Top PDF Maize yield in an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system in south Goiás, Brazil

Maize yield in an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system in south Goiás, Brazil

Maize yield in an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system in south Goiás, Brazil

Cerrado biome is responsible for part of Brazilian food production. However, due to inadequate soil management practices, large areas of crop and forage are degraded, leading to environmental and economic losses. A crop-livestock-forest system (CLFS) is a sustainable production strategy that integrates different cultivations. This objective of this study was to evaluate agronomic characteristics and maize (Zea mayz L.) yield when consorciated with Panicum maximum cv. Tamani, cultivated between rows of eucalypts clones. The statistical design used was randomized blocks, constituted by the following treatments: Maize + AEC 043; Maize + AEC 007; Maize + AEC 2111; and Maize + AEC 2034. The analyzed variables included: spikes length, number of rows, number of grains per row, number of grains per spike, and grain yield. Based on the obtained data, it is possible to conclude that trees did not affect maize yield in a CLFS. Considering that only 60% of the area was used for agriculture, maize yield was higher than when it is planted in total area.
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Soil quality and soybean productivity in crop-livestock integrated system in no-tillage

Soil quality and soybean productivity in crop-livestock integrated system in no-tillage

Abstract − The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of the soil and its relation with soybean (Glycine max) yield in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS), with intercropping between grasses and legumes in the pasture phase. The experiment was carried out in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, on a dystrophic Oxisol, in which grasses (Megathyrsus maximus 'BRS Tamani' and Urochloa brizantha 'BRS Piatã'), intercropped with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 'BRS Tumucumaque') and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan 'BRS Mandarim'), were cultivated after soybean harvest. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replicates, in a split-plot arrangement, in which grasses were considered as plots, and legumes as subplots. Legume intercrops provided increases of C and total N stocks. The intercrops caused the increase of C and N of the microbial biomass, whereas the single cultures contributed to stress in the soil microbiota. The activity of the urease enzyme was sensitive to management changes in the short term, but acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase were poorly sensitive indicators. Soil quality is high with intercropping between grasses and legumes, with positive effects on soybean grain yield.
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Silage production of corn intercropped with tropical forages in an integrated crop-livestock system with lambs

Silage production of corn intercropped with tropical forages in an integrated crop-livestock system with lambs

The average lengths of the corn season from emergence to the milk-grain stage at 33–34% moisture were of 107 days in the first season and 102 days in the second one. From April 12 to 14, 2011, and from April 17 to 18, 2012, when ¼ of the grains reached the milk stage, the crops were harvested with a mechanical silage forage harvester with 12 knives (model JF C-120, JF Máquinas Agrícolas, Itapira, SP, Brazil). Before harvest, however, the final plant population and the number of ears in the useful plots – the four central rows, excluding 1.0 m at the end of each one – were determined and extrapolated to plants and ears per hectare. Corn, signal grass, and palisade grass were all harvested in the respective heights of the treatments. A representative sample was taken from the harvested material and dried in forced-air circulation, at 65°C for 72 hours, in order to determine dry matter weight of the grains per ear (DWGE), forage dry matter yield (FDMY), and grain yield (GY), which were extrapolated to Mg ha -1 .
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Organic matter and physical properties of a Red Latosol under an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system

Organic matter and physical properties of a Red Latosol under an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system

The ICLF Technological Reference Unit experiment was installed in November 2008, over a 3-ha area. Eucalyptus seedlings (Eucalyptus dunni Maiden) were planted in triple rows (14 m apart), using 3 m x 2 m spacing. The final goal of the system is to combine grain cultivation under no-tillage, eucalyptus production and dairy cow rearing. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) was planted in year 0 (2008) (ICLF implementation) and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) in the winter, without grazing. In year 1 (2009), soybean was planted, followed by black oat and no grazing, and, in year 2 (2010), maize (Zea mays Lineu.), followed by black oat for grazing. Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Brown.] was sown for summer grazing in years 3 (2011) and 4 (2012), followed by black oat and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for winter grazing, and, in year 5 (2013), soybean was planted as a summer crop and samples were collected.
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Straw decomposition of nitrogen-fertilized grasses intercropped with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system

