The end-tidal partial pressure of inhalant anaesthetics required to prevent movement in 50% of individuals exposed to a supramaximal noxious stimulus (i.e. minimumalveolar concen- tration, MAC) represents an index of potency of anaesthetic agents . The MAC of contemporary inhalant anaesthetics has been previously reported indogsand after the administration of different opioids, sedatives, tranquilisers and local anaesthetics [2,3,4]. Clinically, one of the main issues concerning inhalant anaesthesia is the progressive cardiovascular depression related to the delivery of high concentrations. Drugs such as lidocaine (local anaesthetic) anddexmedetomidine (sedative) decrease the MAC of inhaled anaesthetics and may also reduce the risk of cardiopul- monary depression by means of decreasing the inhalant anaes- thetic requirements during anaesthesia [5,6,7]. In addition, the combination of these agents with different pharmacological mechanisms of action may provide better analgesia and an even a greater inhalant-sparing effect [2,8,9,10,11]. Lidocaine (LIDO) is an amide local anaesthetic that can be administered intravenously (IV) via a bolus or constant rate infusion (CRI) to provide perioperative analgesia, sedation and anti-arrhythmic effects. Indogs, lidocaine decreases the MAC of inhaled anaesthetics by
Ketamine increased HR, MAP and cardiac index in a plasma concentration-dependent manner indogs (BoSCaN et al., 2005). In man, this cardiovascular stimulating effect of ketamine was mainly attributable to sympathetic stimulation via a central mechanism resulting in increased circulating levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine (APPEL et al., 1979). Despite the expected cardiovascular stimulating effects of ketamine, bradycardia was observed in 23 to 30% of dogsand hypotension was observed in 70 to 77% of dogsin the present study. This high prevalence of hypotension may be explained by a combination of factors. First, the dose of ketamine (3mgkg -1 ) administered IM may have been
The range of the MAC of isolurane in sheep is 1.58% (PALAHNIUK; SHNIDER; EGER, 1974) to 1.53% (BERNARDS; KERN; CULLEN, 1996). In the present study, prior to the initiation of surgery (baseline), there was no signiicant difference in the FE´Iso concentrations between the groups, but the FE´Iso was lower than the range of the MAC of isolurane in sheep. This difference relative to the MAC determined in other studies can be explained due to the premedication with the alpha 2 agonist, detomidine, which might have contributed to the FE´Iso reduction. Kästner et al. (2006) observed a 30% reduction in the FE´Iso concentration after premedication with medetomidine in sheep. Dose-dependent anesthetic sparing effects of medetomidine have been demonstrated in a variety of species (VICKERY et al., 1988; SEGAL; VICKERY; MAZE, 1989). A reduction of up to 90% of the minimumalveolarconcentration (MAC)
The objective of this study was to compare the influence of continuous intravenous in- fusion of tramadol alone, or tramadol combined with lidocaineand ketamine, on minimumalveolarconcentration of sevoflurane (MACsevo) of dogs undergoing an ovariohysterec- tomy (OHE). We used 28 healthy dogs of various breeds and age, randomly divided into two groups according to the infusion given: TRA (tramadol alone) or TLK (tramadol, lido- caine and ketamine). The patients were premedicated with acepromazine and midazolam, and then anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane. Fifteen minutes after induction, the patients received their loading dose of treatment. Then, the continuous infusion was then set to 1.3mg/kg/hour of tramadol with or without 3mg/kg/ hour of lidocaineand 0.6mg/kg/hour of ketamine, diluted in a 500mL bag of saline solu- tion at an infusion rate of 10mL/kg/hour. The Dixon method was chosen to determine the MACsevo and a skin incision was used as a noxious stimulus. An unpaired Student’s t-test was used to identify statistically significant differences between the treatments. These di- fferences were considered significant when p<0.05. The MACsevo of the TRA group was 1.22±0.15 vol% and the MACsevo of the TLK group was 0.85±0.22 vol%. We conclude that TLK infusion decreased the MACsevo by 30.22% compared to tramadol alone, demonstra- ting that the combination of drugs was effective in reducing MACsevo indogs.
