A subset A of a group G is called a kaleidoscopical configuration if there exists a surjective coloring χ : X → κ such that the restriction χ|gA is a bijection for each g ∈ G. We give two topological constructions of kaleidoscopicalconfigurations and show that each infinite subset of an Abelian group contains an infinite kaleidoscopical configuration.
Increase of energy absorption along with smooth load displacement curve, reduced peak force and high mean crushing force is the key in the modern dynamic design of structures. In this regard, a new metallic tubular configuration consisting of uni-sectional bi-tubular inner tubes, with outer tubes of multiple varied cross-sections is proposed and crushed under axial dynamic loading. A number of configurations are proposed ranging from simple to complex polyg- onal sections defined in three groups. Deformation modes and ener- gy absorption characteristics such as peak crushing force, mean crushing force, and specific energy absorption are determined and discussed for each configuration. The proposed arrangement shows a stable crushing and higher values of crush force efficiency. In order to select the most suitable configuration, on the basis of maximum specific energy absorption, peak crushing force and min- imum peak force, a robust decision making method known as Com- plex Proportional Assessment (COPRAS) is implemented. The optimal configuration in each group is determined on the basis of higher values of specific energy absorption, crush force efficiency and a lower value of peak crushing force, using the chosen weighting factors in COPRAS implementation. Finally, the config- uration with inner and outer hexagonal tubes is found to be the best possible design concept among the top members of each group, with peak crushing force, mean crushing force and crush force effi- ciency values of 69.8 KN, 7.3 KJ and 0.75, respectively.
formation when compared to control, through the in vivo model employed. Nevertheless, this result should not discourage the use of these biomaterials for bone therapy. ReOss® showed to be osteoconductive, biocompatible and presented clear evidence of bioresorption and partial replacement with bone tissue at the interface biomaterial/ bone, similar to results obtained previously for Bio-Oss (24), a bovine xenograft widely used as a bone substitute. The clinical management of the putty PLGA:HA (RP-2), a dense spherical mass that was easily handled and positioned in the surgical sites, although a little brittle, could be promising on the guiding of novel bone tissue on vertical bone defects. This biomaterial would be useful in clinical situations in which bone contour and bone volume control are desired, since augmenting and correcting the bone defects contribute to the final bone structure thickness and shape aiming to better functional and esthetic results (25). Otherwise, the powder PLGA: HA (RP-1), that consisted of dried granules, presented a more difficult clinical handling, as the granules roll one upon another, although they were well fitted for horizontal defects such as those of our study. In the present study, we have shown that, regardless of their morphological/structural differences, or the different impact on the cytocompatibility on a murine in vitro model, both powder and putty configurations of ReOss® were considered biocompatible and presented osteoconductive activity, even though without significant differences in the amount of novel bone observed, as compared with control group. The hypothesis of this study was rejected since the final in vivo biological response was similar between the two groups tested. However, the main difference between these configurations might indeed rest on their applicability, since the main physical characteristics of each configuration might lend them suitable for different handlings and clinical situations.
The strongest effect we found was that of raised abandonment thresholds (increased sensitivity to demand levels) under changing demand. Where we modelled a drop in demand affecting an AFT with a higher threshold, that type persisted only in the most productive areas, generating a highly concentrated pattern of land use and service provision. Where the demand drop affected an AFT with a lower threshold, however, agents became widely scattered, abandoning land in all areas and generating a fragmented pattern of land use with lower overall productive efficiency. Raised thresholds can describe any behaviour that makes land managers less willing or able to accept low returns on their activities (including the costs associated with the production of services or a change of land use). The dynamics we observed depend upon differences between types of land manager that are very likely to occur in reality; subsistence farmers, for example, have different priorities and costs, and so tolerate lower returns, than commercial farmers (e.g. ), while conservation is less sensitive to measurable returns than, say, forestry. We would therefore expect these groups to respond differently to changing demand levels, and this to result in different spatial configurations with strong implications for scale-dependent natural processes and service supply (e.g. [41, 42]). This could potentially also apply to similar land uses located in regions which differ in social characteristics that affect support for land managers, suggesting that policies concerned with food security should take account of their economic, behavioural and cultural context.
