Top PDF The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

In the field of herbal manufacturing in Thailand, innovation is the key driver of business and competitiveness. Both public and private organiza- tions, such as The National Innovation Agency, Thailand, provided support to herbal manufacturers in order to develop their innovation. The results indicate that most herbal manufacturers focus more on their product in- novation rather than on process innovation. Moreover, due to certain con- straints, such as high cost of R&D investment and inadequate expertise, most of herbal manufacturers developed their products as an incremental innovation. Multiple sources of knowledge are required to develop organi- zation innovation – not only explicit knowledge, but also tacit knowledge, such as employee experience, which becomes an essential aspect of the organizational knowledge. The ability to change tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge and share this knowledge with others is most valuable to an organization. This indicates that knowledge sharing of employees plays an important role in an organization. In this study, it also emerged that employ- ees in herbal manufacturing shared their explicit knowledge rather than tacit knowledge. Their tacit knowledge, however, could mostly be shared through training programs.
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THE ROLE OF INNOVATION SUPPORT AGENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGY- BASED FIRMS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF INFORMATION ASYMMETRY

THE ROLE OF INNOVATION SUPPORT AGENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGY- BASED FIRMS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF INFORMATION ASYMMETRY

hypothetical examples of consumers searching for prices of dealers, suggests that information is not regularly distributed through the market. Thus, to obtain certain information an agent will incur in a search cost. Accordingly, the economic system is marked by considerable information asymmetries among economic agents (Akerlof, 1970; Skaggs and Snow, 2004). This situation many times leads people as well as the whole economic system to seek ways to reduce the search costs (Chiou and Droge, 2006; Harris and Blair, 2006). A relevant aspect of the search costs is that depending on the situation, the cost of a complete search in a market is not economically feasible. According to Stigler (1961), a way to cope with this problem is to develop specialized traders, whereas he cites car dealers as market agents who reduce the search costs. Finally, another agent that can play the role of linkage agent is the broker (Aval and Maimon, 1978; John- son and Schneider, 1995). Although the brokerage process frequently is used in the context of economic transactions, it can also refer to knowledge and information brokerage, mainly in the context of high-tech firms (Larsson et al., 2011; Verona et al., 2006).
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Knowledge, technology and innovation cycle

Knowledge, technology and innovation cycle

To validate these assumptions, data was collected from a sample of 2.248 European and American firms from two services industries and covering seven dimensions of analysis: (1) ICT infrastructure and e-business software systems; (2) automated data exchange; (3) e-standards and interoperability issues; (4) Innovation activity of the company; (5) ICT skills requirements and ICT costs; (6) ICT impacts, drivers and inhibitors; and (7) background information about the company. The decision to adopt Europe and North America as a field of study came from the limited amount of comparative research on knowledge management on the internet (Zhu, Kraemer, & Dedrick, 2004). The data employed in the empirical research comes from e-Business W@tch annual survey (2007), covering eight countries: the USA, Poland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, the UK and Italy.
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Technology and Innovation in Education: Interfaces for Digital Skills

Technology and Innovation in Education: Interfaces for Digital Skills

At present, digital natives (Prensky, 2001), present wide productivity due to the use of ICT. Consumer-driven innovation and creativity platforms, with which each party (both platform creator and creator based on these platforms) is incorporated to as to permit a viable alternative even in teaching processes (Palfrey & Gasser, 2011). This scenario, encapsulated by the phrase “technologyandinnovation”, covers changes in the knowledge production chain in educational institutions, at the most varied levels and systems, causing some of them to gain competitive advantages (Valente et al., 2007). Thus, the technological revolution, especially the evolution of ICT, has dynamised transformation, not only in the field of science and technology, but also in the field of education (Ruivo & Carrega, 2013). Thus, in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly global and digital society, education and training systems need to focus on relevant and high quality learning that takes advantage of the range of available technologies and adapts pedagogies., both innovative and active (Patrício & Mesquita, 2017). From this perspective, the education system, due to the important role it plays in the development of competences, reiterates that more innovation and technologies need to be sustained. Thus, the manifestation of innovation in education and the impact of digital technologies on teaching and learning has led organizations such as UNESCO to assign digital skills and education sectors to the innovation process through smarter policies, involving all stakeholders for innovation in education. For this reason, documents such as “The Futures Of Learning 3: What Kind Of Pedagogies For The 21st Century?”, published by UNESCO in 2015 and the OECD's “Innovating Education and Educating for Innovation: The Power of Digital Technologies and Skills” 2016 report also stressed the overriding need to develop digital skills in students and teachers, as well as to explore pedagogies and learning environments in the digital age (Patricio & Mosque, 2017).
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Directions of scientific literature in knowledge management from the perspective of their relationships with innovation, information and technology management :: Brapci ::

Directions of scientific literature in knowledge management from the perspective of their relationships with innovation, information and technology management :: Brapci ::