In this study, it was observed that the placement of a ligature caused intense alveolar bone loss. Measurements in the proximal area demonstrated aug- mentation of the distance between the alveolar bone crest and the cemento– enamel junction. Moreover, intense immunostaining for TRAP was also observed. The histopathology showed intense alveolar bone loss and cemen- tum loss and a marked inﬂux of cells into the periodontium, which was accompanied by an increase of MPO activity in the gingival tissue. A decrease in BALP serum levels was also observed. These ﬁndings are in agreement with those of other authors (14,18–20). Periodontitis did not cause any systemic alterations in the levels of liver enzymes. Leukocytosis, with signiﬁcant neutrophilia 6 h after liga- ture placement, and lymphomonocy- tosis on day 11, was also observed. An initial loss of weight was observed, which was probably caused by the trauma of the ligature placement. Altogether, this alveolar bone loss reproduced the changes previously reported in rats, of severe local inﬂam- matory reactions andalveolar bone loss coupled with leukogram alteration (11,18).
The following Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, clin- ical isolates and fungi were used for the experiment. Seven Gram negative bacteria: Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111, Shigella flexneri MTCC 1457, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 109, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 1771 and Salmonella typhimurium MTCC 1251; four Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 106, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615; seven clinical isolates (isolated from patient’s urine samples): Escherichia coli (ESBL-3984, Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase), Escherichia coli (ESBL-3904), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-3971), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-75799), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-3894), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL- 3967) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA− methicillin resistant, clinical pathogen). The reference cultures were obtained from the Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Chandigarh, India- 160 036; Candida albicans MTCC 227, Malassesia pachydermatis and Aspergillus flavus were obtained from the Department of Microbiol- ogy, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Bacterial inoculums were prepared by growing cells in Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) (Himedia) for 24 h at 37 ◦ C. The filamentous fungi were
The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI), propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC) was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD) was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.
Fifty intellectually disabled American Society of Anes- thesiologists (ASA) I and II patients, who were scheduled for dental surgery requiring general anesthesia, were included in the study. Patients with ASA physical status III or higher, an expectance of difficult intubation, limited head and neck movement, reactive airway disease, gastroesophageal reflux, renal or hepatic impairment, allergies to any of the study drugs were excluded from the study. Mallampati classification 10 of airway anatomy higher than class II, mouth
In 1878, 1,2-benzisothiazole-3-one 1,1-dioxide (1, Figure 1), commercially known as saccharin, was discovered accidentally by Fahlberg during an investigation of the oxidation of o- toluenesulfonamide [1,2]: it was published by Remsen and Fahlberg one year later . For more than a century, saccharin has been commonly used as a noncaloric artificial sweetener in the form of its water-soluble salts (mainly sodium, ammonium, and calcium), and it is the principal sweetening component of diabetic diets. For about three decades (since reports on carcinogenicity in laboratory animals were published), the debate on its toxicity to humans has not reached a consensus [4–6]. Numerous N-substituted derivatives of saccharin have been assessed for in vitro biological activity [7–10]. For example, first-row transition metal saccharinates as well as dioxovanadium(VI), dioxouranium(VI), and cerium(IV) saccharinates have been classified as protease inhibitors, and several metal(II) saccharinates have displayed superoxide dismutase-like activity . Besides, structure–activity relationship studies have shown that the saccharin scaffold is an effective element for the development of inhibitors of human leukocyte clastase (HLE), cathepsin G (Cat G), and proteinase 3 (PR3), as well as antimycobacterium and central nervous system agents [9,12–14]. Recently, different saccharin-based antagonists have been recognized for their interferon-signaling pathways, showing antitumor activity through the inhibition of cancer-related isoforms in humans . It should also be noted that the first non-benzoannelated 4-amino-2,3-dihydroisothiazole 1,1- dioxide, which lacks a 3-oxo group, has been described and shows anti-HIV-1 activity. Additionally, saccharin and isothiazolyl derivatives have been used in agriculture as herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides .
Clinical assessment of the depth of anesthesia in animals requires the anesthetist to evaluate a variety of autonomic and motor relexes, as well as changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Although they are easily obtained, those clinical signs can be an imprecise method for judging the degree of central nervous system depression and analgesic requirement. Objective methods for assessing anesthetic depth and analgesic requirement that use processed electroencephalographic (EEG) data, such as the bispectral index (BIS), have been investigated 2 .
Seventy-four Enterococcus faecalis strains were studied in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP – São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, being all of them isolated from blood cultures and purulent secretions of patients hospitalized at the Clinical Hospital, Botucatu School of Medicine, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, from 1995 to 2001.
In this paper we reported the results of complex study on AChE inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from S. tomentosa natively grown in Bulgaria. The oil showed a considerable AChE inhibitory activity, comparable with that of commercially available cholinergic drug galanthamine. Here for the first time we demonstrated the existence of cumulative effect between S. tomentosa essential oil and galanthamine, which should be taken into account if patients on cholinergic drugs are subjects to aromatherapy. However, more investigations on this direction are necessary to prove our statement. In addition, the essential oil showed high potential to scavenge ROS by utilizing various reaction mechanisms, but preferably those based on hydrogen atom transfer. The high antioxidant activity made the oil especially interesting for application as oxidative protector in food and cosmetic products or as phytopharmaceutical in prevention of oxidative stress-related conditions. The oil also showed moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities, especially against Gram-positive bacteria. The observed biological activities of S. tomentosa essential oil were probably due to the specific interactions and unique balanced between the major and minor presented volatiles including borneol, -pinene, camphor, α-pinene, camphene, 1.8-cineole, α-limonene and -caryophyllene. In addition, our study updated the available data for chemical composition of essential oil from S. tomentosa natively growing in Bulgaria by identifying 27 new minor compounds.
Some limitations of human experimental studies with aortic surgeries should be highlighted. So, aortic cross-clamping duration was relatively short and certainly insufficient to de- termine time-dependent hemodynamic changes. The study was performed in healthy dogs with seemingly normal adap- tation ability of the species to different hemodynamic situa- tions, while in men, aortic surgeries are in general performed in elderly patients with some degree of myocardial dysfunc- tion, with occlusive coronary disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction and diabe- tes mellitus, thus with limited organs reserve. It should also be considered that in this experiment, differently from what happens during human aortic surgeries, bleeding was minor and there has been satisfactory volume replacement, con- tributing to the maintenance of filling pressures and even attenuating hemodynamic changes caused by aortic un- clamping.
After the Hospital’s Ethics Committee approval andtheirin- formed consent, participated in this study 24 patients of both genders, physical status ASA I and II, aged between 18 and 50 years, submitted to elective surgeries under general anes- thesia. Exclusion criteria were known kidney, liver and heart function disorders, morbid obesity and anti-hypertensive drugs.
was compared, no significant difference between the two drugs in terms of blood pressure was identified due to the observation of decreases occurring only at the 35th and 65th min, the total decrease time being 10 min, and this time remaining shorter in regard to average operation time. We did not use a control group in the study because we considered it unethical not to try to control bleeding in the surgical field without active precautions, such as deliberate hypotension to reduce bleeding; also the surgi- cal team demanded. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin values were not compared in this study because the blood
in patients receiving halothane as compared to those receiv- ing isoflurane. During cross-clamping attributes were not sig- nificantly changed in both groups, but glomerular filtration has remained higher in patients under isoflurane. After un- clamping, renal attributes were normalized even in the halothane group. This study has shown that anesthesia with halothane is associated to major renal changes before and during aortic cross-clamping suggesting, according to the authors, major renal vasoconstriction. With isoflurane, on the other hand, there has been renal hemodynamic improve- ment. Since hemodynamic attributes studied before, during and after aortic cross-clamping have not differed between both anesthetic agents, the authors have concluded that ben- efits observed on renal function of patients receiving isoflurane could not be attributed to isoflurane effects on sys- temic hemodynamics, but rather to its renal effects. In a different study with patients submitted to infra-renal aor- tic cross-clamping under isoflurane, halothane, or droperidol and flunitrazepam, Colson et al. 12 have observed that isoflurane has prevented aortic cross-clamping renal changes, that is, glomerular filtration rate and urinary volume decrease, which was not true with halothane, flunitrazepam and droperidol. Renal function worsening already in the pre-clamping period in the halothane group suggests major renal vasoconstriction, which might have been mediated by sympathetic nervous system. Isoflurane vasodilation and rennin activity inhibition actions might have also contributed for these results.
