Top PDF Microencapsulation of beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Microencapsulation of  beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Microencapsulation of beta-carotene by spray drying effect of wall material concentration and drying inlet temperature

Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Among them, 𝛽-carotene is regarded the most potent precursor of vitamin A. However, it is susceptible to oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light, and heat, which can result in loss of colour, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the microencapsulation process of 𝛽-carotene by spray drying, using arabic gum as wall material, to protect it against adverse environmental conditions. This was carried out using the response surface methodology coupled to a central composite rotatable design, evaluating simultaneously the effect of drying air inlet temperature (110-200 ∘ C) and the wall material concentration (5-35%) on the drying yield, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and antioxidant activity. In addition, morphology and particles size distribution were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy images have shown that the particles were microcapsules with a smooth surface when produced at the higher drying temperatures tested, most of them having a diameter lower than 10 𝜇m. The conditions that enabled obtaining simultaneously arabic gum microparticles with higher 𝛽-carotene content, higher encapsulation efficiency, and higher drying yield were a wall material concentration of 11.9% and a drying inlet temperature of 173 ∘ C. The systematic approach used for the study of 𝛽-carotene microencapsulation process by spray drying using arabic gum may be easily applied for other core and wall materials.
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Study of membrane emulsification process as a pre-step for the microencapsulation of lipid compounds by spray drying

Study of membrane emulsification process as a pre-step for the microencapsulation of lipid compounds by spray drying

Food emulsions play an important role in product development and formulation, as well as to encapsulation of food additives. Conventional methods for emulsion production may present some drawbacks, such as the use of high shear stress, high energy demanding and polydisperse droplet size distribution. In this sense, membrane emulsification emerges as an alternative method to overcome all this issues and to produce fine and stable emulsions. Linseed oil has been widely studied in the last years, due to its nutritional composition, being the richest ω-3 vegetable source and for that reason it was used as the raw material for emulsion production. Premix and direct (cross flow) membrane emulsification were carried out using three different membrane materials: polissulphone, cellulose ester and α-alumina membrane. For premix membrane emulsification (PME) the variables transmembrane pressure, membrane material, surfactant type and membrane mean pore size were evaluated. The membrane mean pore size was the crucial factor to achieve emulsions by PME, once it was not possible to achieve stable emulsion with mean pore sizes lower than 0.8 μm. For direct membrane emulsification, transmembrane pressure, surfactant concentration and cross flow velocity were evaluated by means of a experimental design. The evaluated responses were stability, droplet size and distribution and dispersed phase flux. For all the variables studied, only dispersed phase flux showed to have significant influence of pressure. Comparing both methods of membrane emulsification, premix showed to be more suitable in terms of emulsion production throughput and droplet size correlation with membrane pore size, however, in terms of stability, direct membrane emulsification showed much better results. Encapsulation of linseed oil by spray drying was promoted using the optimum point of the performed experimental design and the droplets size distribution has considerably changed with the addition of the wall material to the emulsion.
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Microencapsulation of a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus with Eudragit® S100 by Spray Drying

Microencapsulation of a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus with Eudragit® S100 by Spray Drying

Microparticles were made with mixture of polymer solution and nucleus by spray drying in a fluidized bed with top spray (Glatt GmbH D – 01277, Germany), using a 1.0 mm nozzle to adjust the air-flow. Inlet temperature was 80ºC, flow speed was 4.12 mL/minute and flap pressure was 25ºC in sprayer system. For this experiment, magnesium silicate was used as nucleus to simulate the viral OBs, considering similar particle size and high cost of virus production. Evaluated factors were chamber pressure, core concentration and polymer concentration in a factorial design with three factors and three levels for a total of 27 treatments (Table 1), each one carried out three times. Response variables were mean diameter of microparticles (d) and process yield. Factor influence was established with Statgraphics 8.1 software (v. 5.1, Manugistics Inc., Rockville, Maryland) by means of a response surface analysis and Pareto diagrams. A mathematical prediction model was generated and optimal process conditions were selected to proceed with virus microencapsulation.
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Spray drying quickly removes water by vaporization from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions enabling high retention of volatiles (Badee et al., 2012 ) and protecting the microencapsulated compounds against reaction with the environment (Madene et al., 2006; Gharsallaoui et al., 2007 ). Microcapsules consist of a core surrounded by a single or a multilayered wall. Microcapsules with essential oil can be added into the shrimp feed as an ingredient or directly onto the pellet. For this purpose, the materials selected to produce the microcapsules need to be food grade and the powder easily adsorbed by the shrimp. Therefore, casein protein was selected as the emulsifying and maltodextrin as the wall material (Ramakrishnan et al., 2013). This mixture has proved to be very effective for the microencapsulation of oil/fats and volatiles (Sheu and Rosenberg, 1998; Ramakrishnan et al., 2013 ). The objectives of this research were i) to characterize the main components of thyme essential oil ii) to evaluate their antibacterial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus. iii) to use spray drying to microcapsule these components and iv) to study their antimicrobial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus.
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Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

