Top PDF The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes

Two sub-zones were distinguished: between 165 and 148 cm in depth. This is the period before the eruption of the Quilotoa with high Alnus (2–9 %) and Hedyosmum (0–7 %) frequencies, Polylepis around 5 %. AP was 15–31 %. Among the herbs Gentianella 0–3 % and Poaceae 22–53 %; between 132 and 126 cm after the eruption of the Quilotoa, a decrease is observed in Alnus and Hedyosmum with 0.5 and 1 % respectively and AP was 10–16 %. For the first time since the base of the record, Polylepis showed low frequencies, i.e. 0 % at 132 cm and 3 % at 128 cm. Senecio type Asteraceae became the dominant taxa (22–33 %) and lower frequencies of Poaceae than before the eruption were observed. An increase of 11 % in Gunnera and spores of Huperzia (6–16 %) also characterized this zone P6.
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The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the eastern Ecuadorian Andes

To detect the major factors influencing precipitation and temperature variability at Papallacta, either related to Pa- cific or Atlantic SSTs, we plotted the convective index with changes in the ratio of tychoplanktonic to epiphytic diatoms – the T/E index, associated to changes in number of El Ni˜no events from the El Junco lacustrine record in the Galapagos (Conroy et al., 2009) – and changes in precipitation strictly linked to SASM activity from the Cascayunga speleothem record in northeastern Peru (Reuter et al., 2009). These com- parisons reveal a remarkable link between the Papallacta con- vective index and the eastern equatorial Pacific SST T/E in- dex for the first part of the time interval (until ∼ 1500 AD) and between the Papallacta convective index and the east- ern Andes isotopic record for the second half of the inter- val (Fig. 7). High values of T/E index were related to a high number of El Ni˜no events. However, modern climate analy- ses show that during the positive phase of ENSO, when tem- peratures are warmer in the equatorial Pacific, a drier climate is observed in the Ecuadorian Andes (Vuille et al., 2000; Gar- reaud et al., 2009). Therefore the link between a high number of El Ni˜no events and a moist climate in the Ecuadorian An- des is questionable. In addition, at El Junco, the diatom-based eastern equatorial Pacific SST T/E index does not reveal nei- ther the La Ni˜na-like MCA nor the El Ni˜no-like LIA (Cobb et al., 2003; Sachs et al., 2009). The terms La Ni˜na-like or El Ni˜no-like have been broadly used to refer to higher La Ni˜na or El Ni˜no frequencies (Sachs et al., 2009) or increased oc- currence of La Ni˜na or El Ni˜no events within a given time interval (Cobb et al., 2003). However, we know for instance that during the LIA glaciers expanded in the tropical Andes, which is inconsistent with an increase in El Ni˜no events, as according to modern observations, this would favour glacier retreat (Jomelli et al., 2009). Garreaud and Battisti (1999) as- sociated the term El Ni˜no-like to longer periods of variability on interdecadal timescales with major effects on the patterns of seasonality. Here we will refer to “ENSO variability” to discuss changes in equatorial Pacific SST, even though our focus is on interdecadal scales in the sense of Garreaud and Battisti (1999).
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Freshening of the labrador sea as a trigger for little ice age development

Freshening of the labrador sea as a trigger for little ice age development

Reconstructions of ocean and land temperature show the LIA cooling was neither spatially nor temporally uniform (Bradley et al., 2003; PAGES 2k Consortium, 2013; Wan- ner et al., 2011, 2015), and therefore there is an open de- bate on the forcings that may have triggered these climate oscillations. Reduced solar irradiance and the occurrence of explosive volcanic eruptions are the two most commonly ex- amined forcings (e.g. Bond et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2012) due to the impact they may have on atmospheric dynamics. Other forcings such as the internal dynamics of the oceanic and atmospheric systems (such as the North Atlantic Oscil- lation, NAO; Arctic Oscillation, AO; Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO; El Niño–Southern Oscillation, ENSO; or the monsoonal regimes) have also been considered to play a major role driving climate oscillations during the last century (see review in Wanner et al., 2011). Freshwater discharge to the North Atlantic may also be a driver of climate change by impacting sea surface circulation and deep water convection, which in turn may slow down the Atlantic Meridional Over- turning Circulation (AMOC) (Manabe and Stouffer, 1995). The Labrador Sea is particularly sensitive to increases in freshwater and sea ice input. Deep water formation in the Labrador Sea contributes 30 % of the volume transport of the deep limb of the AMOC (Rhein et al., 2002; Talley, 2003), and freshwater input to this region can potentially reduce oceanic deep convection, slowing down the Atlantic circula- tion and its related oceanic heat transport (Born et al., 2010; Moreno-Chamarro et al., 2015). The decrease in heat export from low to high latitudes modifies regional climate by cool- ing the western North Atlantic, which, in turn, influences the climate of the whole North Atlantic (Born et al., 2010). A recent example of this phenomenon may be the “Great Salin- ity Anomaly” event that occurred between 1968 and 1982 (Dickson et al., 1988). During this interval, vast amounts of Arctic sea ice and freshwater were delivered to the Labrador Sea, mainly via the East Greenland Current (EGC), freshen- ing the subpolar gyre (SPG) and decreasing winter convec- tion and deep water production. A recent study of the last
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The Little Ice Age: evidence from a sediment record in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coast

