There is a predominant belief in literature and school practice that high school achievement is an important precondition for optimal professional development and success inlife, as well as that school failure is a problem that should be dealt with preventively. The goal of this paper is to shed light on the problem ofschool under- achievement from the perspective of students who are positioned as underachieversin educational discourse. The following questions are especially important: whether underachievers recognise the importance of high school achievement for success inlife, as well as which constructs are the core and which the peripheral ones in their construct system. Research participants were 60 students from the third grade ofsecondaryschool who failed three or more subjects during the school year or at the end of classification periods. Interview and Implications Grid were applied in the research. The results indicate that the most important lifeprioritiesof students are the following: acceptance by friends, school completion, school success, love and happiness. It was established that the construct acceptance by friends as opposed to rejection by friends is the core construct for success inlifein the construct system ofunderachievers. The paper points out to the importance of appreciation of personal meanings ofschool achievement and initiation of dialogue between teachers and students in preventing and overcoming school underachievement.
Researchers suggest that teachers should provide students with opportunities to conduct experiments for themselves and discuss the finding among their peers. Justi and Gilbert (2000) in Cokelez and Dumon (2005) suggested that classroom discussion based on arguments or counter-arguments on chemistry concepts can facilitate students’ conceptual understanding. This is reinforced by Demircioglu et al. (2005) who contend that chemistry concepts that relate to everyday life have a greater impact and are more readily understood in the learner’s mind. Students who hold alternatives conception have a high resistance to modifying their preexisting ideas, even after classroom teaching and the completion of the learning process. Structured discussion gives the students an opportunity to understand the factors and sources of their alternatives conception.
But our children already have preconceived notions about everything. They think they have all the answers, they believe they know all the solutions. But in reality, most of their conclusions are either one that their peer group has given them, or that they are following blindly. This attitude should be changed and it can be changed through creativity. Creativity can be enhanced through education. Children will learn that there could be more answers to the problems, more than one way to looking at things. They would rediscover the connection between areas that had no apparent similarity; they would revive their faith in their own potential. They would begin to imagine all over again, they would learn to play and play to learn. They would understand that all oflife is only an experience in growing and reaching out and finding fulfillment. In so doing, they would rediscover themselves as new creative children.
The gathered data was obtained through an anonymous questionnaire about life style. An independent “specialist validation” process was undertaken to assure the validity of the instrument. Several measures of fidelity were also undertaken. Fidelity values (interclass R ) varied between 79% e 89% in a test-retest approach (25% of student population, distributed evenly throughout the age groups). We confirmed the normality pre-requisites with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the homogeneity of variances with the Levene test. We applied Manova test with the post-hoc calculations and, for nominal variables, the X 2 . All calculations were done with SPSS 12.
In her fi rst day of class, Silvana was not introduced to the school story as it used to be done in the other schools where she worked. She fell into a school landscape in which she felt completely lost and where she received absolutely no pedagogical orientation. In addition to that, she was invited to live a number of other different stories which differed dramatically from her own story to live by. Overnight, Silvana found herself having to live the story of the ESP teacher which she had never lived before. She was also expected to live the story of the ‘multi- level’ teacher and cope with the specifi cities required from secondary education classes, integrated and subsequent courses classes, higher education classes and young people and adult education classes, which very often take place in a same day. When CEFET became IFSC, the school story changed too. Now, teachers do not teach to secondary education anymore, but they should get involved and develop research and extension projects. Therefore, Silvana is also supposed to live the story of the researcher teacher. This list of stories Silvana was invited to live by translate into the dilemmas she experienced in the teaching landscape more specifi cally. According to Connelly & Clandinin (1999), dilemmas occur when teachers’ story to live by shocks with, or a modifi cation of this story is implied or required by institutional life. In other words, teachers’ felt dilemmas “are connected to the discrepancies each experiences between her identity and the formal curricular expectations of her role” (Connelly & Clandinin, 1999:85). That shock or modifi cation on a teacher’s identity may lead her to align to the curricular expectations or to insist on her own identity. In the case of Silvana, she opted to align because she wanted to belong to the community of practice of IFSC teachers. As Wenger (1998:179) puts
Abstract: In this paper, assessment of acceleration schemes in the solution of systems of linear equations has been studied. The iterative methods: Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR methods were incorporated into the acceleration scheme (Chebyshev extrapolation, Residual smoothing, Accelerated gradient and Richardson Extrapolation) to speed up their convergence. The Conjugate gradient methods of GMRES, BICGSTAB and QMR were also assessed. The research focused on Banded systems, Tridiagonal systems and Dense Symmetric positive definite systems of linear equations for numerical experiments. The experiments were based on the following performance criteria: convergence, number of iterations, speed of convergence and relative residual of each method. Matlab version 7.0.1 was used for the computation of the resulting algorithms. Assessment of the numerical results showed that the accelerated schemes improved the performance of Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel and SOR methods. The Chebyshev and Richardson acceleration methods converged faster than the conjugate gradient methods of GMRES, MINRES, QMR and BICGSTAB in general.
