The goal of the present study was to examine whether lonely individuals differ from nonlo- nely individuals in their overt visual attention tosocialcues. Previous studies showed that loneliness was related to biased post-attentive processing of socialcues (e.g., negative in- terpretation bias), but research on whether lonely and nonlonely individuals also show dif- ferences inan earlier information processing stage (gazing behavior) is very limited. A sample of 25 lonely and 25 nonlonely students took part inaneye-trackingstudy consisting of four tasks. We measured gazing (duration, number of fixations and first fixation) at the eyes, nose and mouth region of faces expressing emotions (Task 1), at emotion quadrants (anger, fear, happiness and neutral expression) (Task 2), at quadrants with positive and negative socialand nonsocial images (Task 3), and at the facial area of actors in video clips with positive and negative content (Task 4). In general, participants tended to gaze most often and longest at areas that conveyed most social information, such as the eye region of the face (T1), andsocial images (T3). Participants gazed most often and longest at happy faces (T2) in still images, and more often and longer at the facial area in negative than in positive video clips (T4). No differences occurred between lonely and nonlonely participants in their gazing times and frequencies, nor at first fixations at socialcuesin the four different tasks. Based on this study, we found no evidence that overt visual attention tosocialcues differs between lonely and nonlonely individuals. This implies that biases insocial informa- tion processing of lonely individuals may be limited to other phases of social information pro- cessing. Alternatively, biased overt attention tosocialcues may only occur under specific conditions, for specific stimuli or for specific lonely individuals.
(2b-c), just restrictions of sociolinguistic nature in their use (formality, etc.) related to the social norm. What matters is that, whether inflecting the verb or not, all BP speakers license overt subjects in the same nonfinite contexts (as shown in (2) and (3)), which suggests they have the same grammar. So, contrary to what R&H assumed, it is not the case that BP speakers have an internalized system with no nonfinite inflection; it is actually the case that all BP have nonfinite agreement, though some speakers have null or zero morphemes to mark such inflection. At least, that would be the simplest explanation for the licensing of overt subjects in contexts like (3b). The form in (3b) is socially stigmatized, which motivates the use of (3a) even in colloquial registers which, again, leads to the conclusion that sentences like (3a) are very common in BP. In fact, many sociolinguists are pointing out an increase in the use of (verbal and nominal) inflection in the last decades in Brazil (cf. LUCCHESI, 2012; OUSHIRO, 2015; SCHERRE; NARO, 2006).
Wine producers may benefit from the insights provided by the current studyto refine their communication strategies, either by highlighting product characteristics, as it is the case of the awards, or to communicate their products for different consumption situations. For example, producers may use the current findings to adjust their product placement in wine tasting scenarios to allow their brand to become more salient andto better capture individuals’ attention. For example, in the case of having no awards, producers should include messages in the label that highlight the product qualities to increase attention to the product. On the contrary, even when having awards in the label – which serve as a proxy of product quality - producers must draw attention to the label. Here pictorial elements are crucial to increase attractiveness (Laeng, Suegami & Aminihajibashi, 2016). Such effectiveness is also relevant for retailers, who may add increased benefits to the brand by showing the wine in a specific environment rather than alone, with little or no context involving it. For self-consumption environments, the communication message should highlight desire, while for social environments awards and quality should be stressed in the communication.
The 'Positive Effect' is defined as the phenomenon of preferential cognitive processing of positive affective information, and avoidance or dismissal of negative affective information in the social environment. The ‘Positive Effect’ is found for older people compared with younger people in western societies and is believed to reflect a preference for positive emo- tional regulation in older adults. It is not known whether such an effect is Universal, andin East Asian cultures, there is a highly controversial debate concerning this question. In the current experiment we explored whether Chinese older participants showed a 'Positive Ef- fect' when they inspected picture pairs that were either a positive or a negative picture pre- sented with a neutral picture, or a positive and negative picture paired together. The results indicated that both groups of participants showed an attentional bias to both pleasant (more processing of) and unpleasant pictures (initial orienting to) when these were paired with neutral pictures. When pleasant and unpleasant pictures were paired together both groups showed an initial orientation bias for the pleasant picture, but the older participants showed this bias for initial orienting and increased processing measures, providing evidence of a ‘Positive Effect’ in older Chinese adults.