The Little Ice Age: evidence from a sediment record in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coast

Fig. 4. Composite stratigraphy for the last 1000 yr from the sediment record GA113-2Aa & 9004, which includes the following sediment proxies: organic carbon (C org ), sand content (> 63 µm), C/N ratio; stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C) and main benthic foraminiferal units (factors: F1-F4) based on factor analysis. Stars indicate periods with increased aeolian sediment influx (ASI) from raised bogs in Halland, S Sweden (Bj¨ork and Clemmensen, 2004), whereas thick black vertical lines show periods of reduced solar activity, well-known as Wolf (WM: 1300–1380 AD), Maunder (MM: 1645–1715 AD) and Dalton (DM: 1790–1820 AD) minima (Mauquoy et al., 2002). The hexagons indicate productive herring periods from the Bohusl¨an fishery (grey) and from the Norwegian fishery (black) (Ljungman, 1883; Cushing, 1982). The P NAP (%) stands for the total non-arboreal pollen in the Gullmar Fjord, which is indicative of the land use intensification (Fries, 1951). The abbreviations MWP, LIA and RW are given for time periods associated with the late Holocene climate variations and designate the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age and the recent warming (1900s), respectively. The dates (yr) for time intervals on the right hand side result from the 210 Pb and 14 C AMS dating performed for cores GA113-2Aa and 9004 (Filipsson and Nordberg, 2004a; Polovodova et al., 2011).
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The friction influence on stress in micro extrusion

The friction influence on stress in micro extrusion

To determine the distribution of friction in micro scale and its impact on the extrusion forces, roughness numerical model surfaces of container 1mm in diameter and right-angled die with diameter reduction 1/2, for rod forward extrusion has been created (fig. 2). This model is the triangular wave in two variants. In the first case its height h = 10µm and length λ = 40µm represents the average height of roughness achieved during initial polishing. In the second, height h = 5µm and length λ = 20µm simulates the surface layer after the finish polishing (fig. 3).
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

The Malaysia government is proactive in supporting and promoting ICT usage just like its Singapore counterpart. Internet usage has been found to be relatively mature in a consumer satisfactory survey conducted by the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (2004a). Four out of ten Internet users access e- government services for registration and information purposes. Further more, the World Bank has classified Malaysia as an upper-middle-income country (ITU, MCMC, 2004a). Malaysia’s Personal Computer (PC) penetration rate stood at 16.6 percent (ITU, 2004a). The cost of dial-up Internet access has been kept relatively low with subscribers being able to connect to a dial-up point of presence at local call rates (see table 2). Commercial broadband services were first launched by Time dotcom (TIME) in June 2001. At the end of 2003, there were a total of 110,247 subscribers. According to ITU 2004a, this translates to subscriber penetration rate of 0.44 percent or a household broadband penetration rate of 1.98 percent. Around 98 percent of all broadband connections are over direct exchange line (DSL).
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SOCIAL INEQUALITIES AND DECENTRALIZATION. THEORETICAL VIEWPOINTS AND EVIDENCES FROM THE HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM IN ROMANIA

SOCIAL INEQUALITIES AND DECENTRALIZATION. THEORETICAL VIEWPOINTS AND EVIDENCES FROM THE HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM IN ROMANIA