Although the beginning ofschool activities can help children’s development and health care, one of the irst situations experienced relates to prejudice. The bias is expressed in relationships with other children that discriminate them aggres- sively or more discreetly, often approaching out of curiosity about the physical condition that is differ- ent from the others. This situation generates both in children with cleft as in their mothers, a certain sadness and discomfort. In general, the mothers interviewed already expected possible questions about the anomaly arising from children and other people in daily social life. They showed anxiety in face of the consequences and uncertainties about the future of the child.
We now consider a second class of dynamic problems that …t our multiple-market frame- work. Consider the well-known school choice problem (Abdulkadiro¼glu and Sönmez (2003)). This problem has been modeled as a static matching problem, and two allocation rules have been proposed for this class of problems: the Gale-Shapley deferred acceptance allocation rule (which has been adopted by New York and Boston school systems), and the top trading cycles allocation rule (recently adopted by the city of New Orleans). One feature of the school choice problem that has been largely ignored is the fact that at the time of her appli- cation, an older child might have dynamic incentives if she has younger siblings. 14 Namely,
The study aimed to verify the hypothesis of the existence of differences in the results of temporal tests between the two test groups, as well as intragroup, due to age. On this basis, the results of temporal tests were termed as dependent variables for the study; other results such as age, gender, and tonal thresholds were considered as independent variables. In the initial analysis, the sample results showed no normal distribution. Thus, the description of all results in- cluded the median values, using the interquartile measures for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was conducted in the intragroup study, and the Mann-Whitney test for analysis between groups. The study of the distribution of age groups in the sample was performed through Dunn’s test. The Fisher’s exact test was used for the distribution of genders. The level of signiicance was 0.05 (5%). When the result was signiicant, it was noted with an asterisk (*).
permanent, they can still be modiied and Nastran Ule (2000) points out that our direct experiences and knowledge have a considerable inluence on the formation of our attitudes. However, we should emphasize that each experience can be linked with a number of different interpretations and expectations of an individual in a certain social environment. Error correction in a FL classroom, which is usually considered a source of anxiety and negative attitudes, might be interpreted as positive, the learner seeing it as a teacher’s attempt to help the learner improve. Therefore, it is important for the teacher to be able to identify the learners’ attitudes towards learning the FL. Dörnyei (2001, 217) also emphasizes the importance of creating realistic learner beliefs, which can be an invaluable motivational strategy. This might also be a useful technique to reduce foreign language learning anxiety, which, according to Arnold and Brown (1999, 8) ‘is the affective factor that most pervasively obstructs the learning process.’ This is also one of the reasons why there has been a growing interest in this topic in the past few decades. However, Dörnyei (2005, 198) expresses concern about how ‘ambiguous the conceptualisation of anxiety becomes when we go under the surface’, despite years of research into anxiety. Anxiety is a complex phenomenon which consists of several different aspects. Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope (1986) and Horwitz (2001, 113) discuss trait anxiety and state anxiety (also referred to as situation-speciic anxiety) and argue that foreign language anxiety belongs to the latter category, which is usually ‘seen as a response to a particular anxiety-provoking stimulus’, whereas state anxiety ‘is a relatively stable personality characteristic’. An important discovery in foreign language anxiety research was the fact that foreign language anxiety is an independent factor, not connected to trait anxiety (Horwitz, 2001).
Although we found statistical relationships with a large number of clinical indicators and etiologic factors, one must consider some limitations in this study. The cross-sectional design limits conclusions about the clinical validity of these elements, particularly the related factors. Some factors may form causal chains that cannot be properly identified with the design. In addition, the use of diagnosticians as a refer- ence standard for diagnostic inference, even if they are prop- erly trained and evaluated, incurs incorporation bias and can affect the estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the defin- ing characteristics. However, some studies have described the use of diagnosticians as an adequate strategy when there is no perfect gold standard (Bertens et al., 2013; Rutjes, Reitsma, Coomarasamy, Khan, & Bossuyt, 2007). Another
It is possible to generalize the PIF for particle systems and fields, even in a relativistic domain (Zee, 2003). On the other hand, the equivalence between the PIF and the canonical operator formalisms is shown in textbooks of quantum mechanics (e.g. Shankar, 1980). In practice, the sum over all paths can be evaluated only in simple cases, as the free particle or the harmonic oscillator. In these cases, an analytical expression is obtained after having been discretized and taken limits in a procedure considered a generalization of the method to obtain ordinary integrals. In fact, this is the origin of the term path integrals. In more complex cases, and usually the most interesting ones, approximate methods, such as series expansion (about cases with exact solution) or statistical evaluation of the sums (Monte Carlo methods), among others, are the only way to partially solve the problem (Ryder, 1996). One of the advantages of PIF is the possibility to obtain some non- perturbative formal results, like quantum field theories renormalizabiliy proofs. On the contrary, these results are difficult to obtain within the canonical formalism.