Increasing energy efficiency in microencapsulation of soybean oil by spray drying / Aumento da eficiência energética na microencapsulação de óleo de soja por spray drying

As inlet air temperature increases, it causes a larger temperature gradient (ΔT) between the air and the droplets, providing more heat energy to the system (Goula and Adamopoulos, 2008). Thus, ΔT shows a negative correlation with the powder’s moisture, as can be seen in Figure 4. In Fig. 4, we can observe that from 110 to 130 °C, the moisture decreased 23%, and after 130 °C this effect was not significant. The higher ΔT also influences in microparticles’ drying speed. So in higher temperatures the extra heat quickly forms a crust on particle surface that acts as a barrier to water diffusion. As result, in higher temperatures the humidity is not as low as we expected (Ng et al. 2013).
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Spray drying of coffee leaf extract

Spray drying of coffee leaf extract

extract concentration in the solution to be dried was positive for increasing the S, representing an advantage for the process, increasing the productivity by increasing the concentration of product. Furthermore, the quadratic effect of inlet air temperature was negative, contributing to the decrease of the percentage of soluble solids. Higher concentrations of coffee leaf extract in the solution to be dried may have aided in the process, causing an easier release of the powder. With opposite effect, high inlet air temperatures may have caused rigid crusts in powder particles by rapidly removed from the surface, making the output of the nuclei thus damaging the solubility of the material. In spray drying using maltodextrin as carrier of salvia tea (ŞAHIN-NADEEM et al., 2013) and watermelon juice (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007), negative effect was also observed for the inlet air temperature on the percentage of soluble solids. those authors argue that, by increasing temperature, the agglomeration of the particles is reduced, with consequently reduced S. Based on that study, higher inlet air temperatures lead to obtaining a material with higher moisture content by crust formation on the surface of the particle. the formation of the crust and highest moisture content are two factors pointed out by several authors (QuEK; CHoK; SWEDLuND, 2007; toNoN et al., 2009; VARDIN; YASAR, 2012) as responsible for decreased S.
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Microencapsulation of virgin coconut oil by spray drying / Microencapsulação de óleo de coco virgem por spray spray

Microencapsulation of virgin coconut oil by spray drying / Microencapsulação de óleo de coco virgem por spray spray

attributes of the powder could be affected by the spray drying conditions such as the feed flow rate, inlet and outlet temperatures, atomizer speed and inlet air flow rate (Jafari, Assadpoor& Bhandari, 2008), Among those, provided that infeed emulsion is stable over the processing time, it is important to optimize the inlet and outlet temperatures to obtain higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) and encapsulation yield (EY) (Liu, Zhou, Zeng & Ouyang, 2004). Higher inlet temperature, which directly proportional to the drying rate, may destroy heat sensitive components such as unsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids, resulting in low EE. In contrast, if the inlet temperature is too low, the water will not evaporate fully in short time and the spray-dried powder is still wet. Hence, it is easily stuck on the drying chamber wall, resulting in a low EY. In addition, the outlet temperature, which can be considered as the control indicator of the dryer and is controlled by the inlet temperature, atomization pressure and feed flow rate, may result in cracking the microcapsules due to over-heating if it is too high (Liu, et al.,2004; Gharsallaoui, Roudaut, Chambin, Voilley&Saurel, 2007).
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Microencapsulation of pineapple extract by spray drying using maltodextrin, inulin, and arabic gum as wall matrices