Some authors have been suggesting that individuals with social anxiety (SA) have an attentional bias for the processing of threatening information leading to misinterpretation of the social context. However, the explanatory current theoretical models of this bias are not convergent because the results of the studies are somewhat consensual. In this context, the aim of this study was, at first, to evaluate the relationship between attentional path to emotional face stimuli and symptoms of SA and, secondly, notice the attention to emotional face stimuli was influenced by personality traits of subjects with symptoms of SA. For this purpose, we evaluated 55 participants from the general population (43 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 21.25 (± 2.723) years and a mean education of 14.00 (± 1.61) years. All subjects answered a questionnaire of social anxiety symptoms andan instrument of personality and psychopathology (Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory-III) and subsequently allocated into two different groups (control vs. SA), according to the clinical level (high and low) of social anxiety. All participants completed a visual task where they were exposed to emotional (happy and angry) and neutral facial stimuli. Registration of attention was obtained using the eye-tracking device. The main results show that the group with SA presents greater difficulty disengaging attention from emotional stimuli (positive and negative) compared to control group. The results of the second analysis suggest that subjects with SA and dependency traits of personality appear difficult to disengage attention of positive stimuli. In contrast, subjects with depressive and phobic traits appear to avoid happy stimuli. The results are discussed in light of current literature on the study of attentional components in subjects with SA.
Regarding to pupil reactivity, which is an intra- ocular movement, only a few articles/books stressed out this measure (< 5%; n=4). However, pupil dilation (change in pupil size), that is an important index of cognitive load and emotional state (For an extensive review see Holmqvist et al., 2011). For single pupillary responses, dilation occurs 2-7 seconds after emotional stimuli are presented and faster dilation (time to peak) generally happens for stronger emotional stimuli (Hess, 1972). Partala and Surakka (2003) revealed that there was no response for the initial 400ms, and then a steep increase in pupil diameter peaking at 2-3 seconds after stimulus onset, using different emotional auditory stimuli. The emotional content in the visual stimulus might trigger a proportional pupil reaction as documented by Steinhauer and colleagues (1983) that showed that highly aversive or pleasant pictures were linked to larger dilations. Given that pupil dilates with sympathetic activity and constricts with parasympathetic activity (Steinhauer, Siegle, Condray, & Pless, 2004), pupil size can be an accurate and non- intrusive measure of emotional arousal (e.g., Partala &
Each test session started with a brief questionnaire the tester had to fill in, regard- ing personal details, such as age and occupation, if the player had some degree of visual imparity, as well as classifying their experience as video game players, with the use of eye trackers and with the use of gamepads in FPS games. The initial questionnaire allowed us to better understand our test group. As Fig- ures 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 show, our average test subject had a considerable amount of gaming experience, little to no previous exposition toeyetracking technology, and was moderately experienced using gamepads in FPS games. On the top of this questionnaire, a brief paragraph explained the purpose of the test session. We felt this was important so that the tester was aware that the main focus was the eye tracker and its integration. This was done to minimize influence in the end results, as the tester could be focusing too much on the game itself, not paying enough attention to the interactions with the eyetracking hardware. This was further reinforced after the questionnaire was concluded, while a brief explanation of the game’s rules and objectives was given.
Dr. Silvia-Adriana Tomescu is librarian at “Carol I” Central University Library of Bucharest, Political Science Library. She completed the doctoral studies in Information Science with a dissertation on distance learning in higher education: „The use of modern means of communication as teaching, learning and training in distance higher education. Case study: librarians' ’raining.” Her main study fields of research are: eLearning librarianship, higher education, academic writing and related to current position cultural diplomacy and the Romanian exile. She published translations and studies in library science and communication.
