Food spoilage is an actual economic problem worldwide. Approximately one- fourth of the world’s food supply is lost through microbial activity alone (Huis in’t Veld, 1998). This is linked to properties of the several components used in productionofconfectionary as milk, flour and sugar. Milk is a highly nutritious food that serves as an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms (Ruegg, 2003; Rajagopal, 2005). The microbiological quality of milk and dairy products is influenced by the initial flora ofraw milk, the processing conditions, and post-heat treatment contamination (Richter et al., 1992). Undesirable microbes that can cause spoilage of dairy products include Gram-negative psychrotrophs, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In addition, various bacteria of public health concern such as Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus may also be found in milk and dairy products. For this reason, increased emphasis should be placed on the microbiological examination of milk and dairy foods. Microbiological analyses are critical for the assessment of quality and safety, conformation with standards and specifications, and regulatory compliance (Vasavada, 1993).
Regarding R. erythropolis DCL14, using the culture supernatant no biosurfactant activity could be observed. On the other hand, using the culture broth it was possible to visualize a small emulsion and slight oil spreading, suggesting that biosurfactant production can be associated to the cell membrane. This strain promoted only a small decrease in the surface tension of the medium containing hydrophilic substrates. Gogotov and Khodakov  showed that a R. erythropolis strain, grown in different hydrophilic substrates, presented values of emulsification index and surface tension ranging from 60 to 61 mN/m, and 75 to 85%, respectively. The surface tension value obtained can be related with the sample type used, culture broth, that may interfere with the measure of the surface tension, giving negative false results (indicating incorrectly the biosurfactant absence in the sample). A further extraction and purification procedure to obtain a purer biosurfactant could lead to better surface activity parameters.
Machining is one of the most important manufacturing processes used worldwide in the mechanical industry, and in order to optimize productivity, cutting fluids can be used in the process. Vegetable based fluids present low toxicity as well as good biode- gradability and environmental sustainability; however, they also have low oxidative stability. Esters which are obtained from different vegetable oils, maintain the qualities mentioned and provide the required stability. This study presents a production and characterization of the rawmaterials, methyl esters and epoxidized methyl esters, as well as mainly the comparative evaluation of the cutting fluid formed by these esters with commercial fluids derived from minerals. The emulsions were evaluated regarding the mechanical properties resulting from their use in the process, registration of the temperature obtained during machining, the rough surface the dimensional deviation of the final product and also the evaluation of surface oxidation occurred on the pieces in the medium term. Emulsions containing 5% of esters (methyl and epoxidized meth- yl) seemed to be the best option, presenting less oxidation of machined pieces, lower working temperature during the process and better surface completion, demonstrating the best performance over the tested fluids.
Treated effluent and sewage sludge are by-products from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Sewage sludge can be regarded as a secondary resource of critical rawmaterials, e.g., due to its high P content, when compared with effluent. However, treated effluent have also shown feasible reuses in building products  and irrigation purposes , making electrodialytic treatment also attractive. Sewage sludge can be applied in soil fertilization/remediation if a pre-treatment promotes a product with high quality standards. Moreover, sewage sludge can be used as an energy resource for power and heat by conventional/emerging technologies through the use of biogas and biofuels. The reuse of sewage sludge can, therefore, be economically appealing and sustainable, preventing its disposal as waste in landfills .
The microbiologyof Brazilian tropical soils is largely unknown, offering excellent unexplored habitats for bioprospecting new species and enzymes belonging to this very promising group (Grigorevski-Lima et al., 2005; De Azeredo et al., 2006;, Nascimento et al., 2009; Da Vinha et al., 2011; Franco-Cirigliano et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2015). Studies dealing with cellulase production by actinobacterias using low-cost residues are scarce in literature. The costs of cellulase production account for more than 40% of the total processing cost in biotechnological process (Deswal et al., 2011; Bansal et al., 2012) and our laboratory team has developed studies using low-cost rawmaterials as primary source. Our team has already isolated cellulolytic actinobacteria strains from Brazilian tropical soil and has obtained promising results (Nascimento et al., 2009; Da Vinha et al., 2011; Franco-Cirigliano et al., 2013). In the present paper we investigate endoglucanase production by Streptomyces diastaticus PA-01 using low-cost rawmaterials, such as milled sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and oat bran (OB) as carbon sources and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source by experimental design (CCRD). The biochemical characteristics of the crude enzymatic extract were also evaluated.