Microencapsulation of pineapple extract by spray drying using maltodextrin, inulin, and arabic gum as wall matrices

Abstract: A pineapple peel hydroalcoholic extract rich in phenolic compounds, was stabilized by microencapsulation using spray drying technology, with maltodextrin, inulin, and arabic gum as wall materials. The influence of the type of wall material and drying temperature (150 and 190 ◦ C) on the particles properties was studied. The particles presented a spherical shape with a diameter ranging from approximately 1.3 to 18.2 µm, the exception being the ones with inulin that showed a large degree of agglomeration. All powders produced presented an intermediate cohesiveness and a fair to good flowability according to Carr index and Hausner ratio, which envisages suitable handling properties at an industrial scale. The microencapsulation processes using maltodextrin and arabic gum at 150 ◦ C were the ones that showed higher maintenance of the antioxidant activity of compounds present in the extract before encapsulation during spray drying. In addition, the microparticles obtained were quite efficient in stabilizing the encapsulated phenolic compounds, as their antioxidant activity did not change significantly during six months of storage at 5 ◦ C.
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Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Spray drying quickly removes water by vaporization from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions enabling high retention of volatiles (Badee et al., 2012 ) and protecting the microencapsulated compounds against reaction with the environment (Madene et al., 2006; Gharsallaoui et al., 2007 ). Microcapsules consist of a core surrounded by a single or a multilayered wall. Microcapsules with essential oil can be added into the shrimp feed as an ingredient or directly onto the pellet. For this purpose, the materials selected to produce the microcapsules need to be food grade and the powder easily adsorbed by the shrimp. Therefore, casein protein was selected as the emulsifying and maltodextrin as the wall material (Ramakrishnan et al., 2013). This mixture has proved to be very effective for the microencapsulation of oil/fats and volatiles (Sheu and Rosenberg, 1998; Ramakrishnan et al., 2013 ). The objectives of this research were i) to characterize the main components of thyme essential oil ii) to evaluate their antibacterial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus. iii) to use spray drying to microcapsule these components and iv) to study their antimicrobial effect against V. alginolyticus and V. parhaemolyticus.
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Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

Microencapsulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) pomace ethanolic extract by spray drying: optimization of process conditions

Among various encapsulation techniques, spray drying is the most common technology applied due to its low cost, flexibility, and production of good quality powder particles [10]. The principle of spray drying is the dissolution of the core (compounds to be protected) in the dispersion of a chosen matrix (wall material). The dispersion is subsequently atomized into heated air, which promotes the rapid removal of the solvent (water) [11]. The quality of the powdered particles may be affected by the type of wall material used and by the spray drying operating conditions, such as the inlet and outlet temperatures, feed flow rate, and inlet air flow rate [12]. The structures formed in the encapsulation process are composed by the core (bioactive compounds) and the protective matrix materials. These materials are commonly polysaccharides (e.g., starches and arabic gum), proteins (e.g., gelatin and casein), lipids (e.g., stearic acid and mono- and diglycerides) and their mixtures [13].
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Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

Characterization of new sources of derivative starches as wall materials of essential oil by spray drying

The size of microcapsules is dependent on physical factors such as the rate of shear, the phase viscosity, and the concentration of stabilizers, as well as, the design of the stirrer and vessel (HONG; PARK, 1999). The materials showed a similar bimodal particle distribution (data not shown). Table 3 shows that the particle size of the materials varied from 20.05 to 31.81 µm in accordance with the results reported in the literature for capsules produced by spray drying (THIES, 1995). Drusch and Schwarz (2006) reported the microencapsulation of a fish oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with two different types of η-octenylsuccinate-derivative starch. The particle size expressed as 50th percentile of the particle distribution ranged from 22 to 29 µm. Particle size was significantly affected by the composition of the emulsion and drying conditions. Data indicate that microcapsules size decreased with a decrease in oil and starch content, whereas an increase in the drying air inlet and outlet temperature led to an increase in particle size (MINEMOTO  et  al., 2002). Emulsified linoleic acid encapsulated with gum Arabic was smaller in droplet size and more stable than those prepared with maltodextrins, and it was also more resistant to oxidation than that in a maltodextrin- based microcapsule. Higher inlet air temperature leads to the production of larger particles and causes increasing swelling (TONON; FREITAS; HUBINGER, 2011).
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Microencapsulation of grape seed oil by spray drying

