processing till the difference between two consecutive iterations was negligible. Among all the 1185 located events, we selected those (22 events, see Table 1) within 2.5 km distance from the MT profile and with vertical and horizontal location errors less than 1.5 km. Moreover, we determined the focal mechanisms (FPFIT code; Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985) of events for which eight or more P wave first motion polarities
The first sediments found were attributed to eluvio- colluvial and detritic deposits, with thickness increasing downstream up to a maximum of 14 m in borehole R2. Below these deposits, sandy-silty sediments were observed, with a clayey component strongly varying with depth. The predom- inant yellow ochre coloring is due to thehigh weathering rate, favored by the significant deconstruction of the sedi- ments and the groundwater circulation. Inthe borehole, the coarser silty-sandy sediments switch to clayey silts, with sev- eral interbedded blackish peaty levels, at several stratigraphic depths. This transition shows a deepening downstream, drop- ping from 16 to 20.5 m below ground level. Silty levels af- fected by dark nodules and blackish saline concretions can also be observed, respectively due to oxidation phenomena and solution–precipitation processes favored by groundwater circulation. These stratigraphic logs are consistent with that of the S1 borehole, described by Summa et al. (2015). The
southern Italy), a typical example of Mediterranean landscape. This area is character- ized by a consistent presence of agricultural activities in prevalently hilly environments and by a unique forest heritage with a rich biodiversity that have stimulated tourism growth. Contextually, a significant increase in anthropogenic disturbance was experi- enced since the Nineties due to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil
We think that the results presented in this study provide new basic data for hydrogeological and seismic hazard as- sessment of the HAV. In particular, the HAV is one of the areas of Italy with the highest seismogenic potential. In ad- dition, the seismic risk is amplified by the presence of two important human activities, namely the exploitation of the largest productive on-shore oil field in West Europe, man- aged by the Eni company, and the artificial Pertusillo wa- ter reservoir (Stabile et al., 2014a, b). The recognition of the Montemurro Fault, which increases longitudinal extent of the EAFS previously mapped by Cello et al. (2003) and Maschio et al. (2005), may indeed have significant implications for the local seismic hazard. However, our data do not show whether the EAFS is the seismogenic structure of theHighAgri Val- ley, which remains undefined.
Attempts were made [16-18] to solve heat and mass transfer problems under con- ditions of intensive vaporization in adjoint formulations. Movement of single, small group and polydisperse flow of water droplets with sizes from 0.1 mm to 5 mm through gases (combustion products) with temperature about 1100 K was simulated [16-18]. Comparison of integral droplet evaporation characteristics obtained by using models [16-18] with the findings of experiments conducted in close conditions [12-14] showed the addition necessi- ty of statements [16-18] with more detail processes description of energy supply to vapori- zation surface. In particular, the radiative mechanism of heat and mass transfer inthe liquid droplet at its evaporation inthe gas area with temperature more than 1000 K and also radia- tive heat supply on liquid-gas boundary is one of the most significative one under condi- tions of high-temperatures.
Electrolytic lesion was performed in 11 randomly selected rats using previously de- scribed procedures (1,2). Briefly, the animal under pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) anesthesia plus local anesthesia (2% xylocaine, with a vasoconstrictor) was fixed in a stereotaxic apparatus (model 900, David Kopf Instru- ments, Tujunga, CA, USA) and the interpa- rietal bone was exposed and drilled for elec- trode insertion. A nichrome insulated elec- trode (0.12 mm in diameter with 0.8 to 1.0 mm of a non-insulated tip) was inserted ob- liquely (30º in relation to the vertical coronal plane) and positioned at the following coor- dinates of the Paxinos and Watson stereo- taxic atlas (5): A = +1.0 and +1.8 mm, LR = 0.0, and H = +1.6 mm above the interaural horizontal plane. A direct current of 4 mA lasting 15 s was used for electrocoagulation. Twelve control sham-lesioned animals were submitted to the same procedures, except that the electrode tip was inserted 1.0 mm above the nucleus in order to avoid mechan- ical lesion of the structure, and no electric current was applied. The animals were su- tured and remained in their individual home
The metaphysicians of chance point to the probabilistic nature of scien- tiic laws. Such probabilistic laws assert some dependencies and enable us to predict (with a given probability) the future of aggregates or collectives, but not the future of their individual parts. We also meet this kind of unpre- dictability inthe case of human behaviour, individual as well as social. All these data give us evidence that our universe has not been created according to a very detailed and precise plan encompassing all substances and all of their properties. Protons, electrons, and genes, but also species, kinds, and particular human beings, are not part of a divine plan and creative volition (Bartholomew 1984, p. 145). How could it be that God brings about the existence of beings which are purposeless, unpredictable and, as such, not determined by his creative volition? If our non-deterministic universe has a Creator, He does not control every substance and every property, de facto, he is not the Creator of all contingent entities in our world. Thus, divine action consists inthe creation of the universe in its initial stage, and the world is such that God need neither act continuously upon that world nor intervene from time to time in order to achieve His aims. God created the world in such a way that His providence does not have to control absolutely every contingent substance at every moment of its existence in order to realize all that divine will wills to be realized.