- Knowledge Management and Information Management: the significant decrease in studies on this relationship is due in part to the current phenomena related to Technology Management, which act as a contribution to Knowledge Management, meeting the most urgent needs of organizations that have recently become aware of this management model. However, it is noteworthy that effective Technology Management that supports Knowledge Management can only occur from the assessment of preconditions, which are nothing more than the capabilities of Information Management. Another aspect that should be mentioned is the internationalization of economy which considerably influenced studies and research on the topic of Competitive Intelligence that now competes for space with Information Management.
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STS Trento Proceedings 623 632 NunoBoavida

STS Trento Proceedings 623 632 NunoBoavida

The valorisation of tacit knowledge specifically in technology innovation networks is related to two other fundamental characteristics of innovation: uncertainty and complexity. Technology innovation is frequently associated with uncertainty because ‘different people, and different organizations, will disagree as to where to place their R&D chips, and on when to make their bets ’ (Nelson and Winter, 1977, p. 47). Uncertainty motivates an individual to seek information, although it ‘is often sought from near–peers, especially information about their subjective evaluations of the innovation ’ (Rogers, 2003, p. xix). Importantly, this exchange of perceptions about a new idea occurs through a convergence process involving interpersonal networks (Rogers, 2003). There are various types of uncertainty associated with the innovation process, although technological, market and regulatory uncertainties have an established status (Jalonen and Lehtonen, 2011; Sainio, Ritala, and Hurmelinna –Laukkanen, 2012). But more can be identified. For example, Carbonell and Rodríguez –Escudero (2009) considered only two aspects of uncertainty: technology novelty and technological turbulence. In a study on innovation in biomass gasification projects in the Netherlands, Meijer, Hekkert, and Koppenjan (2007) argued that technological, political and resource uncertainty are the most dominant sources of perceived uncertainty influencing entrepreneurial decision – making related to emerging renewable energy technology.
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JISTEM J.Inf.Syst. Technol. Manag.  vol.10 número2

JISTEM J.Inf.Syst. Technol. Manag. vol.10 número2

Small and Medium Enterprises play a significant role in developing economies by generating new employment opportunities and making significant contributions to the national / global economy. However, the sector confronts some obstacles. Nowadays, the digital economy and dominance of regional and global supply chain system prevail, and many SMEs facing traditional hardships of finance and procedural delays are lagging behind due to obsolete technology and production process, information asymmetry and lack of knowledge management capacity. Many SME face limited growth as a result of their owners’ lack of experience in some functional areas of the firm. This phenomenon leads to an inefficient management of these areas. Outsourcing is an alternative solution to this problem that leads not only to cost reductions but also to SME growth. The contractor firm can focused on its core competences.
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Group heterogeneity and social validation of everyday knowledge: the mediating role of perceived group participation

Group heterogeneity and social validation of everyday knowledge: the mediating role of perceived group participation

Most knowledge and decisions are produced within groups and, consequently, information concerning group composition might work as a cue that allows inferences about the epistemic validity of everyday group knowledge. The stud- ies presented in this article confront and distin- guish the impact of perceived heterogeneity and of group belonging on the validation of everyday knowledge, emphasizing that perceived group heterogeneity is a principle of knowledge valida- tion based on the association between group het- erogeneity and perceived participation within groups. In other words, the research presented in this article builds on previous theoretical contri- butions (e.g., Goethals & Klein, 2000) and research (Lopes, Vala, & Garcia-Marques, 2007) showing the effects of perceived heterogeneity on knowledge validation, and extends it to the analysis of the psychological mechanism that might underlie such an effect. Accordingly, we are proposing that the relationship between percep- tion of group heterogeneity and the attribution of validity to group opinions is mediated by the perception of group members’ participation: per- ception of group heterogeneity generates the idea of group participation, which in turn induces the perception of group-opinion validity. This hypothesis is derived from the relevance attrib- uted to participation in early studies on group dynamics (e.g., Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939), and from the genetic model of social influence (Moscovici, 1976b; Nemeth, 1986).
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The effect of humor on group effectiveness and the mediating role of psychological safety

The effect of humor on group effectiveness and the mediating role of psychological safety

comes to team based initiatives to foster knowledge sharing and organizational learning, psychological safety has been a major influential factor (Edmondson, 1999; Zellmer-Bruhn & Gibson, 2006 and Tucker, 2007). Reasons for these effects are that psychologically safe environments reduce defensiveness and the fact that employees feel secure enough to experiment with new and risky behaviors when trying to become more efficient and effective (Tjosvold et al., 2004). Lastly, there are also links between psychological safety and group viability. A study by Baer and Frese (2003) has tested the longitudinal effects of psychological safety when implementing process innovations, which is defined as a “deliberate and new organizational attempt to change product ion and service processes”. The outcome of their study was that psychological safety was positively related to two performance indicators, namely change in return on assets (holding prior return on assets constant) and firm goal achievement. Since the nature of the study was longitudinal and future oriented, one can observe that the groups within the organization led to the successful performances and were hence, viable.
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Linking knowledge management, organizational learning and memory