In this study, we presented a set of features for lithium and barium citric acid complexes that allow geometric configurations to be identified from comparisons with the associated bands for infrared and Raman spectra. In this context, IR is preferred over Raman spectra, as it offers features that enable better comparisons. The main features are associated with the vibrations of the groups OH, C=O, COOH, COO - , COH and M-O (M=metal). In comparing the
The installation, configuration and updating of applications on the device should be handled by an Agent ( 3 .1) that is necessarily installed on each device. Its single point of communication with the server is done through a Application Programming Interface (API). This remote service is responsible for informing the Agent which versions of applications and configurations it must install and provide all the necessary information about them, like name, version, size and file transferring details. The WS will have to calculate, by the rules created by the customer, what File Versions and Configurations have to be installed on each device. These Rules are assigned to a set of Groups Values, values which when combined create a Site filtering. These Rules may even be as specific as indicating what a particular device must install or configure. Groups and their Values will be organized by the client in a generic way thus giving freedom to shape its company’s scheme as it sees fit, which is an important point as it allows a wider range of customers by reducing the need to create a solution of MDM specific to each new customer. This management should be done on a BO, a web application that will connect the user to the system.
This procedure is different from the one where forced mag- netic reconnection is studied inconfigurations where mag- netic flux is driven from their boundaries (in our case recon- nection is “forced” by the initial conditions). As mentioned above, the decoupling between the plasma motion and the magnetic field occurs around critical points that correspond, in the 2-D configurations under examination, to the zeros of the shear field i.e., to the zeros of ∇ψ(x, y, t). As is cus- tomary for magnetic configurations of interest for labora- tory plasmas, we consider initial configurations where crit- ical points have degenerated into a critical line, i.e., initial configurations that depend only on one coordinate (say x) and where the shear field vanishes along a line (the null line): ψ 0 =ψ 0 (x) with ∂ψ 0 (x)/∂x=0| x=0 .
The sensor is integrated in a tag with an antenna to transmit the measured data remotely through telemetry techniques. The term telemetry is defined as the wireless transmission of data acquired by single or multiple sensors, from a transmitter to a receiver placed at some distance away. The transmitter is usually an electronic tag attached to the fish, containing the sensing circuitry coupled with an antenna. Electronic tags can be either active, where tags require an internal battery, or passive, where tags require energy from an external source, in order to power their circuits. There are five common electronic tags used in telemetry, radio tag, acoustic tag, data storage tag, pop- up satellite archival tag and passive integrated transponder . The tags are relatively expensive, but in many cases, some of the collected types of data cannot be provided by other methods. The most suitable tag is the one which lasts longer, the cheaper and smaller one with a variety of sensors and a long read range.
21 Not all cases presented denote a «bureaucratic indifference» towards residents, but often hermetic language used in laws and in specific housing programs move them away from decisions while at the same time demand involvement in already decided processes. Nevertheless, residents somehow react to housing policies, either resisting or adapting to processes. In the same way of the residents, ethnographers should not be intimated by the “boring technicality” of public policies: as Shore and Wright stated, «policies can be studied as contested narratives which define the problems of the present» (Shore, Wright 2011: 13). With this Dossier, we want to underline that we – as social scientists – have urgent need to refine our interpretative tools for better understanding those kinds of narratives. Anthropology may give a fundamental contribution in this sense.
After the elections, the councillors meet to distribute competences among themselves. Each one is given a field of action and has to provide a service. Usually the mayor gets the most important roles, especially the ones related to real estate and construction. Under the Constitution, the municipalities have a general competence for matters of purely local interest 21 . Local elected representatives operate in an increasingly complex legal, financial and technical context. Full time members of the executive body have a general obligation to reveal all their sources of income before the beginning and at the end of their terms. They must also declare pecuniary or individual interests. Mayors and councillors may perform their duties on a full-time or part-time basis, with a corresponding remuneration, which represents a real income. The remuneration varies according to the population of the municipality, but there are paid officeholders in al of them. There are also travel and expense allowances. Of course, the ones who get the best electoral results are the ones who get full time jobs. The smallest parties and the last councillors on the lists usually are not even attributed a function and do not receive a salary.
