a demanding technology with a number of difficult steps . Problems may arise when protein-stained gels are compared with Western blots to assign antigen to protein spots for subsequent identification. With large numbers and high densities of proteins and antigens, proper assignment can be difficult. In parts, this problem is due to the differences in sensitivity of Western blot and protein detections. Inthe work presented herein, we employed a series of measures to define the coordinates ofthe antigens inthe protein-stained gels exactly (see Materials and Methods). Although pattern recognition software may facilitate the task of assigning antigen and protein spots, manual editing ofthe results appears inevitable. In addition, the identification ofthe proteins by peptide mass fingerprint or peptide fragmentation fingerprint analyses is easily obscured by a few amino acids exchanges inthe protein sequences. The L. donovani genome has not yet been sequenced so that the present work had to be done with information ofthe L. major genome sequence database and occasional L. donovani protein sequences. Differences in protein sequences between these two Leishmania species can be responsible for some ofthe failures to identify the antigens. In cases where the amounts of proteins inthe gels permit, the limitation ofthe usual peptide mass or peptide fragmentation fingerprint analyses for protein identification in proteomics can be overcome by de novo sequencing of tryptic fragments . Also, the rapidly progressing genome project for L. infantum which is closely related to L. donovani will improve the success rates in protein identification from 2-dimensional electro- phoreses. In any case, sensitivity remains a problem. Since prominent antigens are not necessarily highly expressed proteins, their identification often fails due to lack of sufficient amounts of material for mass-spectrometric identification. Despite these difficulties, proteomeserology appears to be superior to other approaches to antigen discovery and will yield substantial new information that will be instrumental inthe development of new diagnostics and vaccines.
Notwithstanding these limitations, our current model captures many experimentally determined features oftheLeishmania granuloma and has provided a number of unique and important insights into the aspects of granuloma function that are currently intractable in vivo. First, our observation that individual granu- lomas display distinct patterns of effector function over time suggests a novel means for the maintenance of persistent parasitesin tissues and has implications for understanding parasite recrudescence. Second, the prediction from our model that autocrine IL-10 production by KCs is a major regulator of leishmanicidal activity within granulomas was unexpected, given the recent attention focused on the production of this cytokine by T cells and NK cells, including from our own work. Importantly, it should be noted that our model only simulates events within the granuloma that lead to the control of parasite load and hence does not take into account the possible regulatory effects of IL-10 outside this environment. For example, our model would not Figure 7. In silico cell-specific knock out of IL-10 implicates Kupffer cell IL-10 production as a major determinant of leishmanicidal activity within granulomas. (A) In silico knockout of IL-10 in mononuclear phagocytes (Mono IL-10 2 ), T cells (T IL10 2 ), and NK cells (NK IL10 2 )
Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi exhibit antigenic cross- reactivity (Manson-Bahr 1987, Chiller et al. 1990) and the serological tests used for these diagnosis (IFA, IHA, ELISA) may lead to confuse epidemiological data and pre- vent specific diagnosis and treatment. The present data showed that the seven cases with positive serology for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease were actually infected by both parasites. All the same, among the other patients, which were infected with Leishmania spp., seven of them had undetectable IgM antibodies against Leishmania. Among the 15 patients with T. cruzi concurrent infection detected by PCR/hybridization in blood, seven of them showed a negative serology with T. cruzi ELISA. No data indicated that an infection with either parasites induced a protective immunity against the other (Chiller et al. 1990, Chiaramonte et al. 1996) but the present serological re- sults demonstrated that a disorder of specific humoral response can be observed in mixed infections.
After arc plasma electric treatment on the cross section ofthe surface layer was distinguished two areas with the different microstructure were observed in respect to the parent material. The first area – remelted zone (RZ) and second area – heat affected zone (HAZ). Optical microscopic images of a single track are presented on Fig. 2. The influence of current intensity ofthe electric arc plasma on the dimensions of RZ and HAZ are shown in Table 2. With increased current intensity (for fixed speed rate of source = 0,2 m/min) the depth ofthe RZ increased too.
Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass ofthe batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.