Interestingly, while the literature on expatriate families can be viewed as an extension of the literature on expatriate workers, sharing the same theoretical approach (i.e., the Black and colleagues’ model, 1991) and methods (i.e., scales by Black and Stephens, 1989), it shows a greater interest in assessing psychological outcomes of adaptation. Paradoxically, this may be explained by the same pragmatic concern. Spousal maladjustment is considered one of the main reasons of premature endings of overseas assignments (Black & Stephens, 1989; Black et al., 1991), and the negative symptoms that spouses manifest may be seen as a stimulus that pushes expatriates to withdraw from their assignments and return home. Even if this is true, studying psychological adaptation in spouses rather than in expatriates makes little sense, as there is no reason to think that spouses’ maladjustment symptoms should be more devastating for expatriate work outcomes than symptoms developed by expatriates themselves (e.g., decreased motivation or attention deficits). Besides the fact that expatriate well-being is an interesting research topic per se, the link between psychological andsocial-cultural adaptation outcomes has been clearly demonstrated in the literature (Ward et al., 2001; see also, among others: Ng, Tsang, & Lian, 2013; Kashima & Loh, 2006; Terry, Pelly, Lalonde, & Smith, 2006; Zhang & Goodson, 2011b; Ward et al., 2011), and even pragmatically speaking, studying expatriates’ psychological adaptation and its antecedents is of great importance.
Stepping exercise has the potential to be promoted on a public health level as a scalable HIIT model, as it is low-cost, simple to perform, and may be particularly appealing to those who have restricted access to exercise facilities or little time to exercise. With this, as well as the need for personalised prescriptions in mind, a further aim of our study was to develop a useful means of prescribing intensity-specific stepping exercise to female adults of different ages. By choosing a step height that is readily accessible to the individual, it is possible to calculate the step cadence required to reach a desired age-adjusted vigorous intensity level (Eq 1). As previ- ously mentioned, stair climbing exercise is associated with a number of short and long-term positive health outcomes [1–10], and so replicating the physiological responses of this everyday activity through bench stepping exercise should result in similar benefits. It is therefore recom- mended that users of the prescription equation select an intensity of 8.8 METs (equivalent to stair climbing) in order to prescribe an appropriate stepping cadence based on their age and the step height available to them. Furthermore, to reflect a scaled HIIT protocol, stepping bouts of 3 minutes, interspersed with up to 3 minutes of recovery, are suggested. Personalised exercise prescription such as this may improve adherence to exercise programmes in inactive populations . By addressing a number of common barriers to exercise participation using stepping as a vehicle for scalable HIIT, there is a greater likelihood of longer term adherence to the exercise. Furthermore, high intensity exercise has been linked with heightened mood post exercise  and higher levels of enjoyment compared with moderate intensity exercise [43, 44]. For example, Bartlett and co-workers  have shown higher ratings of perceived enjoy- ment following 3 minute bouts of HIIT compared with 50 minutes of continuous exercise. Fur- ther examination of training responses, as well as comparison with traditional exercise
Functional brain imaging studies into neuroeconomics have revealed that humans possess a neural network that is engaged in the evaluation of violations of cooperative and reciprocal principles (reviewed in 8,11). In one of the first studies, Sanfey et al.  discovered that individuals, who acted as recipients inan Ultimatum Game (UG), activated the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) more strongly when receiving unfair offers, as compared to fair offers. In a UG, one player (the proposer; “A”) is asked to propose how to distribute an amount of money, while player “B” (the recipient) has the option to either accept or decline the offer. If B agrees, the sum will be split according to A’ s proposal. If, B rejects, however, both receive nothing . Rejecting unfair offers can therefore be seen as a mild form of social punishment [14,15,16]. Interestingly, Sanfey et al.  found that the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was greater relative to insula activation, when unfair offers were accepted, whereas the reverse relationship was observed when unfair offers were subsequently rejected. In a similar vein, Tabibnia et al.  reported an increased activation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and a decreased insular activation when unfair offers were accepted. Notably, receiving fair offers led toan activation of the ventral striatum, a region that is involved in reward processing . This is consistent with the interpretation that regions in the prefrontal cortex are involved in controlling emotional responses to perceived unfairness  possibly by down-regulating the insula , which is thought to be a key structure in interoceptive awareness and the representation of negative emotions such as anger, disgust, as well as guilt, shame and other “moral” emotions . Alternatively, it has been suggested on the basis of experiments using repetitive transcranial magnectic stimulation (rTMS) that the DLPFC is more directly involved in implementing culturally acquired fairness norms andin suppressing selfish tendencies, because functional inhibition of the right DLPFC has been shown to increase acceptance rates in a UG .