Straw decomposition of nitrogen-fertilized grasses intercropped with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system

The greatest limitation to the sustainability of no-till systems in Cerrado environments is the low quantity and rapid decomposition of straw left on the soil surface between fall and spring, due to water deficit and high temperatures. In the 2008/2009 growing season, in an area under center pivot irrigation in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this study evaluated the lignin/total N ratio of grass dry matter , and N, P and K deposition on the soil surface and decomposition of straw of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, P. maximum cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria. brizantha cv. Marandu and B. ruziziensis, and the influence of N fertilization in winter/spring grown intercropped with maize, on a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol). The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in split- plots; the plots were represented by eight maize intercropping systems with grasses (sown together with maize or at the time of N side dressing). Subplots consisted of N rates (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha -1 year -1 ) sidedressed as urea (rates split in four
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Yield of soybean, pasture and wood in integrated crop-livestock-forest system in Northwestern Paraná state, Brazil

Yield of soybean, pasture and wood in integrated crop-livestock-forest system in Northwestern Paraná state, Brazil

The shoot dry mass production of U. ruziziensis at 33 months after the eucalyptus planting was substantially reduced by the tree component (Figure 4). This evaluation was carried out in July 2012, at a period characterized by low water availability. Similarly to the soybean, the greatest reduction in the shoot dry mater production of U. ruziziensis was observed near the eucalyptus rows due to increased competition for water, light and nutrients. Paciullo et al. (2011) found lower fodder production of U. decumbens close to the tree rows compared to the central region between tree rows, which were spaced 30 m apart. The same authors observed increased fodder production and crude protein content in a strip located at 7 to 10 m from the tree rows. Oliveira et al. (2007) also found higher Urochloa brizantha fodder production in the central region between the eucalyptus rows than near the tree rows. Considering that the response to partial shading is widely variable among grass species (PACIOULLO et al., 2008), it is necessary to evaluate the performance Figure 3 - Normalized soybean yield difference between areas within and outside tree rows in an integrated crop- livestock-forest farming system, in 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons, at Santo Inácio-PR
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Soybean productivity under different grazing heights of Brachiaria ruziziensis in an integrated crop-livestock system

Soybean productivity under different grazing heights of Brachiaria ruziziensis in an integrated crop-livestock system

ABSTRACT - The aim was to evaluate the effects of grazing height of Brachiaria ruziziensis on the production of straw, and the establishment and grain yield of a soybean crop, under an integrated crop-livestock system, on a typic dystrophic Red Latosol at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), in Xambrê, in the state of Paraná, Brazil (PR). The study was carried out between September of 2010 and April of 2012. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, in lots split over time, with five treatments and three replications. The following were determined for the Brachiaria ruziziensis: shoot dry matter weight, plant residue dry matter weight, and total dry matter weight (Brachiaria ruziziensis shoot weight + plant residue weight). Also determined were variables related to the yield of the soybean crop (number of plants per metre, plant height and grain productivity), for the crop years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Straw production is greater in areas of Brachiaria ruziziensis where there is no grazing compared to areas where grazing occurs; the high production seen in areas with greater grazing heights should also be noted. The final number of plants, plant height and productivity in the soybean were not affected by the grazing height of the Brachiaria ruziziensis.
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Biological Soil Properties in Integrated Crop-Livestock-Forest Systems