Now let A be a relatively extra-large Artin group and let M be an annular R-diagram with connected interior. When forming M ′ from M then in contrast to the simply connected case it may happen that ∆(D) is not homeomorphic to an open disc. Due to a standard argument, using the fact that every 2-generated Artin group is torsion free, it follows that in this case Int(∆(D)) is annular with boundary components homotopic to the boundary components of M . It will turn out (see Section 6) that the structure of derived diagrams with such a derived region is different from the structure of annular derived diagrams with simply connected derived regions.
The exclusion dynamics that are found in the recomposition processes of the less educated mothers with custody and stepfathers are identified with a greater tendency for the legal regulation of the recomposed conjugality. How- ever, it is the women who put up most resistance to remarriage despite wanting to erase the history of the first family. On the other hand, and because they al- most exclude the ex-husband from their lives and those of their children, they want their present husband to assume the role of father. Hence the recomposed couple is centred more on parenthood than on conjugality. The divorces are typically the source of great conflict (there are rarely separations) and take a long time to finalise. Child custody is also regulated by law but, even so, the bi- ological fathers do not comply with what has been established, i.e. they rarely make the monthly child support payment and cut ties with their children. This situation of the biological father’s systematic non-compliance with his obliga- tions prolongs the conflict and leads to the break of relations between the for- mer couple. In light of the absence of a co-parenting relationship, mothers ex- clude the biological fathers from their children’s upbringing and thus legiti- mate the stepfathers’ authority. The stepfamily have a new house so that the family of the first marriage can be forgotten and the lives of the domestic group are more closed to the outside, i.e. the space in which the children circulate is not extended much because the relations with the family of the first husband have also been cut and, the stepfather’s parents quickly take the place of par- ents-in-law and grandparents to their son’s step-children. In this kind of recomposition, the family project is centred on the family nucleus; the couple reproduces the nuclear family model and considers their recomposed family to be “the family”. As one might expect, the hypothesis on the overlapping of the family recomposition dynamics determined by the two axes, i.e. conjugality and parenthood, is also confirmed.
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in granitic rocks is a reliable recorder of the kinematics of regions in which plutons are emplaced (Archanjo et al., 1994; Neves et al., 1996; Wilson and Grocott, 1999; Moyen et al., 2003; Stevenson et al., 2007; Wei et al., 2014, among many others), being used for plate tectonic analysis of orogenic belts (Benn et al. 2001). AMS studies of granite plutons from magmatic arc settings, such as in Chilean Central Andes or in western North America Cordillera, have shown that magnetic fabrics are either strongly coupled with the arc deformation (Tikoff and Saint-Blanquat, 1997; Wilson, 1998; Fawcett et al., 2003; Titus et al., 2005) or record structures formed by body (ascent, convection) forces and tectonic-related fabrics (Saint-Blanquat et al., 2001; Parada et al., 2005). Magnetic fabrics orientations controlled by the deformation in magmatic arcs have been documented in Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous plutons emplaced in the Central Andean Belt (Wilson, 1998) when the arc was submitted to extension (Ramos, 2009). According to Grocott and Taylor (2002), the granitic complexes were accommodated in the crust by a mechanism of floor-depression and/or roof uplift that allowed a vertical transfer of magma without important horizontal displacement of the wall rocks. In contrast AMS of the Mid- Cretaceous Las Tazas batholith evidence finite strains when the arc was deforming by transtension (Wilson and Groccot, 1999). AMS, therefore, was interpreted as recording a tectonic overprint in the final stages of the magmatic crystallization due to the lateral movement of the Atacama Fault (Grocott and Taylor, 2002).
Limitations of our study include that the process was carried out in an animal like rabbits, which have thinner ureters than those found in humans. Conducting this study on animals with similar ureter sizes, such as pigs, could have created more valid results by obtaining potentially more realistic data by using the access sheaths we use in humans. However, we did not have the means to work with this number of pigs. Additionally, while we represented UAS effects, we were not able to use real UASs as we conducted the study on rabbits. Despite all these limitations, we believe that the study simulated the outcomes of the practices we use on humans as well as possible.