Microencapsulation of grape seed oil by spray drying

Smaller droplet sizes are desirable, since larger sizes result in poor encapsulation efficiency (Linke  et  al., 2017; Soottitantawat et al., 2003). The grape seed oil emulsions presented a negative aspect in relation to this property, requiring further studies to decrease the droplet size, such as the use of other types of homogenizer (high pressure valve or microfluidizer). The mean droplet size of the emulsion with GA/MD was lower than that formulated with GA. This result was unexpected, since the addition of maltodextrin to the wall material decreases the gum Arabic concentration, which implies less surface active material to fully coat the entire oil droplet, and hence larger droplet sizes would be expected. However, this finding could be related to emulsion viscosity. Dokic et al. (1998) reported that maltodextrin solution, a Newtonian fluid, presents lower viscosity (about 25 mPa.s for concentration of 30% at 20 °C). Dn the other hand, gum Arabic solution 30% has an apparent viscosity ranging from 125 to 110 mPa.s at 20 °C and shear rate up to 300 s -1 (Gómez-Díaz et al., 2008). Thus, the presence
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PERFORMANCE OF MUF RESINS FOR PARTICLEBOARDS BEFORE AND AFTER SPRAY-DRYING

PERFORMANCE OF MUF RESINS FOR PARTICLEBOARDS BEFORE AND AFTER SPRAY-DRYING

is not possible to change markedly the percentage as this will cause a very marked decrease in performance, hence failure to satisfy the relevant standard specifications. However the shelf-life of modern MUF resins prepared and delivered in liquid form is rather limited, varying between one week and a few months according to how advanced or accelerated is the resin. This constitutes a supply problem for small companies using either moderate amounts of MUF resin or using it only occasionally and at irregular times: the leftover resin cannot be conserved for long without hardening, thus going to waste. A solution to this problem would be to spray- dry the resin, thus to eliminate the water and to stock it in inert powder form, ready to be redissolved in water an reactivated only when needed.
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Effect of drying-air temperature on content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata.

Effect of drying-air temperature on content and chemical composition of the essential oil of Pectis brevipedunculata.

O material vegetal foi coletado na área experimental do cam- pus da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, onde a espécie ocorre espontaneamente. A coleta do material vegetal foi realizada em março de 2010, pela manhã, entre 7 e 8 h. Foram coletados aproxi- madamente 10 kg da parte aérea das plantas, utilizando tesoura de lâminas de aço inoxidável. Logo depois de colhido, o material foi transportado para o Laboratório de Engenharia Agrícola (LEAG), onde passou por limpeza e seleção manual, excluindo-se as partes atacadas por doenças ou pragas, qualquer outro vegetal ou mate- rial estranho, como também as partes velhas e secas. As folhas e capítulos lorais foram separados manualmente das hastes, sendo posteriormente homogeneizados e acondicionados em frascos de vidro de 3.275 mL. Os frascos contendo o material vegetal foram fechados e vedados com Parailm e armazenados em câmara do tipo B.O.D., a 10±1 °C, de 18 h até 7 h e 30 min do dia seguinte. Os frascos foram então retirados do ambiente refrigerado e permane- ceram sobre bancada por cerca de 2 h, para que o material vegetal entrasse em equilíbrio com a temperatura ambiente, quando teve início o processo de secagem.
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Spray drying as a method for preparing concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

Spray drying as a method for preparing concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

Spray drying and freeze drying as methods for concentration of Lactobacillus bulgaricus starter cultures were compared in terms of viability, lag phase until onset of p H decrease [r]