Biological Soil Properties in Integrated Crop-Livestock-Forest Systems

In the current Brazilian livestock-raising scenario, degradation of pasture areas, presently comprising about 70 million hectares in the midwestern and northern regions of Brazil, is one of the greatest problems (Embrapa, 2015). In general, pastures have some degree of degradation and the main causes are related to low soil fertility, grazing pressure, and, in some cases, physical impediments (Kluthcouski and Aidar, 2003). Agricultural soil degradation in pastures leads to an increase in the proportion of weeds, gradually decreasing pasture support capacity; however, degradation can also be biological, which considerably reduces the capacity of soils to sustain crop production. In this case, pasture will be replaced by plants with lower nutritional requirement, and even areas devoid of vegetation may arise (Dias-Filho, 2014). Therefore, agricultural systems that maximize production of food, fiber, energy, and water and that are environmentally less aggressive and more sustainable have become important, even in social aspects. The integrated crop, livestock, and forest system (iCLF) has been an important means for achieving synergism between optimized production and land use and maximized environmental quality in agricultural systems. This system consists of spatial-temporal combination of agriculture, livestock, and forestry, through succession, rotation, or intercropping. Its many possibilities (Balbino et al., 2012) bring several benefits to the farmer and the environment, and it improves physical, chemical, and biological soil conditions. This system is built upon technical foundations that maximize yield and consider environmental and economic sustainability (Alvarenga et al., 2010). Management of these systems has different and little-known dynamics - time of adoption, adequate animal stocking, and grazing intensity, for example, can change soil biological properties (Souza et al., 2008; 2010). The pasture age component may influence soil
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Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense on corn yield and yield components in an integrated crop-livestock system

Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense on corn yield and yield components in an integrated crop-livestock system

In Brazil, studies of the use of Azospirillum bacteria and N fertilization in corn crops in ICL are few or still without results. The use of Azospirillum bacteria in corn crops presents limitations, especially due to the inconsistency of the results, which vary depending on the cultivar, edaphoclimatic conditions, and experimental methods used (Bartchechen, Fiori, Watanabe, & Guarido, 2010). To clarify some results obtained for this system, the aim of the present study was to evaluate corn agronomical performance as a function of seed treatment with A. brasilense and different levels of N fertilization in an integrated crop-livestock system.
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Soybean productivity under different grazing heights of Brachiaria ruziziensis in an integrated crop-livestock system

Soybean productivity under different grazing heights of Brachiaria ruziziensis in an integrated crop-livestock system

ABSTRACT - The aim was to evaluate the effects of grazing height of Brachiaria ruziziensis on the production of straw, and the establishment and grain yield of a soybean crop, under an integrated crop-livestock system, on a typic dystrophic Red Latosol at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), in Xambrê, in the state of Paraná, Brazil (PR). The study was carried out between September of 2010 and April of 2012. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, in lots split over time, with five treatments and three replications. The following were determined for the Brachiaria ruziziensis: shoot dry matter weight, plant residue dry matter weight, and total dry matter weight (Brachiaria ruziziensis shoot weight + plant residue weight). Also determined were variables related to the yield of the soybean crop (number of plants per metre, plant height and grain productivity), for the crop years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. Straw production is greater in areas of Brachiaria ruziziensis where there is no grazing compared to areas where grazing occurs; the high production seen in areas with greater grazing heights should also be noted. The final number of plants, plant height and productivity in the soybean were not affected by the grazing height of the Brachiaria ruziziensis.
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Production efficiency and agronomic attributes of corn in an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system

Production efficiency and agronomic attributes of corn in an integrated crop-livestock-forestry system

0.7 m width), in the direction of the corn planting line. In order to evaluate corn silage and forage yields at the ensilage point, the plants in the plots were cut at a height of 20 cm, and corn and forage biomass yields were weighed separately. Flag leaf (FLH) and ear insertion (EIH) heights were measured in two plants per 2-m line. Samples of corn silage and grass forage were dried at 65ºC in greenhouses with forced- air ventilation for 72 hours to determine dry matter contents and estimate corn silage (CSY) and forage (FY) yields at ensilage time. Total corn silage and forage yield (TSFY) was estimated at ensilage time by adding the corn and forage yields of each plot.
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Steers production in integrated crop-livestock systems: pasture management under different sward heights

Steers production in integrated crop-livestock systems: pasture management under different sward heights