Figure 1: Taxonomy ofLeishmania genus (Banuls et al., 2007). Underlined species have had their taxonomic classification questioned. Twenty species ofthe thirty known are pathogenic for humans. ................................................................................................................................. 31 Figure 2: World distribution of tegumentar form of leishmaniasis. The blue-dotted areas indicate endemic zones between 2005 to 2009. WHO/CNTD. Map: Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases ofthe World Health Organization, 2010. ..................................................... 32 Figure 3: World distribution of visceral form of leishmaniasis. The blue-dotted areas indicate endemic zones between 2005 to 2009. WHO/CNTD. Map: Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases ofthe World Health Organization, 2010. .................................................................... 33 Figure 4: Distribution ofLeishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis inthe Brazilian territory. L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis are responsible for the majority of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Brazil. Map: Ministry of Health of Brazil, Manual of leishmaniasis vigilance, 2007. .......................................................................................................................... 34 Figure 5: Biological cycle ofLeishmania major (Peters and Sacks, 2009). (A) The cycle starts with the vector feeding on the blood from infected host. With the blood, the vector ingests amastigotes that are inside macrophages inthe skin. Inthe insect gut, the amastigotes are released by macrophage lysis and differentiate into promastigote forms. They attach to the gut wall and start to replicate. (B) Inthe new blood meal, these metacyclic forms are inoculated inthe skin ofthe host and (C) they are
Considering mechanism of modification of these precipitations one should take into account that effect of modification of hypereutectic silumins depends on earlier transition to liquid phase of sparingly soluble crystals of primary silicon [1-3]. Tests performed by authors ofthe studies [4-10] enable utilization of modification treatments together with making use of a various micro additives in order to improve properties of hypereutectoid alloys.
Women also provide most ofthe labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities inthe rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions ofthe farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective ofthe study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics ofthe respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
The influence of aluminium (added in quantity from about 0.6% to about 2.8%) on both the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron treated with a fixed amounts of cerium mischmetal (0.11%) and ferrosilicon (1.29%) is discussed inthe paper. The metallographic examinations were carried out for specimens cut out ofthe separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. It was found that the addition of aluminium inthe amounts from about 0.6% to about 1.1% to the cast iron containing about 3% of carbon, about 3.7% of silicon (after graphitizing modification), and 0.1% of manganese leads to the occurrence ofthe ferrite-pearlite matrix containing cementite precipitates inthe case ofthe treatment ofthe alloy with cerium mischmetal . The increase inthe quantity of aluminium up to about 1.9% or up to about 2.8% results either in purely ferrite matrix in this first case or in ferrite matrix containing small amounts of pearlite inthe latter one. Nodular graphite precipitates occurred only in cast iron containing 1.9% or 2.8% of aluminium, and the greater aluminium content resulted inthe higher degree of graphite spheroidization. The noticeable amount of vermicular graphite precipitates accompanied the nodular graphite.
A hypothesis dealing with the inter-metallic phases formation in such a single particle ofthe nominal composition N 0 0.63 is presented. At first, the solid / liquid system is treated as an interconnection: substrate liquid nonmelted particle part . Therefore, it is / / suggested that the solidification occurs simultaneously in two directions: towards a substrate and towards a non-melted part of particle. The solidification mechanism is referred to the Fe-Al meta-stable phase diagram. It is shown that the melted part of particle solidifies rapidly according to the phase diagram of meta-stable equilibrium and at a significant deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium.
This work in combination with industrial tests of casting welding show that the causes of high-temperature brittleness are the partial tears ofthe structure and the hot cracks of both the castings and the welded and padded joints. Such phenomena should be treated as irreversible failures caused bythe process of crystallisation that is inthe area of co-existence ofthe solid and liquid structural constituent. The assessment ofthe resistance to hot fractures was conducted on the basis ofthe transvarestriant trial. The transvarestriant trial consists in changing of strain during welding It was stated that the range ofthe high-temperature brittleness is very broad, which significantly limits the application ofthe welding techniques to join or mend the elements made of alloy ZRE-1. The brittleness is caused mainly by metallurgical factors, i.e., precipitation of inter-metal phases from the solid solution.
Knowledge management and data mining are still inthe development phase and they represent interest- ing areas for researchers. Although there is an inte- grative framework for knowledge management inthe context of marketing, there are critical research chal- lenges that should be devoted considerable attention. More information about data mining for marketing can be seen in (Berry & Linoﬀ , 2004). Some of them are connected to data mining techniques and knowl- edge discovery process, while others are related to knowledge management. Data research through data mining techniques is an interactive process of learning similar to other processes of acquiring knowledge, like scientii c research. Selection of data mining al- gorithms, hypothesis forming, model evaluation and remodeling are the key components ofthe research process. Since the cycle of attempts and failures for progressive adopting are made ofthe most valuable knowledge through data mining, the aspect of learn- ing through experiments can be suitable for that. One ofthe research challenges is to make sure that this process is multi-structured, and therefore to increase the productivity of data mining trials. Furthermore, it is needed to manage the knowledge inthe sense that it outlines organizational borders and further distributes towards the other partners.