Adding sugar to the must looking to improve the alcohol content is common in many wineries. However, this process results in less full-bodied wines, with formation of crystals, besides increasing production costs. MENCARELLI et al. (2009), when studying the partial dehydration of grapes, found that the technique, both in low and in high temperature, allows for an increase in the concentration of sugar and other chemical compounds in the berry. The results obtained by BELLINCONTRO et al. (2004) and CONSTANTINI et al. (2006) ensure that this procedure can enable cost reduction with the addition of sugar in the must. However, partial dehydration of grapes is still a procedure rarely used in Brazil, being commonly seen in traditionally wine producing countries (CURVELO-GARCIA, 2005). However, the methodology practiced in these countries does not have any technique or tool that allows the control of environmental conditions and ensures the asepsis of the product.
The fungal strain used in present investigation was isolated from the tannery effluent using the routine mycological procedures and screened for tannase enzyme production using tannase screening medium comprising 0.5% tannic acid as the substrate through enrichment technique. The isolated fungal strain was identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM. The fungus has been identified by Prof. Ashok Aggarwal, Mycologist, Department of Botany on the basis of morphological characteristics. Furthermore, to confirm the identity of the isolate, the genetic characterization was performed with ITS4 and ITS5 primers that specifically identify Penicillium by amplifying 600-bp fragment (26). The genus-level and the species-specific specificity of the fungal strain were tested using primer sets ITS4 and ITS5 and PgrisF1-1, PatraR1. A product of approx. 685 bp was amplified by PCR from the tested fungal strain. The qualitative assay of tannase enzyme activity was carried out by culturing the microorganism on the Czapeck’s Dox agar plates containing tannic acid (0.3% w/v). The clear hydrolyzing zone around the colonies indicated the tannase activity. The fungal culture was maintained on Czapeck Dox agar slants at 4°C. For preparation of inoculum, 10 ml of sterilized distilled water supplemented with 0.1% Tween-80 was added to 1-week old fully sporulated agar slant culture.
Large volumes of waste materials are produced by crushing of basaltic rocks for aggregate production, which is widely used in regions that lack rocks of granitic or gneissic composition. Two types of waste materials are produced (a) quarry ines, which are in part used as ine aggregates in concrete and (b) vesicular basalt, a porous variety of basalt that is useless as aggregate. This paper presents a procedure to use basaltic mine-tailings as raw-mixtures for Portland cement by adjusting the proportion of the other raw- materials (limestone, clay, iron ore). It is demonstrated that there is no need for additional luxes to the basalt-bearing raw-mixtures, since the setting of the chemical parameters is enough to guarantee clinker formation. Two series of experimental clinkers were synthesized with raw-mixtures containing residues from a basalt quarry that produces aggregates for concrete. Experimental clinkers were produced from raw-mixtures with similar lime saturation factors, silica and alumina modules, which were set by adjusting the proportions of limestone, clay and iron ore to the varying proportions of basaltic materials added to them. One series of clinkers was made with basalt quarry ines, which are in part used as ine aggregate, but also accumulate as mine-tailings. Other series was made using vesicular (porous) basalt, a variety not resistant enough to be used as aggregate. It is demonstrated that the basaltic composition is fully compatible with clinker production, and no addition of luxes or other additions is required. Composition of the raw-mixtures was checked by chemical analysis. Quantitative phase analysis of the clinkers was made by optical microscopy point counting, together with qualitative X-ray diffraction. All mixtures produced clinkers with acceptable proportions of major and minor crystalline phases, inside the range of common industrial Portland clinkers.
The wood panel dimensions increase by absorbing water, a phenomenon known as swelling. Such dimensional variations are related to many factors, as the quality ofraw material, adhesive type and additive content. The volume increases (wood swelling), occur mainly due the inclusion of water molecules in submicroscopic spaces located between the microfibrils. On the other hand, the volume reduction is explained by the water molecules output, causing the approximation of the micelles and the wood retraction (MELO et al., 2013). The particleboard panels composite of various shape and sizes of wood particles bonded with a synthetic adhesive and consolidated under pressure and heat (FREIRE et al., 2011). It is one of the most consumed panels in the world, mainly used in furniture manufacturing. However, the particleboard panel has a low dimensional stability due to the material compression requirement in the production process, which implies the incorporation and maintenance of a high stress levels after panel consolidation. Thus, when the panels are in contact with water, these compressive stresses are released, causing thickness swelling. Thus, it is required an improvement and development of new techniques to minimize these effects.