Grassland management under ICL, however, should be seen as an essential tool for building a pasture structure that can optimize the harvesting of forage by the grazing animal. Targeting suitable pasture structures can influence positively animal production and residual straw, the latter in order to maintain soil quality and assure the establishment of subsequent crops (CARVALHO et al., 2010). The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effects of grazing intensities by managing pasture heights in a mixture of bristle oat and annual ryegrass grown following a soybean crop. Forage production, animal performance and carcass characteristics in steers aged 10 to 14 months were assessed in a typical integrated crop-livestock system in the south of Brazil.
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Soil structural quality degradation by the increase in grazing intensity in integrated crop-livestock system

Soil structural quality degradation by the increase in grazing intensity in integrated crop-livestock system

In both grazing intensities, there was degradation of the soil structural quality in relation to the NF, and the most noticeable effects were in the HG (Table 2), differing from the results found by Giarola et al. (2010; 2013) and Guimarães et al. (2011). Giarola et al. (2010) verified that, even with the increase in Sq due to the soil use, the in-depth gradient of 2 soils with different texture (clayey and sandy) exclusively under NT was similar to that in the forest. Guimarães et al. (2011), evaluating several British soils and 2 Brazilian ones, found results like those by Giarola et al. (2010; 2013); from the 8 soils under evaluation, none had been submitted to animal grazing. Thus, comparing the results found in the literature with the ones obtained in this study, it seems that changes in the soil structural quality in soils under ICLS occur in a different way from those exclusively under NT.
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Stocks and Distribution of Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur in an Integrated Crop-Livestock System Treated with Phosphates

Stocks and Distribution of Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur in an Integrated Crop-Livestock System Treated with Phosphates

The ICLS was widely evaluated in relation to carbon (C) gains in the soil [3-8] over several decades. On the other hand, little is studied considering levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) [7], and rare are those that consider sulfur (S) [8], in ICLS. In these systems, cattle grazing alters direction, magnitude and composition of nutrient fluxes, affecting residues decomposition and nutrient release rates. Thus, deposition of organic residues in the soil, accumulation of carbon in the soil and maximization of above- and below- ground plant development will promote higher nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur levels in the soil. Moreover, increase in the soil organic matter resulting from this production system, helps to reduce adsorption of anions on the surfaces of colloids, such as phosphates and sulfates, over time, and can maximize efficient use of phosphorus [9].
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SOIL AGGREGATION IN A CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM UNDER NO-TILLAGE

SOIL AGGREGATION IN A CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM UNDER NO-TILLAGE

In this study, residue addition varied according to grazing intensity, and was higher via roots with increasing grazing intensity (G-10 > G-20 > G- 40 > NG), and via shoot, with decreasing grazing intensity (NG > G-40 > G-20 > G-10) (Conte, 2007). Even in this oxide-rich soil, the effect of organic bonding agents on the formation of larger aggregates (> 2.00 mm) seems notable, mainly because these areas are grazed for at least six months per year. According to Boeni (2007), soil consists of primary granular structures, represented by micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm) and part of the meso-aggregates (0.25– 2.00 mm), as they interact with organic agents in aggregation and stabilization, resulting in larger, and possibly carbon-richer aggregates. This author, evaluating a Latosol with similar characteristics as in this study, stated that the majority of aggregates
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Phosphorus Fractions in Soil with Organic and Mineral Fertilization in Integrated Crop-Livestock System

Phosphorus Fractions in Soil with Organic and Mineral Fertilization in Integrated Crop-Livestock System

which explains the similarity between the mineral and organic forms of P that contributed to the system (Table 5). In this P fraction, there were significance only at the rate of 75 % of fertilization recommendation, being the M2 treatment higher than the others, except for the compost; at the rate of 100 % with slurry lower than M2 in the 0.00-0.05 m layer; and in the rate of 75 % with M1 lower than the compost in the 0.10-0.20 m layer (Table 5). Comparing poultry litter to M2 and slurry to M1, we observed that organic fertilizers had lower P-NaOH concentrations (Table 5). This result can be explained by the presence of organic compounds, especially those with high carboxylic and phenolic groups, which block the adsorption sites of Fe and Al oxides (Andrade et al., 2003) and reduce P adsorption (Gatiboni et al., 2013).
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Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