insurance. (ere, even the recent decentralization tendencies are ori- ginated in decades or even centuries of organizational and managerial experience. )n other parts the Mediterranean countries and Eastern Europe , decentralization can be considered a recent development, meant to remedy the inadequacies of the national and centralized health decisional models. Bankauskaite ș.a, )n the case of Central European and Eastern European countries the problem is different and regarded from another perspective. These, although they line up to the old system, must connect directly to the new organization of regional type decentralized . )n these countries, even where there were already formed regional structures with formal powers, there aren`t the regional/local reflexes that determine regional entities to behave as actors in the socio-economical processes. The states of Eastern Europe are facing a double pressure: on one hand, one from the part of the Union for integration, on the other hand, one from the area of spatial socialist or traditionalist structures. To these add up other constraints such as: the economies are orientated sectorial and not territorial regional , which brings about great dependencies and delays; there is a deficit of theory and of expertise ; the states have no longer time for down to up and evolution, and as a consequence, look for models more or less transportable and, finally, there is the so- called mentality problem . Despite these limitations, or maybe because of them, regionalism and decentralization is a very popular subject. Anyway, in most of Europe countries, decentralization is seen more and more as an attractive framework for the organization and the mana- gement of public systems. Ţorto, .
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

dependence from the temperature of casting the bronze to the mould on Figure 6. From the introduced cross - section of casts from the probe TDAg, it results that it together with considerably grows up the depth of the contraction cavity with the growth of the temperature of casting, and what joins with this executed along its axis the volumetric contraction grows up, especially bronze B555 (Fig. 5a and 6). The bronze B10 is characterizes considerably smaller volumetric contraction (Fig. 5b and 6), however overheated 1180 °C above and cast to the hot plaster mould, in the conditions of the atmospheric pressure, it undergoes strong gassing with what considerable decrease of the depth of the contraction cavity joins (Fig. 5b 1200 ° C and Fig . 6). Zinc as high active metal in the relation of oxygen influences the lower- ing of the content of gases dissolved in the bronze B555. Consid- erably larger content Zn in the chemical composition of the bronze B555 (approx. 5%), in the comparison with the bronze B10 (to 0.5 %), it favours creation on the surface of the solidifica- tion bronze of the layer of oxides Zn and Cu, in the composition natural slags about the smaller mass density from the liquid bronze, making difficult chemical adsorption and dissolving the hydrogen and oxygen in the liquid bronze. Bronze B10 including first of all the admixture approx. 10% Sn, element of little active in the relation to oxygen, it absorbs from surroundings highly both the hydrogen as and the oxygen, what it brings in the conse- quence, together with the growth of the temperature of casting, to gassing the bronze.
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	Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

Field Cancerisation of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: Screening for Second Primary Cancers of the Oesophagus in Cancer Survivors

multiple synchronous and/or metachronous cancers of the oesophagus, lungs, and head and neck region (i.e. oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx). 90% of the tumours in head and neck are squamous cell carcinomas, and at least 75% of them are attributable to the combination of tobacco and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio of OSCC may be as high as 50.1 for those who are both heavy smokers and heavy drinkers in comparison to people who neither drink nor smoke. 13 It has been estimated
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Of note, results from the empirical study show that browsers prefer the site that is efficient, excellent, and present to them an economic value than the one with a good visual appeal and entertaining aspect. These findings lend us to conclude that the asked sample is purely calculator who looks for the good price-quality report. Besides, the analysis regression demonstrates that the entertainment value, economic value and excellence were found to be significantly related to future site patronage intent. Consistent with findings of Mathwick, Malhotra and Rigdon (2001), the site preference appeared as an important predictor to the future site patronage intent. Finally, and not surprising, all the dimensions of the site perceived value strongly influence the e-loyalty intention.
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Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

Analysis Of Lean Accounting JIT And Balance Scorecard In The Companys Lean Manufacturing

Dermerwean, [2007] describes that Lean Accounting refers to attempts to derive monetary management information based on Lean principles. [14]. In Lean manufacturing absolutly need lean accounting as control in the enterprise. According to Aghdaei , [2014] said that Lean accounting is looking forward decreasing the stages in implementation process and omitting the standard prices for achieving real prices and inhibiting expense allotments, whereas lean control operations are still considering measurement of system performance and emphasize on social and behavioral controls[15]. Dermerwean, [2007] also said that Lean refers to the management system of applying Lean principles to operations, and Lean Accounting refers to attempts to derive monetary management information based on Lean principles[14]. Maskell, [2006] give statement that Lean accounting focuses on measuring and understanding the value created for the customers, and uses this information to enhance customer relationships, product design, product pricing, and lean improvement.[16]. Based on statement above lean accounting have some function to improvement all aspect about costumers and product. Management accounting information it provides with use one-touch flow design as lean accounting refer to lean operational principle, lean accounting also has alternative to traditional management system. [14],[17]. In the company has principle of lean thinking to grow their company use lean accounting. Rosa [2012] said that lean accounting is a new accounting approach stemming from the growing interest of companies in embracing the culture of lean thinking. [18] There’re new method to increase a companies. Every companies must to use good method one of such lean accounting to control financial. Womack,[2003] describes that lean accounting, more that a new method, is the adaptation of familiar financial and management accounting methods to the needs of lean organizations, with the aims of : providing information to motivate lean transformation; eliminating waste from the accounting processes while maintaining financial
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Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