Linking knowledge management, organizational learning and memory

including internal experts, or R & D or the sales force (Huber, 1991). The transmission of information to the team has been noted as a factor in the positive impact on company performance (Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Katz & Tushman, 1981; Moorman, 1995). The investi- gation showed that the parties external information has a positive impact on financial performance or innovation in the company (Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Katz & Tushman, 1981; Moorman, 1995). Kyriakopoulos and de Ruyter (2004) established in your work a curvilinear relationship between procedural memory and new results on the product, as well as a positive relationship between declarative memory and financial performance. This approach allows you to isolate the effect of two different types of memory. The role of memory such as recording, file, recent product review objectives and management measures support declarative memory are not linked to previous definitions of the concept of declarative memory (Kyriakopoulos & de Ruyter, 2004). Internal information flows to enhance financial success, however also restrict the cre- ativity in the presence of strong procedural memory. In addition, while external information flows promote both financial success and creativity, also diminish the creativity in the presence of strong procedural memory (Kyriakopoulos & de Ruyter, 2004). The authors underscore the importance of designing memory systems that allow less use of standard procedural memory, as well as the rapid deployment of declarative memory. Companies can use procedural memory to access prior knowledge General and quickly use it in new applications (Kyriakopoulos & de Ruyter, 2004).
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CRM System: the Role of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Innovation Capability

CRM System: the Role of Dynamic Capabilities in creating Innovation Capability

In this paper, we define CRM as an “enterprise approach to understanding and influenc- ing customer behavior through meaningful communications, in order to improve customer acquisition, customer retention, customer loyalty, and customer profitability” (SWIFT, 2001, p. 21). CRM can be seen as a company’s overall strategy, designed to optimize profit and customer satisfaction through the internal organization of the company, based on cus- tomer segments, in order to ensure value creation for both the company and customers (NGAI et al., 2009). Indeed, companies are facing high levels of competition, constant changes in customer needs and ever growing market demands (WEI-WEI; DONG-SHENG, 2010). The knowledge that companies have about their customers is a very important re- source (KHODAKARAMI; CHAN, 2014). By combining good organizational structure, processes and personal skills, companies may successfully create customer knowledge (KHODAKARAMI; CHAN, 2014). Therefore, CRM can be seen as the combination of processes, human resources and technology (MENDONZA et al., 2007).
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Decisions of technology innovation: the role of indicators

Decisions of technology innovation: the role of indicators

The fifth order of problems with indicators relates to the sensitive nature of their selection process. In fact, the selection of indicators can be a sensitive process for three main reasons: The selection of indicators can present significant methodological problems, which may arise from lack of data, the cost of information collection, superposition of indicators, reliability issues or time pressure, among others (Merry 2011; Gault 2013). Furthermore, the selection of indicators can produce constitutive effects in the future, as mentioned previously. In fact, the use of indicators can structure organizational activities; prescribe values and interpretations of reality embedded in indicators; create new meanings for words and vocabulary; project incentives, sanctions, norms and regulations, etc (Dahler-Larsen 2013). Third and last, the selection process can entail activities that are not trivial, conscious nor neutral, creating an implicit and sometimes controversial space for “politics”, particularly if stakeholders use a different selection of indicators (this can be notably difficult in technology assessment studies - see next section). The criteria used to select indicators may be based on several factors, such as indicators’ policy relevance, utility, analytical soundness and measurability (OECD 2003), as well as on other (sub)conscious factors allowing space for “politics”. Therefore, there is the need for a clear formulation of the initial problem, which will enable a transparent selection of indicators that describe the problem to avoid controversies with stakeholders. Furthermore, the selection of indicators should also include space to reflect about the inclusion and the non-inclusion of certain indicators. For example, the use of composite indicators 29 for impressionistic propaganda (and oversimplification) by policymakers is an example of how indicators can be used (or rejected/downplayed) to suit political intent. The relevance of composite indicators to policy is perhaps best captured by the idea of indicators that become “policy-resonant” (Hezri and Dovers 2006, 87). According to the authors, an indicator that “strikes a chord” with its intended audience is easier to communicate, and often appropriated by policymakers and by the media (92). Sometimes, policymakers can claim that some indicators are difficult to interpret, and peripheral to the issues that generate political concern (Munda and Nardo 2005). However, the claim can also be interpreted as an example of how evidence is rejected because it does not suit a policy argument. In short, the selection
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Mixing processes involve the blending of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust (or mixture) and water. The purpose of mixing is to homogenise the mixture and ensure that the rebonding agent should be uniformly distributed over the grains. This unit was designed for separating casts from the runner system. the number of casts in a batch ranges from 1 to 4 on the given level, there are 1-48 of them on 1-12 levels. The mass of the batch varies from 5 to 12 kg.