When should EVA be suspected? One approach is to consider a positive family history of early onset of obesity, hypertension, T2D, and CVD, and to screen relatives. Another approach is simply to use clinical skills and look for general signs of early biological ageing (facial appearance, gait, skin turgor, etc.), as was tested in a Danish study of identical twins which found that older-looking twins (as judged by lay people provided with facial photos) displayed a higher risk-factor burden, shorter telomere length, and a worse prognosis during follow-up. 22 A limitation of this study was
Brazil has the world’s eighth largest economy (IMF, 2008). Nevertheless, 21.4 % ofthe country’s people live in poverty, and 7.3% in misery (IPEADATA, 2009). This contradiction is the result ofthe country’s glaring income inequality (UNDP, 2010) 1 . But, after decades remaining at a very high and stable level, inequality has recently started to decline in Brazil and in several other Latin- American countries (Lopez-Calva and Lustig, 2010). The aim of this paper is to understand the reasons behind the fall ofthe Brazilian inequality, using a flexible econometric approach and focusing on the role played by education and age.
influence of political interests or economical certain, 3) The obligation to be and to work with honest, imparsial, and efficient, 4) The obligation to always work with manners, good against people it serves, and to a superior, colleagues and his subordinates, 5) An Obligation to prevent themselves from the difference between private interests with the position of public spaces, 6) Obligation not to take advantage of unnatural or his position for personal interest, 7) The obligation to always behave in such a way for the sake of maintaining and increasing trust and confidence on public integrity, impartiality and the effectiveness of public services by, 8) An obligation to carry out tasks and functions iktikad on the basis either, perseverance based on professional skills, knowledge, and sufficient experience, 9) Obligation to always maintain a balance between respect for rights and freedom of citizens with an obligation to precede the public interest, and did not impose restrictions that unnatural unreasonable restrictions, 10) An obligation to respect the rights of citizens for public information, 11) Sanctions law firm to offences
Homeostasis of circulating erythrocytes is a balance between erythrocyte production bythe bone marrow and red blood cell destruction. Apoptosis of immature erythroblasts is a key pathway by which bone marrow production of erythrocytes is regulated [reviewed in 45]. During normal physiological conditions, apoptosis acts as a negative control ofthe rate of maturation of immature erythroblasts. This occurs through the interaction of FasL and membrane TRAIL on mature erythroblasts with Fas and TRAIL receptors on immature erythroblasts, which activates the caspase cascade that cleaves GATA1 and triggers apoptosis . As the erythroblasts mature, the erythroblasts become resistant to apoptosis induced by Fas cross-linking and lose expression of Trail receptors. During pathological conditions, up- regulation of Fas and FasL expression can exacerbate Fas-control of erythropoiesis. For example, Fas and FasL expression is increased inthe bone marrow of MDS patients compared to controls . Also, the death receptor ligand TRAIL and its receptors TRAILR1 and TRAILR2 are increased in bone marrow of MDS patients and hemopoietic progenitor cells from MDS patients are more sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis [61,62]. Therefore, inthe current study we examined apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts during L. donovaniinfectionof hamsters by flow cytometry. To detect hamster erythroblasts, we used a rat monoclonal antibody to E-cadherin, which we found to cross-react with hamster. E-cadherin is expressed primarily by early immature erythroblasts and declines in expression as the erythroblast matures [38,39]. Other antibodies used to detect erythroblasts, such as antibodies to mouse TER119 and human glycophorin A did not cross-react with hamster. We were also unable to find a cross-reactive antibody to CD71, which is used in flow cytometry in combination with antibodies to TER119 or glycophorin A to distinguish erythroblast stages. Our results do show that E- cadherin + erythroblasts from L. donovani-infected hamsters have
Homology model building and refinement A homology model ofthe LdTXNPx enzyme was constructed by using the software of Modeller v9.11 (Eswar et al. 2006). Model was built according to the target sequence, an alignment file and 3D structure ofthe template protein that was obtained from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Refinement ofthe model was done by performing energy minimization by HyperChem software (Hypercube Inc. Gainesville, FL, USA). Secondary structure ofthe protein was estimated by web based program SOPMA (Geourjon and Deleage 1995) and NCBI CDD were used to determine the domains. The PDB file ofthe resultant model has been deposited inthe Protein Model Data Base (PMDB) with ID number of PM0078249. All generated structures were visiulazed by MolSoft ICM-Browser (MolSoft LLC, La Jolla, CA, USA).