Fields of study and the earnings gap by race in Brazil

The detailed questionnaire of the Census provides individual information about education, age, gender, race, employment status, labor earnings and occupation in the main job, and place of residence, among many other variables. Based on the information about race, which is self-reported, the sample is divided into white and black workers, where individuals who reported themselves as black or colored are included in the latter group. Asian and indigenous are excluded. For individuals who completed tertiary education, the Census has information about their fields of study. However, the classification system in 2000 is not the same as that in 2010. The appendix A describes how codes from different Census years are matched in this paper. As also shown in the appendix, the detailed categories for fields of study are aggregated into 10 broader groups, which are used in most of the analysis presented here. The Census questionnaire also allows identifying whether an individual has a graduate degree, although the 2000 survey does not distinguish between master ’s and doctoral degrees. In both periods, fields of study refer to the individuals’ highest degrees.
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Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

Strategies and Problems in the Promotion of Taal as a Culture and Religious Destination

V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The commonly visited tourist attractions in Taal were Escuela Pia, White House and Basilica of St. Martins of Tours. Historical Sites were considered the most effective promotional strategies used in Taal. Presence of Beggars was the common problem encountered by the tourists of Taal. The Municipality of Taal may continually preserve Taal’s historical sites. The Department of Tourism of Taal may provide a sustainable program to promote Taal through its historical and pilgrimage sites. CITHM may also support existing activities promoting Taal as tourist destination. Future researchers may conduct similar study but using other variables. It is a great opportunity for the students to have c urriculum which is supported by activities which are in the forms of actual
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Large-scale transgressive coastal dune behaviour in Europe during the Little Ice Age

Large-scale transgressive coastal dune behaviour in Europe during the Little Ice Age

). On the other hand, ‘relative’ blocking atmospheric conditions were also suggested by Costas et al. (2016) to explain the occurrence of windy events asso- ciated to the impact of storms across western Europe coasts in a context of relative cooling (Arctic amplification) over northernmost Atlantic. This pattern slightly contrasts with the persistent, blocked atmospheric conditions proposed by Moreno-Chamarro et al. (2017b), which implies the blocking of zonal circulation and thus might prevent the impact of westerlies across the western European coasts. In fact, considering present day reanalysis data, Trigo et al. (2004) concluded that during blocking episodes there is a lack of cyclones travelling over the north- eastern Atlantic and Northern Europe. Most cyclones tend to move ei- ther along the western margin of the blocking pattern (between Greenland and the Arctic Sea) or through a southeasterly trajectory (between the Iberian Peninsula and the Caspian Sea). This pattern would explain the increase in storms in Greenland and the Iberian Pe- ninsula, however, it remains unclear if this pattern could explain the suggested apparent simultaneous impact of storms across western European coasts during LIA (Costas et al., 2012; Costas et al., 2016).
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Little Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuations

Little Ice Age climate reconstruction from ensemble reanalysis of Alpine glacier fluctuations

Figure 1 shows the remarkable result that one single ELA history (Fig. 3) causes long-term GLCs of seven Alpine glaciers with very different geometries that mostly agree with the documented record. This result justifies a posteriori the important assumption that all GLCs are caused by the same ELA history. This assumption is also supported by studies of glacier mass balance variability (Vincent et al., 2004; Huss et al., 2009). Even if all glaciers are in the same mountain range and within 130 km of each other, local climate, and es- pecially precipitation, vary on short spatial scales, while their variability is similar (e.g., Frei and Schär, 1998; Casty et al., 2005). Long-term instrumental records show that variations in temperature are closely linked over the Alps (e.g., Casty et al., 2005; Auer et al., 2007).
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White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

White and gray solidification of the Fe-C eutectic

The research indicated that total number of nucleation was given by N A ( T ) n where T is the undercooling with respect to the equilibrium temperature of the phase transformation, A and n are constants reflecting the inoculation treatment. The nucleation rate is expressed as eq. (6), and the number of nuclei appearing in liquid from calculation time t to t+dt can be calculated by considering the available liquid volume of nucleation with eq. (7):

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Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

Contribution To The Study Of Reproduction Parameters Of The European Conger Eel Conger Conger Linnaeus 1758 From The Western Algerian Coasts Oran Bay Algeria