Laboratory and field experiments have shown that people are more likely to be prosocial in the presence of watching eyes images. This ‘‘watching eyes effect’’ may be explained by the reputation-based partner choice model or a norm-compliance model sug- gesting that eye images elicit conformity to locally specific behavioral norms. A previous laboratory study that investigated the effects of local norms on charitable donations by using watching eye images and manipulating money visible in a collection box found that the presence of eye images significantly increased overall donations; however, the images did not make people more likely to conform to the apparent local norm. Here, we report the results of a field study examining the effects of watching eyes and the amount of money in transparent collection boxes on charitable giving inan izakaya (a Japanese-style tavern) setting. Contrary to the previous study, we found that the amount donated increased more under the large- than the small-norm treatment. The presence of eye images increased the overall amount donated but was more salient under the small-norm treatment. We found that participants were more likely to increase the amount of money in the box than to conform to the local norm of a small donation when the eye images were present. The results of this study suggest that an appropriate com- bination of eye images and normative information can alter people’s behavior without changing their economic incentives.
The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
A relevância de estudos envolvendo a interface de fer- ramentas de busca se deve ao fato dessas tecnologias estarem se tornando a “porta de entrada” para muitos usuários da Internet. Vaidhyanathan (2011) destaca a abrangência do uso do Google, por exemplo, e chega a afirmar que essa ferramenta de busca “[...] está prestes a se tornar indistinguível da própria Internet”. O uso constante de tais ferramentas tem mudado nosso estilo de vida, nossa identidade, e até mesmo nossos pensa- mentos de maneira inédita. Segundo Greenfield (2015) isso tem criado novos comportamentos como, por exemplo, não precisarmos nos esforçar para memorizar certas informações, já que podemos acessar nossos smartphones e fazer uma rápida busca na Internet. De acordo com Maynes e Everdell (2014), a partir de 2012 o Google começou a adicionar novos elementos em suas páginas de resultados (SERP – search engine results page), como knowledge graph, carrossel, resul- tados baseados em localidade, rich snippets, elementos pictóricos, entre outros, com o intuito de mostrar resul- tados mais precisos e de acordo com a intenção dos usuários. A pesquisa conduzida por Maynes e Everdell (2014) utilizando a tecnologia de eyetracking mostrou que os usuários acham mais difícil prever a localização desses elementos já que, a cada interação, dependendo das palavras-chave utilizadas, o layout da interface da SERP pode ser bem diferente. Esse dinamismo na apresentação dos elementos visuais tem contribuído para uma sensível mudança no comportamento dos usuários.
Still, what is missing in literature or administration is a standardized understanding regarding the optimal dimension as territory and population of jurisdictions on which decentralization can be applied. On the other hand, the economical specialized literature is the one which pronouncing upon the fact that public services have different degrees of optimum between their centralized supply and the option for decentra- lization Oates, . For example, at a territory with a very large surface, a service such as snow clearing cannot have the same decen- tralization optimum as the health services. )n their turn, the areas of jurisdiction cannot be determined without considering the power allocation meant for each level. Specifying the functions per different levels implies, once more, certain assumptions and delegations of power, these matters cannot be separated and the configuration of these functions and power must be predetermined in the case of a decentralized operation. )n these conditions, we must also analyze the spectrum of political situations. Whoever are the institutions involved in decentralization, choosing the existent structures and the conse- cutive process of decision making shall have a powerful political note
The victims Garandeau, Cillessen and Antonius can become themselves aggressive persons, adopting an assertive behavior; they become anxious in the relationships with the people around them. They are not confident in themselves, they become withdrawn, they don`t interact anymore in the peer group. There are situations where they choose to no longer go to school because they fear of meeting the abusers again. Some people say they were both victims and aggressors at the same time. Aggressive acts Olweus can be cruel and can hurt both the body of the victims and their soul. The roles of the student involve in the school aggressivity are: aggressor, victim, students unin‐ volved in the aggressivity act neither aggressor, nor victim . The students are aware most of the time of the deviant acts within the school, they know most of the abuses that take place, but they don`t declare these, starting from the idea that they cannot change the existing situation.