The persistence of cases in Morro do Mic and Biboca, both located in slum census tracts, causes concern. In Morro do Mic, the majority of cases occurred on the higher part of the hill, an area of dificult access, reached by long lights of steps. It is an area that includes 77.7% of the households with garbage disposed of in dump- sters and 98% with public water supply. However, the local population has the highest percentage of illiterate individuals aged more than ive years (8.7%), the highest percentage of heads of family with the lowest number of years of education (68.3%), 57.8% of whom receive less than two minimum wages. This socioeco- nomic and service coverage pattern was observed in studies by Almeida et al 1 (2007) and Paulino et al 15
These evidences suggest that Rooms A and B were intended for distinct funerary practices, with the latter being used for both primary and secondary depositions, and Room A used mostly, if not exclusively, for secondary depositions. This conclusion is based on the absence of first-rate links, alongside the low frequency of small bones displaying labile joints and the significantly better skeletal preservation found in Room A (for detailed information on this subject, see Granja et al., 2014b). The interpretation of differential use of the rooms is also supported by the distribution of grave goods (Table 2). However, it should be noted that this explanation relies on the assumption that the two rooms were used separately after the collapse of the stone block which acts as a division between rooms. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of a path in Room B, almost without bones, that follows the contour of the block. In addition, no
Severe schistosomiasis is a rare event in Venezuela nowadays, after a successful national campaign by the Schistosomiasis Control Program. Unfortunately, this program has practically disappeared, and snail surveillance in field is not a priority, anymore. Thus, schistosomiasis has become a neglected disease in this country. However, surveys in different populations from the endemic area have shown particular epidemiological features described herein. In five communities we evaluated 2,175 persons and searched for the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Some markers were used for classifying schistosomiasis foci: mean age of the persons with Schistosoma mansoni eggs inthe stools, serological tests, presence of B. glabrata snails, and intensity of infection. Places without B. glabrata snails and with few schistosomiasis cases were defined as “past transmission sites”; a site with abundant snails but few cases was defined as “potential risk”; “new transmission” foci were characterized by the presence of infected snails and young people passing eggs inthe stools. A “re-emergent” focus has shared these last features, showing in addition a place where schistosomiasis had been reported before. Recent evidences of active transmis- sion with the increasing dispersion of B. glabrata snails, point out the necessity for the re-establishment of the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Venezuela.
Because we have examined so far different community characteristics, including its opinion about the reasons that hampers the development it deserves, we asked the opinion of those included inthe study about the solutions that seem the most appropriate for reducing unemployment and directly the poverty, which are the prerequisites for the favorable economic recovery of the Jiu Valley. Not always, the opinion of the majority is true, a piece of evidence is the exaggerated confidence of the community area inthe tourism industry inthe Jiu Valley, which industry is in an incipient form. Almost 40% of those surveyed believe that employment in tourism is the key to solving the economic problems they have. But what nobody wants to realize is that at the level of this area, this industry is not able to absorb twenty thousand people but a very small number, up to several hundred people so that the community efforts to invest in such an industry will never be rewarded at their fair value. A second solution as seen as viable is the private sector development (22%), an extremely vague idea that does not exclude, for example, the investments in tourism, thus returning to a solution which we’ve already defined as inefficient. There are the following alternatives, such as the housing reconstruction fund (17.7%) and the infrastructure (16.5%) activities that lack the permanent character, being applicable only for determined periods of time. At least from this perspective the question remains open, our view is that the Government’s intervention is necessary if we want to save this region and avoid its depopulation and gradual extinction of municipal and industrial elements.
