rur at grid resolutions encompassing roughly the spatial scales between LES and mesoscale atmo- spheric models to quantify the effect of grid resolution on simulated soil moisture, soil temperature and surface fluxes. The terrain analysis of the sub-catchment showed the ex- pected smoothing of slopes and filtering of the profile and plan curvatures with grid coarsening. This grid resolution has a strong effect on the non-local controls of soil mois- ture simulated by the model, while the local vegetation exerts a strong modulation on the transfer of the grid-resolution- dependent soil moisture variability to soil temperature and surface fluxes. In this study, soil moisture beneath forests was found to decrease more than beneath crops due to the location of forests over steeper slopes. However, due to the plant physiological properties affecting the transmissivity of solar radiation, crops lead to a higher grid resolution depen- dence than trees in terms of soil temperature and surface fluxes. For crops, the magnitude of the LAI was also found to have a strong effect on the scaling behavior ofsurface fluxes. This non-linear scaling behavior of the energy balance with respect to grid resolution can alter the spatial and tem- poral pattern of simulated surface fluxes. Larger differences were especially observed when moving from d480 to d960. These dependencies can induce or weaken mesoscale circu- lations and the ensuing boundary layer evolution when using coupled simulations. Using an idealized setup, such atmo- spheric feedback effects for a rainfall–runoff process (runoff due to excess infiltration, creating wet and dry patches), with varying grid resolution, were shown earlier by Shrestha et al. (2014). Here the heterogeneity at different resolutions was introduced in terms of topographic slopes while keep- ing a homogeneous land cover (crop). In this study, the in- clusion of convergent zones at finer grid resolutions com- pared to coarser grid resolutions, where they are usually filtered out by topography smoothing, enhanced the over- land flow, thereby reducing the infiltration and the mean soil moisture content while extending the downslope moist area. This extended downslope moist area increased the extent of the moist patch compared to the coarser run, thereby low- ering the Bowen ratio along the extended patch, and also increasing the extent of the downdraft region in the atmo- spheric boundary layer. Thus, the dependence of the simu- lated surface–subsurface physical processes on grid resolu- tion potentially also affects the local circulation and atmo- spheric boundary layer evolution. However, fully coupled real data simulations including the atmosphere at different grid resolutions are required to further improve our under- standing of the land–atmosphere feedbacks.
Daily and monthly variation in wind speed, temperature extremes, solar radiation, and relative humidity, and interactions among these variables, together define possible topoclimatic conditions at the local treeline. These meteorological variables rarely affect treelines in isolation, but rather work synergistically to produce conditions that affect trees’ physiological performance. For instance, although high winds can potentially cause direct physical damage to trees at high altitudes, this type of damage alone is typically not a critical factor in explaining treeline formation (K¨orner, 1998). More damaging, however, is when the action of wind combines with other topoclimatic variables to produce cumulative stressful conditions for trees over time. Such an example might be when high winds, together with high temperatures and low relative humidity during hot summer months, produce conditions where desiccation stress is more likely to occur (K¨ohler, Gieger & Leuschner, 2006; Moyes et al., 2013). Similarly, while low night time temperatures on their own will likely have little impact on seedlings at treeline, when combined with low windspeeds and high amounts of outgoing radiation, frosts can occur that can affect leaves and buds, especially early in the growing season (Jordan & Smith, 1994). There are also potential positive effects: for example, locations that generally have higher warmth and higher inputs of sunlight, in the absence of other stressors, might be expected to have conditions more suitable for tree establishment and growth (Cairns & Malanson, 1998). Hence, research that is able to explore the relevance of these combined effects across different locations will be able to provide new insights into the importance of topoclimate in determining local treeline variability, relative to other local and regional influences.
A 21-year-old male with a 2-year diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia in complete hematologic and cytogenetic responses was admitted to hospital with drowsiness, head- ache and seizures. Laboratory evaluation disclosed leucoci- tosis with 19.0% of peripheral blasts. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Figure 1) corroborated the dia- gnosis of granulocytic sarcoma (GS) in blast crisis. MRI per- formed 38 days after chemotherapy was indicative of tumor regression (Figure 2).
To allow comparison to growth without intentional ion implantation, some films were also grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The objectives were to investigate the effectsof fluorine incorporation and ion implantation on the film’s chemical structure, and principally on the surface contact angle, hardness and friction coefficient. Infra- red and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopic analyses revealed that the films are essentially amorphous and polymer-like, and that fluorine is incorporated for any non-zero value of R SF .
Fire brick is the product made of highly purified clays generally fired at 1300 - 1400 0 C used as one of the construction materials for metallurgical based industries such as manufacturing and processing of Iron and steel, Alloy castings etc. Ex. Rastreeya Ispath Nigam Limited, Visakhapanam. There are number of such industries processing steel and allied products in India. The quantum of Fire bricks usage per annum is very high and depends on capacity of the industry.