Today in modern construction new technologies and materi- als are used for the manufacture of pipelines for water supply and sanitation. They are supposed to operate for at least 50 years. Unlike plastic pipes, fiberglass ones may be made of larger sizes — up to 3700 mm in diameter. They are produced using the technology of optical fiber winding, which is carried out according to modern in- ternational standards of quality. The basic rawmaterials — fiber- glass and resin — are produced in Russia, but their production is limited, so they are purchased abroad, which increases the cost of manufacture of this type of piping. However, due to the necessity of laying pipelines of large diameter, which cannot be made with plas- tic pipes, the manufacture of GRP pipes will increase. The experi- ence of laying and constructing this type of pipelines, for example, in the areas of hot water supply allows concluding that they are able to withstand the temperaturОs ШП up tШ 150 °C, аСТlО tСОТr аОТРСt Тs four times less than the weight of steel pipes (they are easily in- stalled with the help of small lifting equipment and by a team of six people). It should be noted that the use of fiberglass pipes helps to reduce the costs of system operation, because this type of piping is not subject to corrosion and encrustation of the inner surface, since it has a low level of roughness, which, for example, is 0.013 for a steel pipe, and 0.01 for fiberglass pipe. Thus, it is not necessary to put protective corrosion-resistant coatings and to provide an expen- sive protection against electrochemical corrosion. Piping made of fiberglass pipes can be designed as underground, above-ground with stacking or raised on poles. It is possible to combine these options.
ABSTRACT: Considering the water scarcity problems facing many countries, the need for water reuse can make activated carbon (AC) an essential product for modern society. In this context, to contribute with better activated carbons that could be used to serve in water treatment, this article discusses these materialsproduction, using bamboo as raw material, and analyses their application effectiveness. The bamboo was collected, transformed into activated carbon, by simultaneous chemical and physical activations, and named H 3 PO 4 / H 2 OAC. The obtained material was characterized by its yield, apparent density, ash content, thermogravimetric analysis, surface area, methylene blue and iodine indexes, pH and point of zero charge analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Boehm titration method. The AC was used as adsorbent for removing the metribuzin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and furadan pesticides. The H 3 PO 4 /H 2 OAC had a surface area of 1196.30 m².g -1 and the obtained
Therefore, this project aims to explore plant materials originating from agriculture, agro- industrial, gardening and forestry activities, that otherwise would be worthless residues, as rawmaterials to produce added-value products intended to be used as flocculants in water treatment. Plant materialsof choice come from local activity such as pine needles, carob seed husks, almond shells, branches and leaves of banana tree and coffee grounds. For example, about 100 metric tons per hectare of banana by-products are produced annually in the world and widely available in large amounts throughout the year (Chen et al. 2017) and the composition of extracted cellulose by 2% NaOH were 33.86 ± 1.53 % (Zhang et al. 2013). Besides cellulose, these materials comprise hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin and, eventually, tannins. Processing the plant material in order to obtain wood pulp, cellulose nanofibrils or extracts leads to either leaching or loss of some of these components, which have been recognized to have flocculant (tannins) and cell adhesion (pectin and hemicelluloses) properties.
Tests performed using only granite waste showed that a maximum amount of 66% of this residue may be used in substitution to traditional rawmaterials during the manufacture of rock wool. The use of higher amounts of granite waste increases the viscosity, which causes dificulties in the quenching process. The high content of silica and alumina present in the granite waste establishes this material as a potential substituent for the glass formers in rock wool production. Steelmaking slag may assume up to 53% ofrawmaterials in rock wool production, mainly substituting the calcium carbonate and iron oxide. Batches with only steelmaking slag presented the higher luidity and lower melting temperature. The use of steelmaking slag combined with granite waste as rawmaterials for rock wool production proved to be eficient, and provides a substitution rate up to around 70% of the total mixture, with a 1:2 slag/granite waste weight ratio. Thermal analysis also showed that steelmaking slag and granite waste may be used as partial substitutes ofrawmaterials in rock wool production, since the addition of such wastes does not affect the overall quality of the material produced in terms of thermal insulation and prevention of ire spread.
The yield of ethyl alcohol produced as a result of sugar beet pulp fermentation reached the highest value of 87.5% in relation to the theoretical yield for a medium with a density of 10°Blg both for Ethanol Red and Fermiol (Table 2). In case of fermentation media, where thick juice was used, the highest yield of approx. 85% in relation to the theoretical yield was also obtained for a density of 10°Blg. At the same time it was found that the type of the applied preparation did not have a significant effect (p 0.05) on recorded yield of ethanol (Table 3). However, the application of thick juice as a sub- strate for the productionof ethanol showed a significant reduction (p 0.05) of percen- tage theoretical yield of alcohol with an increase in the concentration of sugar (mash density of 16-20°Blg) in the medium for both applied preparations (Table 3).