There are always potential concerns or challenges as- sociated with any new method. For one, implementing the DMW requires additional programming than the typ- ical MT and ET paradigms to employ an interactive gaze- contingent methodology. The DMW has been examined in two decision making tasks (risky choice and proba- bilistic inference) and has not been extended to other decision domains, thus, it is uncertain whether poten- tial paradigm by task interactions will be observed in other types of decisions. The increase in internal validity comes at a cost of decreased external validity: namely, the inability to use peripheral information can be con- strued as a less natural accrual of information. However, the use of a template such as in the current task (Fig- ure 1), with identified information locations, allows one to use peripheral vision to plan subsequent eye move- ments, while the mask allows one to retain a stronger inference regarding current visual attention and informa- tion processing. Lastly, the use of eye-tracking paradigms requires more resources in that the eye-tracking appara- tuses are costly and limit data collection to one subject at a time in comparison to MT where several subjects can be collected simultaneously (limited to the number of computers). In terms of eye-tracking paradigms in comparison to MT, the most notable advantage is a more natural interface when using one’s eyes to reveal and process information with DMW, which allows freedom from the psychological tether of the mouse. Others have shown that requiring additional physical exertion (over eye-tracking)—even simply head movements—can affect strategies and behavior (Ballard, Hayhoe, & Pelz, 1995), and that the requirement of moving the mouse to reveal information increases errors and slows learning (Gray & Fu, 2004). In prior work comparing all three methods in a probabilistic inference task, we noted that MT, but nei- ther eye-tracking paradigm, was susceptible to significant variability over the course of an experiment, perhaps due to fatigue (Franco-Watkins & Johnson, 2011). Given that all the paradigms have advantages and disadvantages, and can even produce differences in choice and process mea- sures, one should take into consideration all aspects asso- ciated with a paradigm when selecting a method to test a
The fear of being single can lead to changes in the quality of life of individuals, which may affect their well-being and self-esteem. This research aimed to validate the Fear of Being Single Scale (FBSS) for Brazil, presenting evidence of its psychometric quality through two studies. Study 1 had 172 partici- pants (Age M = 23.69, SD = 7.77; 64.5% women) and replicated the one-factor structure of the instru- ment, with six items. Study 2 had 220 participants (Age M = 21.90, SD = 5.64; 59.5% women) and conﬁ rmed the structure using a CFA, with satisfactory indices (CFI = .96; TLI = .94), and provided evidence for the factorial invariance of the instrument, in relation to participants’ relationship status. Additionally, convergent validity was presented through signiﬁ cant correlations with lonelinessand life satisfaction scores, and a difference was also observed between men and women regarding the fear of being single. Finally, the scale showed adequate levels of reliability (Cronbach’s alpha, α = 0.88) and composite reliability (CR = 0.82). In conclusion, the scale presented satisfactory evidence for its use in a Brazilian context.
Substance abuse does not cause schizophrenia. However, people who have schizophrenia are much more likely to have a substance or alcohol abuse problem than the general population. Addiction to nicotine is the most common form of substance abuse in people with schizophrenia. They are addicted to nicotine at three times the rate of the general population (75 to 90 percent vs. 25 to 30 percent). The relationship between smoking and schizophrenia is complex. People with schizophrenia seem to be driven to smoke, and researchers are exploring whether there is a biological basis for this need 19 .
Aparasphenodon are tree frogs characterized by a strongly ossified skull, which gives them the common name “casque-headed frog” (Pombal 1993). The ossified skull appears to have evolved independently six times in hylids, apparently as an adaptation to similar habitats where water is scarce (Trueb 1970). Several genera of casque-headed frogs occur in South America, including Osteocephalus, Phrynohyas, Trachycephalus, Corythomantis, Aparasphenodon and some species of Scinax and Hyla. Aparasphenodon may be closely related to Corythomantis (Trueb 1970). The genus Aparasphenodon consists of three species, ranging from southern Brazil to the Orinoco river basin in northern Venezuela (Argôlo 2000, Frost 2002). Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 occurs in coastal areas of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia states and continental areas of the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, in Minas Gerais state (Feio et al. 1998, Argôlo 2000). The species is relatively common in Restinga habitats, which are white sand dunes partially covered by herbaceous plants and shrubs. This vegetation forms dispersed islands of vegetation (Suguio and Tessler 1984), where the frog is usually found associated to bromeliads. Bromeliads are abundant in the Restinga and occur on many kinds of substrates, including soils with organic material, sandy soils, and tree trunks (Cogliatti-Carvalho et al. 2001). The leaves of bromeliads typically form a rosette, within which water accumulates. The shape and size of the bromeliads determine the amount of water that can accumulate (Leme 1984). This frog species is highly associated with bromeliads and reaches 80 mm in snout vent length (SVL) (Feio et al. 1998), but little is known about their ecology.