Immune therapies used to treat MS may also a have a role as evidence for a migraine-inducing role of interferon beta exists , however, immune therapies could only ever provide a small part ofthe complete explanation due to the fact that migraine often precedes MS. Interferon beta treatment is also thought to worsen pre-existing migraine, suggesting it may not be implicated in the aetiology ofthemigraine itself . Notably, evidence suggests that the other disease modifying therapies glatiramer acetate and natalizumab do not appear to worsen migraine, and indeed some patients may want to take this into consideration as switching from interferon beta may help reduce both frequency and severity ofmigraine [26–27]. Furthermore, stress and anxiety, which often accompany MS, are thought to be very likely causes of increased migraine frequency and chronification . One further suggestion is that instead of one condition causing the other, both conditions have a common pathway in their underlying cause.
Articles that described assessment characteristics and sample storage did this according to instructions provided by manufacturers ofthe respective commercial kits. Nevertheless, many studies did not clarify the duration of storage and did not use sample randomization, which made comparison of results among the studies and validity of processing more difficult and increased the bias risk. Similarly, the choice of an accurate and systematic recruitment in case control studies needed to be obtained in the light of data of healthy individuals and patients without MS, who presented for an investigated condition, such as depression. Furthermore, results in some articles were just described as higher or lower, without ever showing mean val- ues found in each group.
12. Ribeiro LL, Paula KMP, Behlau M. Qualidade de Vida em Voz na População Pediátrica: validação da versão brasileira do Protocolo Qualidade de Vida em Voz Pediátrico. CoDAS. 2014;26(1):87-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s2317-17822014000100013. PMid:24714864. 13. Ricarte A, Oliveira G, Behlau M. Validation ofthe voice activity and participation profile protocol in Brazil. CoDAS. 2013;25(3):242-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2317-17822013000300009. PMid:24408335. 14. Moreti F, Rocha C, Borrego MCM, Behlau M. Desvantagem vocal no canto: análise do protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno - IDCM. Rev Soc Bras Fonoaudiol. 2011;16(2):146-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-80342011000200007.
Purpose: To determine the relationships between auditory-perceptual and self-assessment measures in patients with multiplesclerosis with and without vocal complaints. Methods: Eighteen subjects diagnosed with multiplesclerosis, including 12 women and 6 men aged between 21 to 67 years, participated in the study. A brief anamnesis, the Voice Symptom Scale andthe Living with Dysarthria questionnaire were completed, followed by recording ofthe sustained /ԑ/ vowel. The overall severity of vocal deviation andthe degrees of roughness, breathiness, strain and instability were assessed by three speech therapists using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Results: Patients with multiplesclerosisand vocal complaints had higher Total (p= 0.026) and Limitation (p= 0.042) scores on the Voice Symptom Scale and on sections one (p= 0.041), four (p= 0.030) and ten (p= 0.050) ofthe Living with Dysarthria questionnaire. Strong positive correlations were found betweenthe Total and Limitation scores ofthe Voice Symptom Scale andthe scores of sections one, four and nine ofthe Living with Dysarthria questionnaire. Conclusion: Patients with multiplesclerosisand vocal complaints have higher frequencies of symptom occurrence and emotional and speech effects. No relationship was found between auditory-perceptual and self-assessment measures in patients with multiplesclerosis. However, the scores on the two self-assessment instruments used are strongly correlated.
The Serra do Mar is a Brazilian mountain range with an average extension of 2,000.0 km, from the Rio de Janeiro state to Santa Catarina state. The area is characterized by a strongly undulated relief and considerable number of natural and arti(icial slopes (Victorino et al., 2017). Moreover, BR-376 Highway is an important traf(ic route for Brazilian products and passenger transports. This region has great economical and strategical importance, since it connects the exporting and importing port area andthe most industrialized and populated regions of Brazil. Therefore, the area is intensely transposed by highways, railways and oil pipelines (HASUI et al., 2012). It is important to highlight that, due to the region relief, the highways presented in the Serra do Mar have highly curved sections, which are considered as dangerous passages.
Starting from the research activities developed within a project titled The Knowledge-Based Society – Research, Debates, Perspectives, the two editors, Daniel Şandru and Sorin Bocancea, gathered within the pages of this book the contributions of a series of specialists from various fields who are concerned with themultiple dimensions oftherelationshipbetween mass-media andthe Romanian political regime from the past 20 years. This interdisciplinary venture, characterised
Systematic search of MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases yielded 60 and 57 results respectively. Subsequent search in the CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials retrieved no additional RCTs. After removing duplicates, the titles and abstracts from the remaining 75 studies were screened and 17 potentially eligible studies for themeta-analysis were retained. After retriev- ing the full-text version ofthe aforementioned 17 studies, 4 studies were excluded because they did not include a placebo subgroup and 2 studies because they were not RCT (cohort studies), 6 studies because they reported the brain volume changes in median values and 1 study because it did not report the SDs or other measures of dispersion (Table A in S1 File). In the final presentation ofthe literature search results, there was no conflict or disagreement betweenthe 2 reviewers andthe 4 studies that met the study protocol’s inclusion criteria (IMPROVE , FREEDOMS , E/C GASG , MSCRG ) were included both in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis (Fig. 1). The characteristics ofthe included studies, com- prising 1819 patients (71% women, mean age: 36.5 years, mean baseline EDSS score: 2.4) are summarized in Table 1.