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Spray-Drying of Passion Fruit Juice Using Lactose- Maltodextrin Blends as the Support Material

Spray-Drying of Passion Fruit Juice Using Lactose- Maltodextrin Blends as the Support Material

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the blends with different levels of lactose-maltodextrin (8:5, 10:5, and 12:5 % w/v) during the spray-drying of the passion fruit juice. The drying was carried out in a laboratory spray dryer (Pulvis GB 22 model) at two inlet air temperatures (180 and 190 °C), and two air pressures (0.10 and 0.20 MPa). The moisture content, hygroscopicity and vitamin C retention were evaluated in the powder obtained. Response surface plots (p<0.05) showed that the lowest values of the moisture content and hygroscopicity were reached in the temperature range of 188-190 °C and at 12:5 % (w/v) concentration of lactose-maltodextrin; the best vitamin C retention level occurred at 180 °C and 0.2 MPa.
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Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP) were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2). The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction). The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior contains iron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.
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Obtaining a dry extract of pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) fruits by spray-drying

Obtaining a dry extract of pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) fruits by spray-drying

vehicle (10 mL/kg and DMSO 20%, n = 10), and with standardized dry extract P. emarginatus (1000 mg/kg and DMSO 20%, n = 8), previously treated (30 minutes) i.p. with capsazepine (10 mg/kg and DMSO 20%, n = 8) and s.c with morfine (10 mg/kg, n = 4). After 60 or 30 minutes (respectively), 50 µL of capsaicin (1.6 µg/paw prepared in PBS) was injected in the ventral surface of the right hind paw. The time that the animals spent licking the injected paw, for the first 5 minutes post capsaicin injection, was recorded with a chronometer and considered as indicative of nociception. The results were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), considering p = 0.05 as critical level to evaluate significant difference between the control and treated groups, followed by the Tukey Test, using the GraphPad Instat ®
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Powdered yoghurt produced by spray drying and freeze drying: a review Iogurte em pó por atomização e liofilização: uma revisão

Powdered yoghurt produced by spray drying and freeze drying: a review Iogurte em pó por atomização e liofilização: uma revisão

Yoghurt is one of the dairy products most consumed worldwide but dehydrated yoghurt is still uncommon. Considered a nutritious food, yoghurt powder could be used as an ingredient or supplement in juices, cookies, ice cream and dairy beverages. Spray drying and freeze drying are the methods most widely used to dehydrate dairy products, and the process conditions are directly associated with the production costs and value of the final product. Due to osmotic and thermal stress during dehydration, it is often necessary to incorporate agents such as carriers, thermal protectants, cryo-protectants and stabilizers in order to improve the process yield, preserve nutrients and even facilitate rehydration of the product. Thus the present review presents the technologies available to obtain yoghurt powder, including the processes, drying agents, drying rates, rehydration conditions and survival of the lactic acid bacteria.
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Characterization of powder from the permeate of yacon extract by ultrafiltration and dehydrated by spray drying

Characterization of powder from the permeate of yacon extract by ultrafiltration and dehydrated by spray drying

Yacon root is a functional food which contains antioxidants and prebiotics compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical and prebiotic characteristics of a yacon extract powder obtained by ultrafiltration (UF) with membranes of 10 and 30 kDa and encapsulation of the resulting permeate by spray drying. Drying air temperatures of 140 and 160 ºC and concentrations of gum arabic of 10 and 15% were tested. The samples had solubility values greater than 90% while the hygroscopicity decreased with increasing gum concentration and drying temperature. Electron microscopy showed a strong tendency to agglomeration of smaller particles around the larger ones, mainly at a temperature of 140 ºC. Regarding color, the parameter L* showed that drying at 160 ºC produced darker samples and the parameters a* and b* indicated that all samples were greenish yellow. The concentration of inulin decreased during drying, whereas the levels of glucose and fructose increased due to the thermolysis reaction, which led to degradation of inulin chains at drying temperature. The permeates and retentates from the UF membranes had prebiotic activity, while only the encapsulated product from UF-30 membrane, metabolized by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 ® , presented activity scores without significant difference to that of glucose.
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