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The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The influence of aluminium (added in quantity from about 0.6% to about 2.8%) on both the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in cast iron treated with a fixed amounts of cerium mischmetal (0.11%) and ferrosilicon (1.29%) is discussed in the paper. The metallographic examinations were carried out for specimens cut out of the separately cast rods of 20 mm diameter. It was found that the addition of aluminium in the amounts from about 0.6% to about 1.1% to the cast iron containing about 3% of carbon, about 3.7% of silicon (after graphitizing modification), and 0.1% of manganese leads to the occurrence of the ferrite-pearlite matrix containing cementite precipitates in the case of the treatment of the alloy with cerium mischmetal . The increase in the quantity of aluminium up to about 1.9% or up to about 2.8% results either in purely ferrite matrix in this first case or in ferrite matrix containing small amounts of pearlite in the latter one. Nodular graphite precipitates occurred only in cast iron containing 1.9% or 2.8% of aluminium, and the greater aluminium content resulted in the higher degree of graphite spheroidization. The noticeable amount of vermicular graphite precipitates accompanied the nodular graphite.
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Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Volunteer Portuguese Firefighters

Sharing of Tacit Knowledge in Volunteer Portuguese Firefighters

The unit of analysis was selected according to a sample of volunteer fire brigades, which were present in the large fires that occurred during the months of June and October 2017, in Portugal, according to the snowball technique. The choice of this methodology was focused on the fact that we are studying the organizations that participated in an event whose causes or consequences are still being discovered by civil society. In the course of the interviews, new data were found that sent new questions to other commanders of other voluntary fire brigades, until the saturation point of the information was reached, where other interviewees would no longer bring new information of relevance to the investigation.
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The Role of Globe Innovation Networks in Development of Information Society

The Role of Globe Innovation Networks in Development of Information Society

The author explores the evolution of the concept of the information society. There is identified the role of the formation of global innovation networks. The formation of global innovation networks is carried out through coordination and cooperation of scientific and technological activities on the basis of bilateral and multilateral relations, information exchange, scientific and technical services areas of development, implementation of scientific-technical activities in the framework of the international organizations, as well as through the development of national and regional innovation networks.
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O mezhdunarodnom sotrudnichestve Severo-Zapada Rossii v innovacionnoj sfere na Baltike [On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic]

O mezhdunarodnom sotrudnichestve Severo-Zapada Rossii v innovacionnoj sfere na Baltike [On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic]

6. Final cluster analysis. Identification of cross-border economic clusters in trans-border region of St. petersburg, Leningrad region and Ida-Virumaa, Narva Bu- siness Advisory Services Foundation, St. Petersburg Information and Analytical Ce- nter, Synergy International Ltd, 2008. URL: http://rus.kohtla-jarve.ee/uploads/ documents/valissuhted/projektid/2/cd/en/final.pdf ( : 12.09.2012).

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Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

Effect of Annealing Time for Quenching CuAl7Fe5Ni5W2Si2 Bronze on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes of the sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease of the temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature of the sample to about 996°C. Decrease of the temperature of the sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence of the following diffusion processes:
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SPECIFIC FIELDS OF APPLIED ETHICS AND MACHINE ETHICS

SPECIFIC FIELDS OF APPLIED ETHICS AND MACHINE ETHICS

Last but not least we have to ask whether duty ethics and ethics of consequences are preferable models of normative ethics in this context or whether other models are possible. According to Pieper (PIEPER, 2007, 270), seven fundamental models can be distinguished, the transcendental, the existential and the eudemonistic approach, the contracting theory, and the traditional, the materialistic and the life-world model. In the context of machine ethics, the traditional model – which seem to be a promising candidate in this context, considering the GOODBOT – may mean that a machine needs to acquire virtues such as wisdom, justice, courage and temperance, and develops a character which includes a set of them. The “morally right” action implicitly follows from this character, i.e, from the interaction of virtues. Similar to the rule-based approach, its virtues may be prioritized or formed in a special way in order to adjust them to the intended character of the machine. However, a human character also includes assertiveness, empathy, and intuition. It is a reasonable assumption that it is difficult to create something beyond a “virtue machine”. And after all, it remains unclear if virtuousness could help solve the robot car problem or Carneades’ lay-by.
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JISTEM J.Inf.Syst. Technol. Manag.  vol.13 número1

JISTEM J.Inf.Syst. Technol. Manag. vol.13 número1

No artigo: “IT outsourcing management: the state of the art recognition by a constructivist process and bibliometrics” publicado no periodic “JISTEM – Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management”, volume 12, número 2 de 2015., no Abstract, onde se lia:

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