IgG responses to some, but not all, merozoite surface antigens were associated with protection against symptomatic P. falciparum in malaria endemic areas. We identified very few antigens that had been well studied and a deficiency of studies done outside Africa. More studies in different populations, examining multiple antigens at multiple time-points, are needed to better determine the role of anti-merozoite antibodies in protection against malaria, with prospective cohort studies as the preferred study design to establish temporal causality. In the future, there should be as much uniformity between studies as possible to ensure maximum comparability. This could be improved by the quantification and standardization of IgG responses, which could be achieved by establishing a reference reagent for determining antibody concentrations. Furthermore, the protective effects of anti- merozoite responses observed epidemiologically must also be supported by evidence ofthe function ofthe antibodies. Development and application of functional assays rather than standard immunoassays would also be highly valuable. Presently, data on the function of antibodies against merozoite antigens is very limited [8,12,15,72]. Lastly, there is a need to incorporate strain-specific responses and endpoints to address whether protective responses against particular antigens are strain-tran- scending or strain-specific.
Abstract: This research is justified by the need to broaden the theory about consumer behavior in tourism andthe importance of improving commercial practices. The main objective of this study is to analyze the relation- ship betweenthe search for happiness in the tourist experience andthe desire for local hospitality, mediated by the congruence betweenthe tourist's self-image andthe destination image. A survey yielded 221 completed questionnaires. We took a quantitative approach to data analysis using multiple linear regression technique, andthe results indicate a significant and positive relationshipbetweenthe search for happiness in the tourist experience andthe desire for local hospitality, mediated by the congruence of tourists self-image (how they see themselves) and tourist destination image. The originality of this study is to identify the self-image ofthe tour- ist and tourist destination as factors mediating the perception of local hospitality.
Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the stability ofthe results. After excluding the study deviating from HWE, statistically significant associations were observed for Asians under all the genetic models (A VS.G: OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.07–2.53, P = 0.02; AA vs. GG: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.31–2.80,P = 0.0008; AG vs. GG: OR1.44, 95% CI 1.09–1.91,P = 0.01 AA+AG vs. GG: OR1.54, 95% CI 1.18–2.01,P = 0.001,AA VS. AG+GG: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–3.00, P = 0.03, whereas the corresponding pooled ORs of total available studies which meant overall analysis for all ethnicities were not materially altered (data not shown), except in recessive model(AA VS. AG+GG OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04–2.42, P = 0.03). However, after Bonferronic correction for multiple testing, the associations revealed still significantly in Asian subgroup under homozygote and dominant models (AA vs. GG: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.31–2.80, P = 0.0008; AA+AG vs. GG: OR1.54, P = 0.001). The results indicated that the homozygote AA and A allele carriers (AA+AG) had nearly a 91% and 54% increased risk of IS respectively, when compared with the homozygote GG in Asians. In particular, removing the study which was deviated from HWE eliminated the heterogeneity in subgroup analysisof Asians in homozygote, heterozygote, and dominant models, but not in the allele and recessive models andthe pooling analysis (The results were shown in Table 3 and Figure 3.).Moreover, omitting the other 6 eligible studies one by one, the corresponding pooled ORs in overall comparisons and subgroup analysis were not significantly changed andthe significant heterogeneity between studies still existed (data not shown).
We used the generic inverse variance with random effects model in Reference Manager 5.0 to calculate the overall RR, 95% CI and test statistic for the interaction and heterogeneity of studies. RRs were subsequently calculated for subgroups of studies and compared between case-control and cohort studies, and studies using definite MS diagnostic criteria and those using definite/ probable MS. We extracted latitude from papers based on either the latitude ofthe study centre if performed in a distinct region or the geographical midpoint ofthe country if a national study. We tested for an interaction between latitude and sex-ratio by both a comparison of RRs based on the median value for each factor and also performed linear weighted fit on the natural log of RRs in Mathematica 126.96.36.199.
Objective: To analyse therelationshipbetweenthe social support network (SSN) and health related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiplesclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: The sample comprised 150 consecutive MS patients attending our MS clinic. To assess the socio-demographic data, a specifically designed questionnaire was applied. The HRQOL dimensions were measured with the Short-Form Health Survey Questionnaire-SF36 andthe SSN with the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Spearman’s correlation was used to compare the magnitude oftherelationshipbetweenthe SSN and HRQOL. Results: The mean patient age was 41.7 years (± 10.4; range: 18–70 yr); the mean Expanded Disability Status Score was 2.5 (±2.4; range: 0–9). There was a statistically significant correlation betweenthe structure ofthe SSN andthe HRQOL. Conclusion: The composition ofthe SSN, social group membership and participation in voluntary work have an important role in the HRQOL of patients with MS.