outside staff and lecture rooms, send and receive emails and communicate on social networks. This Polytechnic in particular, was one of the first institutions to install the wireless access points that accessed internet through the main fibre backbone. In 2009 it went on to procure laptops for staff members, starting with senior management, the Heads of departments and finally lectures. Students were then allowed to bring their own devices which could be configured to be able to access institutional WIFI (The Polytechnic ICT policy document, 2010). This was the beginning of mobile computing at the Polytechnic. Since then further strides were made in such areas as installation of applications that run on mobile devices through wireless connections, increasing internet bandwidth to improve speed as demand for internet went up, upgrading wireless access points to improve strength of connectivity, upgrading of servers to handle the demand and volumes and expansion of campus area network to cover the whole Polytechnic, procurement of more mobile devices. And the institution now boasts of such things as e-learning, m- learning, m-education, among other technologies that are giving it a competitive advantage over sister Polytechnics.
In 1993, OKABAYASHI et aI.,18 using rabbits, classified the lesions as proliferative (marked cellular proliferation) and regres,sive (inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate dermal and transepithelial). In 1994, COLEM AN et aI. published their first study on the regression of genital warts in closely monitored patients. The main histopathological feature identified by COLEM AN et aI. was a marked, continuous subepithelial inflammatory infiltrate, with prominent dermal infiltration. Based on random observations and studies on the regression phenomenon causing papillomavirus lesions, we have designed a protocol to histopathologically analyze the condylomata acuminata, aiming to identify its evolutionary phases.
RVFV infection causes significant disease in both human and animal populations, resulting in significant agricultur- al, economic and public health consequences. We conducted a cohort study on residents of a high-risk area to measure human anti-RVFV seroprevalence, to identify risk factors, and to estimate the durability of prior RVFV immunity. One hundred two individuals tested for RVFV exposure before the 2006–2007 RVF outbreak were restudied to determine interval anti-RVFV seroconversion and persistence of humoral immunity since 2006. Ninety- two additional subjects were enrolled from randomly selected households to help identify risk factors for current seropositivity. Seroprevalence inthe region was high (23%). 1/85 at-risk individuals restudied inthe follow-up cohort had seroconverted since early 2006. 29% of newly tested individuals were seropositive. After adjustment in multivariable logistic models, age, village, and drinking raw milk were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. Visual impairment (defined as #20/80) was much more likely inthe RVFV-seropositive group. Among those with previous exposure, RVFV titers remained at protective levels (.1:40) for more than 3 years. This study highlights thehigh seroprevalence among Northeastern Kenyans and the ongoing surge in seroprevalence with each RVF outbreak.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase defi ciency (21-OHD) accounts for more than 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. CAH newborn screening, in general, is based on 17-hydroxyprogesterone dosage (17-OHP), however it is complicated by the fact that healthy preterm infants have high levels of 17-OHP resulting in false positive cases. We report on molecular features of a boy born pre-term (GA = 30 weeks; weight = 1,390 g) with elevated levels of 17-OHP (91.2 nmol/L, normal < 40) upon neonatal screening who was treated as having CAH up to the age of 8 months. He was brought to us for molecular diagnosis. Medica- tion was gradually suspended and serum 17-OHP dosages mantained nor- mal. The p.V281L mutation was found in compound heterozygous status with a group of nucleotide alterations located at the 3` end intron 4 and 5’ end exon 5 corresponding to the splice site acceptor region. Molecular studies contin- ued in order to exclude the possibility of a nonclassical 21-OHD form. The group of three nucleotide changes was demonstrated to be a normal variant since they failed to interfere with the normal splicing process upon minigene studies. (Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 2008; 52/8:1388-1392)
served to decrease at a rate equal to 3.0±1.3 µg m − 3 h − 1 (1σ variability), with individual rates determined as the slopes of linear fits through the magenta data and identified as periods of steady decrease at least 3 h long. Time windows were allowed to vary, and the average window was 1:25 p.m.–4:05 p.m. LT, spanning 10:30 a.m.–6:30 p.m. LT. In what follows, we use this afternoon rate of change (when loss dominates production