In the last decade, there has been an increase in the utilization of bioactive compounds derived from plant as a substitute for the synthetic molecules used in the food and pharmaceutical as a guard of gastrointestinal health. Consumer awareness on healthy food, alternative pharmaceuticals and prohibitions of the use of antibiotics as growth promoter in the feed of poultry and livestock, phobia against excessive antibiotics and increase of the drug cost are some of the drivers of the research on the bioactive compound derived from plant having potency in guarding the intestinal health called probiotics (Samanta, et al., 2013). Prebiotics are a selected fermentation composition that produces a particular change in the composition and/or activity of gastrointestinal tract microbiota which leads to the health benefits for the host (Roberfroid et al., 2010). Some of the indigestible food materials appear as the candidates of prebiotics including galactans, fructan, XOS and b-glucan or arabinoxylan and can be produced from lignocellulose biomass which is abundant and renewable (Cummings et al., 2001; Mei et al., 2011,Samanta, et al., 2012; Achary et al., 2011; Saha 2003). XOS from corn stover and garlic straw have been reported having prebiotics effects by inducing the productionof lactate, formate, and SCFA (acetate, propionate
The nutritional composition of the produced chestnut flours is given in Table 1. The total solid content values pointed out that RCF (92.87 ± 0.06%) had a significant lower level (P < 0.05), followed by CCF30 (93.05 ± 0.15) and CCF10 (93.58 ± 0.13%). The highest value was found for CCF50 (99.52 ± 0.11%), which could be attributed to the higher cooking time of this flour. A similar trend was reported by Wani et al. , where a slighter decrease of the moisture content was observed from native to roasted chestnuts flours (from 10.1 to 9.8%). The higher mois- ture decrease observed in this work, could be tentatively attributed to the fact that all the cooked by-products were reduced to a purée, in higher or smaller extent, thus com- prising smaller size particles, which would facilitate the drying process and increase the water level removal. On the other hand, Ahmed and Al-Attar  also reported low moisture percentages of dried chestnuts flours (freeze or tray dried), ranging from 1.4 to 3.4%. Although the chestnut flour composition is not yet regulated, the maxi- mum allowed moisture content for wheat, maize or rice flours is 14.5% , which means a minimum of 85.5% of total solid content. Therefore, the chestnut flours obtained would fulfil this legal requirement. Furthermore, the total solids content of the produced flours was higher com- pared to those determined for two commercial chestnut flours (88.87% and 90.56%), showing that the proposed valorisation of chestnut by-products may be technically feasible. Moreover, the total solids content of all produced
The lipid values observed in this study were higher in the fish-based condiment patties than in those without this ingredient; however, no fat sources were used in both types of patties, except for the fat content in the MSM. Thus, it is possible to affirm that the lipid content in the patties come from the pre-frying step because evaporation of water occurs during this procedure being replaced by vegetal oil. The lipid value in the pressed MSM was low, and no fat was added in the formulation (Table 1). However, the pick-up levels and fat retention values were 2.86% in F1 and 2.64% in F2 in the patties.
The Casal Barril site was discovered in March 2006 during the archaeological supervision of the construction of the A21 motorway (Malveira – Mafra – Ericeira). Archaeolo- gical excavations took place between the 4th and 20th May of that same year. ‘Mine-type’ or ‘fl int workshop’ sites are often discovered during large infrastructure projects, such as the making of motorways. Indeed, the great majori- ty of Neolithic mines known to date were discovered du- ring such projects. For example, the Casa Montero site in Spain was identifi ed during the construction of the M50 motorway (Consuegra et al., 2004), and the Neolithic mine of Ri in northwestern France was discovered during the course of work on the A88 motorway. On a more regional level, the only primary context known for the extraction of fl int, the Campolide site in Lisbon, was identifi ed during the construction of a railway in 1888 (Choffat 1907). The archaeological work carried out at Casal Barril has supplied a large body of information concerning the ex- traction, deposition and circulation of fl int in the Portugue- se Estremadura region during the 3rd millennium. Studies in this area are still ongoing. A preliminary inventory of the materials recovered has been made, and a typological and technological study of the assemblage will take place in the near future. No palaeobotanical nor geoarchaeologi-
The third case study refers to a company in the food sector producing and commercializing ice-cream. It participates in the Brazilian market, exports to Argentina and to Uruguay, is part of a transnational group acting in different markets and in different business sectors. The present aim is to increase business profitability, focusing on clients’ satisfaction and on the integration with suppliers. The regional operations integrate a global operations management; the corporate strategy is defined by the controller that detains, besides the macro-economic view of the countries where it acts, all the information on the markets, on the regional processes costs, on activities, on investment opportunities, on the plants logistics, on the legislation in each case, on the productive capacity among other information that drive the global competitive strategy.