To the commercial website, telepresence is the equivalent of general and internal variables. According to Sheridan (1992), Steuer (1995), Biocca (1997), Lombard and Ditton (1997) and Shith (1998), the telepresence concept is used to describe the gratifying sense to be present in a mediated environment which appears as it naturally was. Hoffman and Novak (1996), Novak, Hoffman and Yung (1999) assert that telepresence is the perception that the virtual environment, with which the user is in interaction, is more real and dominant than the physical environment. Volle (2000), as for him, highlights that the principle challenges landed by the virtual atmosphere consist to maintain a high attention and a fluidity sensation that captures the visitor. Thus, a site with captivating content is the one that allows visitors to live a telepresence experience. During this research, we consider the steuer (1992)’s conceptualization of telepresence envisioning this later as “The extent to which one feels present in the mediated environment rather than in the immediate physical environment”. In other words, telepresence refers to the mediated perception of an environment that can be a spatially distant, real environment, or a virtual world.
than they produce, which means over the real incomes obtained through social work. Văduva, . We are talking about New Zeeland. Most countries present important sovereign debts , an increasing deficit between incomes and expenses, practical risks of making new loans that bring them close to the insolvency area or to bankruptcy The European Commission, . Such a process is explained by the confusion betweenthe exigencies of social economy – based on work – andthe passive social protection policies, which ignore or place labor between brackets . )nstead ofthe minimum guaranteed salary, some irrational social policies have promoted the minimum guaranteed income, independent from the work resources ofthe beneficiaries, poverty is perceived as a state characterizing the majority Vîrjan , p. . Successes, but also limits recorded in the labor market today are similar to those defining the reform ofthe Romanian economy as a whole Aceleanu and Cretu , p. , marked by a public‐private partnership are organizationally weak and frail, the tensions between labor market structures and mechanisms that interfere with legislative‐institutional tensions.
The authors individually searched for records using PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar. The terms “multiplesclerosis” OR “MS” AND “pregnancy” OR “gestation” OR “partum” OR “post-partum” OR “puerperium” AND “immunoglobulin” were used in the search. References from selected papers were also searched for further papers of potential interest. Once eligible for full- text appraisal, articles were included in the qualitative review if they complied with the following inclusion criteria: a) con- tained data on immunoglobulin treatment and postpartum MS relapse; b) published after 1983, when Poser’s criteria for MS were established 4 ; c) was a case series, observational or
Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears ofthe unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
6. Park YS, Jeon YJ, Kim HS, Chae KY, Oh SH, Han IB, et al. The role of VEGF and KDR polymorphisms in moyamoya disease and collateral revascularization. PloS one. 2012; 7(10):e47158. Epub 2012/10/ 19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047158 PMID: 23077562; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc3470587. 7. Li B, Ogasawara AK, Yang R, Wei W, He GW, Zioncheck TF, et al. KDR (VEGF receptor 2) is the major mediator for the hypotensive effect of VEGF. Hypertension. 2002; 39(6):1095–100. PMID: 12052848. 8. Koch S, Claesson-Welsh L. Signal transduction by vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012; 2(7):a006502. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006502 PMID: 22762016; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3385940.
Although large steps forward continue regarding the management of MS, the subject of this Editorial stops here: in 2015, natalizumab is one ofthe most efective drugs for treating MS. It has to be prescribed, monitored and managed by those who have experience and aware- ness of its beneits and risks. In the right hands, for selected patients, natalizumab ofers an ex- cellent option for treating MS. his is what is shown in the paper from Oliveira et al. 8 published
Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon . High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating ofthe alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
According to Ohanian (1991) the higher the perceived credibility of an endorser, the more effective the advertising tends to be. Ohanian (1991) developed a list of 139 adjectives related to source credibility, which was believed to measure celebrity endorsers’ perceived credibility. Later on, those adjectives are reduced to a more manageable list of 15 manifest variables, five for each construct: Expertise, Trustworthiness and Attractiveness. The resulting scales were submitted to a confirmatory factor analysis as well as several validity tests, from which was obtained a valid and reliable instrument. Each of these constructs has descriptive pairs to measure these variables on a 7-point bi-polar adjective scale. The descriptive pairs that measure Trustworthiness are: dependable/undependable, dishonest/honest, unreliable/reliable, insincere/sincere, and trustworthy/untrustworthy. The descriptive pairs for measuring expertise include: expert/not-expert, inexperienced / experienced, unknowledgeable/knowledgeable,