Columns 3 and 4 of Table 1. What impresses here is the perfect compliance of the experimental results with the predicted (Curve 1) ones inthe region of the first hot spot, as well as the good compliance in terms of the second temperature maximum. It should be remembered that the temperature peak inthe second half of the bed is a result of the higher activity (by 1.35 times) of the catalyst located after 160 cm, which was commented above. The experimental (81.6 mol %) and predicted (82 mol %) PA yields are almost identical. There are certain differences between the experimental and predicted results with respect to the PH content, but they are not significant (experiment 0.01 mol %, calculation 0.06 %). The systematic deviation between the experimental temperatures and the model prediction inthe region after 80 cm should be commented. Unfortunately, we were not able to make the same excellent prediction of the experimental regime inthe remaining part of the bed, as that inthe first hot spot area. In our opinion, the main reason for this was some disadvantages of the kinetics suggested by Calderbank et al. (1977), which do not report the formation of maleic anhydride. But the adequate description of the hot spot behavior and of the products yields is sufficient evidence that the new kinetic parameters predict correctly the operation of the fresh catalyst. Hence, they can be successfully used for studying the deactivation processes inthe catalyst.
Firms need to attract attention to their products and services. This could prove to be quite a task for the typical Nigeria firm, with a practically unknown brand name and weak advertising dollars. Goldstein and O’Connor (2001) state that “even the best e-marketing strategy does not substitute for traditional media. Indeed, such advertising is normally viewed as an unavoidable sunk cost to establish brand name recognition.” Small firms by themselves will be unable to afford the advertising sunk cost that is necessary for effective market penetration. By engaging in a cooperative effort in marketing, using a Web portal and sharing advertising cost, firms may better penetrate the on-line market. Nigeria government needs to encourage and recognize innovative applications of ICTs and help in instituting mechanisms to spread best practices. Government should create a national demonstration and help desks to assist SMEs in ICTs choice, implementation and maintenance. If possible, provide motivation to encourage SMEs’ use of ICTs through various mechanisms, facilitate, support and encourage e-commerce applications through establishing appropriate frameworks, removing hurdles and leading by example. There is need for education and training. Education institutions in Nigeria should Institute compulsory courses in information and communications technology as early as possible into the curriculum. They should also encourage local hardware shops to collect- refurbish and roll-out computers that are gathering dust in most offices to high schools and elementary schools, at least where there is electricity, so that students will get exposure at an early age.Education administrators must ensure that tertiary education curriculum reflects changes inthe global environment, expand tertiary level information and communications technology education, establish specialized institutions (like the Egyptian Information technology and South African software development institute) to prepare young cadres for the information economy in collaboration with the local private sector and other international institutions.In addition, they should also encourage, recognize, accredit and certify private institutions involved inhigh level ICTs training, set requirements and (social) obligations for organizations to provide ICTs skills to their staff and provide incentive and motivation.
all two-component systems with a base and a catalyst paste. The base consists of siloxane and inorganic particles while the catalyst paste contains alkylsilicate and a tin-based activator. Setting occurs by crosslinking between the terminal hydroxyl groups and the alkyl, which produces alcohol as a byproduct. As alcohol is produced inthe reaction, the set material distorts as it is released (1,3). Addition-cured silicones are also known as polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS) or vinyl polysiloxanes. They are also two-component materials and the setting occurs by crosslinking of vynil groups inthe base material with a hydride group inthe catalyst paste via a platinum catalyst and there are no reaction byproducts (1,3). Inorganic particles are present in both pastes normally inthe form of amorphous silica to add bulk and improve the properties of the paste (5).