its correct function. During the process of human develop- ment, nutrition and food consistencies are modiﬁed as height grows and teeth erupt. Thus, a liquid diet gradually becomes ﬁrmer, which is necessary for proper swallowing and pro- vides increased facial muscle tone and helps with speech. 8,9 It is known that the peaks of MBF occur after the third molar that is around 6 years of age. 10 Upon completion of the permanent dentition and hormonal stability, MBF decreases and stabilizes. It is also expected that in the phase deﬁned as senility (above 60 years), 10 the MBF is affected by the aging process because of bone and muscle degeneration. 8,9
This paper work is the result of the observations made in a state public school as a part of the practice activities of the subject EL 511 Psycology and Education teached by professor Dr. Regina Maria de Souza, in Campinas State University (UNICAMP). From the observation of two first year High School classrooms, we noteced a difference that segregates the students in two social-cultural groups named, in this paper work, nerds and populars. This difference is analysed by the psychoanalytic perspective by considering the differences between the group which they belong in relation to the other group inside a identification process. The identification involves the “I” formation that passes necessary by the image of the other. We defend that the difference between those groups influences the dynamic of the classes iteration and, therefore, must be considered and discussed in the educational scope. In this paper, we also emphasizes the question of the identification of the observated teachers with a group and not with the other one.
modifications are created. In this class of systems, in general, a photocontrolled host-guest behavior is observed as in functionalized crown-ether (Shinkai et al. 1981) or cyclodextrin (Ueno et al. 1979) molecules. In the second one there is a significant electronic interaction between the assembled com- ponents or, alternatively, nuclear constraints that change the photophysical properties of the individ- ual components are introduced, as in the case of many polynuclear (Bignozzi & Scandola 1984) and caged (Pina et al. 1985) metal complexes.
bles, decreasing the electrolyte-film contact. The relation between absorption change and the injected charge per unit area gives η. The value obtained in this work is notably higher than some values found in the literature for inorganic or organic electrochromes and devices 1,14 . This is caused by the high optical contrast of the device (Fig. 2b) and the low charge required to promote the optical change. In general, organic electrochromes exhibit a greater η value than inorganic species because the molar absorptivities of the former are usually higher 2 . Figure 2b apparently shows a disagreement with Fig. 1, where we can see the higher ∆%T for the last. The difference is that in the experiment of Fig. 1, the chromatic contrast at 640 nm was registered during cyclic voltammetry and in the experiment of Fig. 2b the spectra were registered during a constant polarization of ca.1 min (-1.5 and/or 1.5 V). This corresponds to the measurement of the response time of the devices.
Thermal similarity of objects of various configuration is defined by equality of their stationary surface average temperatures in the Earth shadow that is equivalent to equality of their effective irradiance coefficients by own thermal radiation of the Earth. Cone, cylinder and sphere are chosen among standard configurations. Unlike two last figures, calculation of irradiance coefficient for conic object is the most difficult and contains a number of uncertainties. The method of calculation for inte- grated and effective irradiance coefficients of space object with a conic form is stated which is typical for fragments of spacecrafts. Integrated irradiance coefficients define the average thermal balance on a lateral surface of the cylinder and cone, and also full power balance on a sphere surface. Effective irradiance coefficients define a full falling specific stream of the Earth’s radiation on the whole surface of cylindrical or conic object taking into account their bases. By data about effective irradiance coefficients, the average stationary temperatures of space objects in the Earth shadow are defined, as well as on the trajectory part illuminated by the Sun taking into account two additional components of power balance – direct sunlight and reflected by the Earth. Researches were conducted in the height change range for an orbit from 200 to 40000 km depending on a tilt angle of the cylinder and cone axis relative to zenith-nadir line. Similarity conditions for the cylinder and cone are defined at equal ratio sizes of the figure height to base diameter.
“chronic bronchitis” in men is more likely to be associated with the higher prevalence of smoking among males. All persons surveyed were requested to answer questions that revealed the presence of chronic bronchitis. Results of respiratory complaints are presented in Figure 2. Apparently, from the results presented, about half of those surveyed in both the groups (54.2% in Group 1 and 47.9% in Group 2) did not complain about any respiratory symptom like cough. Periodical cough was noted in 36.6% and 37.2%, respectively. The criterion of the presence of chronic bronchitis was noted in 9.2% in the younger age group and 14.9% in the older age group (P<0.05). All the patients who complained of a persistent cough were examined by a pulmonologist to exclude the other causes of the condition, and the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis was conirmed. Thus, the active detection method of questioning shows high eficiency in the diagnosis of the disease: the true prevalence of the disease exceeded the oficial data by more than 8 times in the group of younger respondents, and in the older age group – by more than two times.