Accurate secondary structures are important for understanding ribosomes, which are extremely large and highly complex. Using 3D structures of ribosomes as input, we have revised and corrected traditional secondary (2u) structures of rRNAs. We identify helices by specific geometric and molecular interaction criteria, not by co-variation. The structural approach allows us to incorporate non-canonical base pairs on parity with Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting rRNA 2u structures are up- to-date and consistent with three-dimensional structures, and are information-rich. These 2u structures are relatively simple to understand and are amenable to reproduction and modification by end-users. The 2u structures made available here broadly sample the phylogenetic tree and are mapped with a variety of data related to molecular interactions and geometry, phylogeny and evolution. We have generated 2u structures for both large subunit (LSU) 23S/28S and small subunit (SSU) 16S/18S rRNAs of Escherichia coli, Thermus thermophilus, Haloarcula marismortui (LSU rRNA only), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. We provide high-resolution editable versions of the 2u structures in several file formats. For the SSU rRNA, the 2u structures use an intuitive representation of the central pseudoknot where base triples are presented as pairs of base pairs. Both LSU and SSU secondary maps are available (http:// apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery). Mapping of data onto 2u structures was performed on the RiboVision server (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RiboVision).
Experimental castings were prepared in moulds made of two types of plaster. Cast temperatures were 1120 and 1200°C for bronzes and 700 and 800°C for silumin. Temperatures of the mould were 500 and 600°C for bronzes and 200 and 300°C for aluminum alloy. The roughness measurements were carried out with use of Hommelwerke Tester T1000. The average arithmetic deviation of roughness profile Ra, the ten-point height of irregularities Rz and maximum peak to valley height Rm, were measured.
Abstract—The present study was developed to comprehensively investigate the occupational health problems among teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. A random sample of 6000 teachers was generated from the database of Hong Kong Professional Teachers’ Union (HKPTU) members. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and sent by mail to the teachers of primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong, together with a cover letter and a reply paid envelope. A total of 1,710 usable questionnaires were returned. The results indicated that comparing with one year and five years ago, 91.6% and 97.3% of the responding teachers reported an increase of perceived stress level, respectively. Heavy workload, time pressure, education reforms, external school review, pursuing further education, and managing students' behaviour and learning were the most frequently reported sources of work stress. The four most frequently reported stress management activities were sleeping, talking to neighbors and friends, self-relaxing, and watching television, whereas the least frequently reported activity was doing more exercises or sports. The findings of this research could serve as a useful reference for the government and related organizations such as the Education and Manpower Bureau and Professional Teachers’ Union when formulating the policies and strategies to help the teachers relieve and cope with their work-related health problems.
Nowadays, magnesium alloys are used for casting into sand moulds of huge dimensional castings, high-pressure castings and precise casings. In castings of magnesium alloys defects or inconsistencies often appear (like casting misrun, porosities and cracks) particularly in the huge dimensional castings. Such defects are mended with the use of padding and welding. The welding techniques can be applied by using weld material consisting of magnesium alloy, as well as for regeneration of alloys after excessive wear. Nevertheless, the number of the repaired castings, which were permitted for use, is not satisfactory for a profitable production. The main reasons for wear are the cracks appearing during welding in brittleness high-temperature range.
based on previously published minimally clinically important differences for SCORAD, the study was designed to be sufficiently powered to detect meaningful differences. However, post hoc analysis analysing the high range of confidence limits in the control group versus the active one suggested this may have not been the case. Although we only used validated outcomes in line with recently published recommendations , DLQI did not fit Rasch analysis in previ- ous studies  and its children´s version has not been tested till now. Nevertheless it has been previously validated in Portuguese population and in our study we found an intraclass cor- relation coefficient in placebo group of 0.73 signifying a good reproducibility. Second, the study participants were adolescents and adults with long-standing atopic dermatitis and there would probably be a greater likelihood of detecting clinically significant improvement in adults with more severe disease. Thirdly, because no a priori data exist on the duration of the inter- vention and its in vivo effects, we cannot rule out that longer skin contact with chitosan may have elicited a more pronounced effect. However, the participants were instructed to wear the
Many world-renowned medical schools, especially in Europe and North America, have already integrated mandatory undergraduate research experiences into the curriculum to better prepare their student. Examples of such models may be found in the University College London, Southampton University, University of Sydney (70), University of Melbourne, (71), Vanderbilt University, Duke University, Yale University, Mayo Medical School, Stanford University, Icahn Schoolof Medicine at Mount Sinai (29), University of Leeds, University of Liverpool, Newcastle University, University of Sheffield (28), Baylor University (20), University of Nottingham (48), University of Edinburgh (66), every University Medical Centre in the Netherlands (21), in Germany in order to obtain the title of MD medical students must develop a research project (72). Other programs, such as a combined MD-PhD (36), where research is equally mandatory, may also be found in Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Cambridge, University of California (Los Angeles), Boston University, Brown University, Columbia University; University of Washington, University of Michigan, New York University, Pennsylvania University, University of Chicago, Université de Montréal, University of British Columbia, University of Helsinki, University of Toronto, University of Zurich, Medical University of Vienna, among others (73).