Several limitations of the study should be mentioned. First, the study included a very small number of patients. his is due to fact that classical trigeminal neuralgia is relatively rare disorder. Furthermore, patients who were recruited from pain centers exhibited facial neuralgia symptoms already for many years. In standard clinical practice the irst-line phar- macological medical treatment is ofered for CTN patients and most of patients who were recruited had developed re- fractory to the irst-line treatment. It would be of interest to evaluate the combination therapy also in the initial phase of the disease. Due to the small number of recruited patients into the study no speciic statistical analyses was performed and the results were evaluated qualitatively as case series in
We have previously shown that the antigenotoxicity of certain compounds is influenced by the solvent used to dissolve essential oils (Vicuña et al., 2010; López et al., 2011). We have observed that the use of DMSO leads to overestimation of the antigenotoxicity of essential oils when compared with results obtained using distilled water as the diluent (unpublished data). In the present study, we used a series of approaches to examine the extent to which organic solvents can affect estimates of antigenotoxicity in the SOS chromotest. First, we examined the direct toxicity and genotoxicity of several solvents (acetone, carbon tetra- chloride, dichloromethane, DMSO, ether, ethanol, and me- thanol) in E. coli PQ-37. Second, solvents that were neither toxic nor genotoxic to E. coli (acetone, dichloromethane and methanol) were assayed for their ability to interfere with the genotoxic effect of the directly acting mutagens mitomycin C (MMC) and 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4- NQO). MMC is an alkylating agent that produces adducts and strand crosslinking in DNA (Tomasz and Palom, 1997) while 4-NQO produces mainly guanine adducts (Fronza et al., 1994). Both mutagens are powerful inducers of the SOS response in E. coli (Quillardet and Hofnung, 1993). Third, solvent concentrations that did or did not interfere (non- interfering) with direct genotoxic activities were assayed to assess whether they increased the antigenotoxicity of a-to- copherol (vitamin E). Vitamin E was used because this compound protects against oxidative mutagenesis (Odin, 1997), the primary mechanism by which MMC and 4-NQO damage DNA.
O bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior apresenta uma alta taxa de falha para o tratamento de dentes posteriores mandibulares com pulpite irreversível. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia anestésica da articaína 4%, lidocaína 2% e mepivacaína 2%, todas em combinação com epinefrina 1:100.000, em pacientes com pulpite irreversível de molares mandibulares durante um procedimento de pulpectomia. Sessenta e seis voluntários do Centro de Emergência da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo receberam aleatoriamente 3.6 mL de anestésico local no bloqueio convencional do nervo alveolar inferior (BNAI). O sinal subjetivo de dormência do lábio, anestesia pulpar e ausência de dor durante o procedimento de pulpectomia foram, respectivamente, avaliados pelo interrogatório do paciente, usando um estimulador pulpar elétrico e uma escala analógica verbal. Todos os pacientes relataram o sinal subjetivo de dormência do lábio. Em relação ao sucesso da anestesia pulpar medido com o Pulp Tester, a taxa de sucesso foi, respectivamente, 68.2% para mepivacaína, 63,6% para articaína e 63,6% para lidocaína. Relativamente aos pacientes que relataram nenhuma dor ou dor leve, durante a pulpectomia, a taxa de sucesso foi, respectivamente, 72.7% para mepivacaína, 63.6% para articaína e 54,5% para a lidocaína. Estas diferenças não foram estatisticamente significantes. Nenhuma das soluções resultou em 100% de sucesso anestésico em pacientes com pulpite irreversível de molares mandibulares.