One of the options for increasing the intensity of land use with economic and ecological sustainability is the adoption of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) (LANDERS, 2007). This technique allows for: (i) biological and economic advantages (BALBINOT JUNIOR et al., 2009); (ii) maximization of the use of farmland (LANDERS, 2007); (iii) increase in profitability and a decrease in risk of the agricultural activities (FONTANELI; SANTOS; MORI, 2006); (iv) decrease of greenhouse gas emissions throughout carbon sequestration (CERRI et al., 2010); and (v) improvement in nutrient cycling (ASSMANN et al., 2003) and soil quality (ANGHINONI et al., 2011). The main limitations of ICLS management under NT are: lack of technical- scientific knowledge, paradigm shifts, complexity of the production system, and readjustment of the property to the new management system (MORAES; BANDEIRA; SILVA, 2008). The advantages and limitations vary according to the regional characteristics and need to be further studied under the distinct soil and climatic conditions (BALBINOT JUNIOR et al., 2009).
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Silvicultural performance of forest species introduced in integrated livestock forest system in Lavras, MG, Brazil

Silvicultural performance of forest species introduced in integrated livestock forest system in Lavras, MG, Brazil

For guanandi, low percentage of survival (43%) was observed, which may reflect the inherent characteristics of the experimental site. Since this species is originally reported in areas with wet soils, unlike the study area, its requirements were not fulfilled, and thus, it was not able to establish well here and presented reduced growth as well as yellowing and drying of leaves. These characteristics support the hypothesis that guanandi adapts well in regions with higher values of precipitation or in areas near watercourses; this was corroborated by findings reported by MELOTTO et al. (2009), who observed an average survival of 44% on introduction of native species for ILF in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
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Variability of physical properties of soil and rice grown under cover crops in crop-livestock integrated system

Variability of physical properties of soil and rice grown under cover crops in crop-livestock integrated system

PC1 shows that the highest GYs were observed in the most compacted areas while the incidence of grain stain was higher in less compacted areas. The presence of macropores is important for soil aeration, but it also contributes to the reduced volume of micropores and, thus, of retained water. The lower micropore volume accentuated the problem caused by water stress, which may explain the negative correlation between GY and MA, and positive with MI. Areas with higher MI held higher water volume in the soil, allowing higher productivity due to the occurrence of the Indian summer during the rice flowering stage (Figure 2).
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Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield

Crop sequences in no-tillage system: effects on soil fertility and soybean, maize and rice yield

In this research, all treatments resulted in P levels which were higher than the values found in the literature, mainly in the first 10 cm. Studying similar soil and climate conditions, Tanaka et al. (1992) observed increases of up to 30 % in soybean yield after sunn hemp residues were incorporated in the soil, compared to soybean monoculture. The authors explained that sunn hemp cropping could have decreased the occurrence of phytopathogenic nematodes in the soil, favoring soybean in succession. Higher soybean yields obtained after millet may be related to the capacity of this crop to recycle nutrients, especially N and K (Boer et al., 2007) and to the higher number of species sown in the SM rotation, compared to SS. As a consequence, the microbial diversity in the soil is higher, intensifying the decomposition process of plant residues (Tauk, 1990) and increasing nutrient release. Nevertheless, soybean yields were similar among the summer crop sequences SM and SS. The values of rice the yield, was negatively influenced by previous sorghum, were lowest yield among summer crops (Table 7). Although only rice yield after sorghum was clearly differentiated based on the means, it is worth emphasizing the high grain yields obtained after sunn hemp, oilseed radish and millet. The answer was similar to the results for soybean, in the summer crop sequences SM and SS, and the explanations may be related. Similarly as discussed for soybean, considering P levels and the same reasons, K levels were also above the critical range for the element in the soil, i.e., 1.5 mmol c dm -3
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