Checking the dependency of attributes is done to omit the un- necessary attributes, the step which can be of crucial importance in optimising the decision-making process. A smaller number of attributes means less of a dialogue with the user and quicker search ofthe rule base looking for adequate procedure of reason- ing. Inthe case of decision tables that contain very large sets of redundant attributes (created during the operations associated with data mining), the possibilities of reduction can become critical elements in building of a knowledge base. A totally different situation occurs when the decision table is created by knowledge engineers in a controlled manner, based on e.g. literature, expert knowledge, and/or standards, when the set of attributes is authori- tatively created basing on the available knowledge about the phenomena. In this case, the reduction of attributes is not neces- sary, as it can be assumed that the number of unnecessary attributes (if any) shall not deteriorate the model classificability.
To assess the possible cross-reactivity of P. orientalis salivary gland homogenate with IgG antibodies against the saliva of other sand fly species, sera from mice and dogs that were experimentally exposed to a single sand fly species were used. Canine sera positive for anti-P. perniciosus and anti-L. longipalpis IgG antibodies were available from previous experiments in laboratory-bred beagles exposed solely to P. perniciosus  and L. longi- palpis , respectively, the two proven vectors of L. infantum. The ELISA protocol described in Additional file 2 was applied with one modification: the sera were diluted 1:500. For the murine sera, the applied ELISA protocol was modified as follows: low-fat, dry milk (Bio- Rad) was used as a blocking solution and diluent for the serum samples (1:200), and goat anti mouse IgG:HRP (AbD SEROTEC, STAR120P) diluted 1:1000, was used as a secondary antibody. The serum samples were ob- tained from BALB/c mice subjected to more than ten re- peated exposures solely to P. orientalis (Ethiopia), P. papatasi (Turkey), P. duboscqi (Senegal), P. arabicus (Israel), or Sergentomyia schwetzi (Ethiopia). The experi- ments were approved bythe Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of Charles University in Prague (Permit Number: 24773/2008-10001) and were per- formed under a Certificate of Competency (Registration Number: CZU 934/05), in accordance with an Examin- ation Order approved bythe Central Commission for Animal Welfare ofthe Czech Republic.
of social commitments and values such as social justice and equity, which are stated in their constitutions, signed treaties and conventions. Ministries of health oversee the overall development of health systems using their governance function, which includes policy analysis and formulation, regulating service delivery between partners, developing norms and standards for quality assurance and ensuring the implementation of agreed upon policies and strategies. The importance of ICTs in development process was long recognized and access to ICTs has even been made one ofthe targets ofthe Millennium Development Goal No. 8 (MDG 8),which emphasizes the benefits of new technologies, especially ICTs inthe fight against poverty . Inthe implementation of mHealth, ICT is a key component therefore policies on penetration, adoption and utilization of ICT inthe health sector play a key role in enhancing mHealth adoption. The telecommunications sector of some countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Senegal, are very dynamic. Yet, as shown inthe introductory section, Africa as a whole continues to lag behind other regions ofthe world. This is primarily as a result ofthe high cost of services . Based on a review conducted across 17 Sub-Saharan African countries, Calandroet. al. argue that the national objectives of achieving universal and affordable access to the full range of communications services have been undermined either by poor policies constraining market entry and the competitive allocation of available resources; weak institutional arrangements with a dearth of technical capacity and competencies; and, in some instances, regressive taxes on usage. Gillwald  argues that in addition to competition and open access regimes, effective regulation of other factors such as spectrum and interconnection and tariffs are required to stimulate market growth, improve access, and lower prices. This is because: many competitive markets with several players have experienced spectrum allocation problems high cost of services as a result of retrogressive tax on mobile communications despite having an open market with several operators such as Uganda and expensive leased lines generally available from incumbent operators which hare mostly unregulated contributed to the high cost of doing business and inhibited growth and employment opportunities .