The females G.S.I. presents two peak, the first in early winter, in January 2012, (1.15 % ± 0.66 %) and the second in the late winter, in March 2011, (1.45 % ± 0.83 %), and reached the lowest value in autumn. However, the higher values of males G.S.I. were observed in winter, in February 2012 (1.77 % ± 0.52 %), and in spring in March 2011( 1.72 % ± 1.4 %) and April 2011 ( 1.86 % ± 0.88 %) and reached the lowest value in autumn and summer. Similar findings have been reported by Hood and al., (1988) and Sullivan et al., (2003) on Conger. oceanicus and C.conger, respectively. Nevertheless, Correia et al., (2009), showed that the G. S. I. was lowest in autumn and high during winter and spring seasons. This was probably due to mobilization of somatic energy for the development of ovaries. The decline of G.S.I. from April to December 2011in female and from May 2011 to January 2012 in male may be due to the migration of the broodstock. Indeed, the reproduction is carried out in deep water, south-east of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. A spawning ground exists in the Sardinia channel at depths between 600 and, at least, 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Cau and Manconi, 1983). The females H.S.I. showed two pairs of peak, first in winter, in January 2012 (1.89 % ± 0.36 %) and March 2011 (1.80 % ± 0.51 %), and the second in summer, in July 2011 (1.75 % ± 0.78 %) and September 2011 (1.84 % ± 0.66 %). The summer peaks coincided with hepatic fats deposits due to intense feeding activity, probably because of the abundant food, useful for fish gonad maturation (Abi-Ayad et al., 2011). The peaks measured in January and March was correlated with the dynamic of G. S. I. these can be explained either by the action of liver (precursor synthesis products involved in
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Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Managament quality of tools in the planned housing casting

Subbotko, Methods of distribution of tool at units based on TM software of Guhring, Production Engineering Wroc ł aw University of Technology,(2006) 273- 280 (in Polish).. Bocheński, C[r]

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An extreme event between the Little Ice Age and the 20th century: the snow avalanche cycle of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

An extreme event between the Little Ice Age and the 20th century: the snow avalanche cycle of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain)

ABSTRACT. Between the late LIA cold stage and the early 20th century warmer scenario, a transitional regime characterized by an unstable climatic pattern generated a series of climate extremes affecting mid- latitude mountainous areas, as the Asturian Massif. There, the 1888 snow avalanche cycle appears as the most significant event, standing out among the rest of avalanche cycles recorded in this area during the 1800-2015 period both in terms of the number of damaging avalanches and damages caused by them. Among the factors that explain this event stands out the orographic precipitation phenomenon; the interaction of a cold and wet air mass originating from the North Atlantic with the relief of the Massif, which led to extraordinary snow thicknesses (>2 m) at very low altitudes (500 m a.s.l.), especially in the north-facing, Asturian versant of the Cantabrian Mountains. This allowed the triggering of avalanches in slopes gentler and in lower altitudes than usual, covering longer distances; consequently, avalanches reached more easily the settlements, generally placed at the bottom of the valley or in middle slope positions. The greater impact on the settlements, which suffered 84% of the damages, was the cause of this episode’s high socioeconomic impact (29 people dead, 34 injured, 123 heads of cattle dead, 124 buildings destroyed). These events occurred at a time when the mountain villages were highly populated and subjected to intense exploitation, coinciding with the development of new communication infrastructures in the upper parts of the Massif. Therefore, the 1888 episode constitutes a good example of both the impact of hydrometeorological events in mountain environments under high demographic pressure, and of climate extremes involved in a transition period from cold to warmer weather conditions.
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Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

Joint Analysis of the Discount Factor and Payoff Parameters in Dynamic Discrete Choice Games

We provide a Monte Carlo study to analyze some basic statistical properties of our proposed estimators. We then use the dataset from Ryan (2012) to estimate a dynamic game played between …rms in the US Portland cement industry. In our version of the game, …rms choose whether to enter the market as well as decide on the capacity level of operation (…ve di¤erent levels). We assume …rms compete in a capacity constrained Cournot game, so the period pro…t can be estimated directly from the data as done in Ryan. The remaining part of the payo¤ consists of …xed operating costs and 25 switching cost parameters. Other dynamic parameters we estimate include the discount factor and …xed operating cost. We estimate the model twice. Once using the data from before 1990, and once after 1990, which coincides with the date of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Our switching costs estimates generally appear sensible, having correct signs and relative magnitudes. They show that …rms entering the market with a higher capacity level incur larger costs, and suggest that increasing capacity level is generally costly while a reduction can return some revenue. We also …nd that operating and entry costs are generally higher after the 1990 CAAA, which supports Ryan’s key …nding. We are also able to estimate the discount factor with reasonable precision.
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