these substances present a large diversity of structures, including phenols and phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids (Ho, 1992). On grapeseedoil, the main phenolic compounds identified are gallic acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate (Zhao et al., 2017). Although TPC content decreased after spraydrying process, its composition could have been changed due to distinct encapsulation efficiency (Secolin et al., 2017) and thermal stability of each phenolic compound; and interconversion reactions to derived structures (Barcia et al., 2014; Cheynier, 2012). Phenolic compounds are important for human nutrition, since plays the role of biological antioxidant. As consequence of the decrease of TPC content in grapeseedoil encapsulated, a reduction in the DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed (Table 2). Some authors have also reported this negative effect ofspraydrying on the antioxidant activity of oils due to thermal and oxidative degradation of antioxidant substances (Calva-Estrada et al., 2018; Ferreira et al., 2016). Dn the other hand, although the oils encapsulated presented lower phenolic compound contents, they showed greater iron ion reducing capacity than the control sample (Table 2). This unexpected result was reported by Arana-Sánchez et al. (2010) for oregano oil microencapsulated byspraydrying. The authors attributed this result to compositional changes in the oil during the microencapsulation process. Probably, in the current work, spraydrying process could have favored the formation of some compounds possessing iron reducing capacity.
Food industry has focused on discovering and evaluating new wall materials for flavor encapsulation byspraydrying considering their functionality as encapsulating agents, cost, authorized grade, and accessibility. Carbohydrates, mainly sugars such as glucose and sucrose, along with polysaccharides such as starch, maltodextrins, pectin, alginate, and chitosan are successfully used as wall materials for encapsulation of flavor ingredients (KENYON, 1995). However, carbohydrates cannot be used in wall systems without the presence of a surface- active constituent because they usually have no emulsifying properties (BANGS; REINECCIUS, 1988). Hydrolyzed starch products are hydrophilic compounds, which have little affinity for hydrophobic flavors (SHAIKH; BHOSALE; SINGHAL, 2006). Their hydrophilic nature can be modified by linking hydrophobic side chains (DRUSCH; SCHWARZ, 2006). Extrusion processes have unique characteristics compared to other thermal processes. Extrusion processes break covalent bonds in polymers, create intense structural disruption, mix and facilitate reactions in the absence of effluents that in other processes are limited or are made available to a lesser extent (ASP; BJÖRK, 1989). Extrusion may use reduced amounts of reagents; moreover, further hydrolysis of desirable starch for microencapsulation purposes can occur. Native rice starches consist of tiny granules (5 mm) with narrow size distribution (PUCHONGKAVARIN; VARAVINIT; BERGTHALLER, 2005). Taro starch granules have irregular and polygonal shapes with an average size of 3.0 µm (JANE et al., 1992); these granules exhibit the capability to form spherical aggregates. Small starch granules used as wall materials can be combined into porous spheres when dried by aspersion, and they have a wide range of useful applications. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the potential of taro and rice starch derivatives to be used as wall material of orange oilbyspraydrying.
2.4. Preparation and emulsion characterization O/W emulsions were prepared by mechanical stirring. The emulsifier, 4.17 g of casein sodium salt (CAS: 9005-46-3, SIGMA-ALDRICH, Saint Louis, MO, USA), was dissolved in 100.14 g of water and stirred at 300 rpm for 2h. Then, 20.9 g of thyme essential oil (white, Food Chemicals Codex, CAS: 8007-46-3, SIGMA-ALDRICH) was added to the solution (water + casein) and homogenized at ambient temperature with an Ultra-Turrax (model T18, IKA, Staufern, Germany) at 15.000 and 20.000 rpm for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min to study the influence of homogenizer speed on the emulsion droplet-size distribution (Figure 1). The droplet-size distributions of the O/W emulsions were obtained by laser diffraction measurements using a Malver Mastersizer 2000 equipped with a Hydro 2000 SM dispersion unit (Malvern Instruments Ltd., Worcestershire, England). 2.5. Spraydrying
Due to their low viscosity at high concentrations, maltodextrins have been studied as possible substitutes for gum arabic in atomized emulsions (Bangs & Reineccius, 1988; Trubiano & Lacourse, 1988). On the other hand, maltodextrins have low emulsifying capacity. (Kenyon, 1995; Apintanaong & Noomhorm, 2003). The results obtained by Thevenet (1995) indicated that a 1:1 mixture of gum arabic and maltodextrin was almost as efficient as pure gum arabic for oxidative stabilization of orange essential oil. Bhandari et al. (1992), testing different proportions between gum arabic and maltodextrin, also observed greater retention of volatiles as the gum arabic/maltodextrin ratio increased.
DIMA, C.; PATRASCU, L.; CANTARAGIU, A.; ALEXE, P.; DIMA, S. The kinetics of the swelling process and the release mechanisms of Coriandrum sativum L. essential oil from chitosan/alginate/inulin microcapsules. Food Chemistry, v. 195, p. 39-48, 2016. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.044. PMid:26575710. ESTEVINHO, B. N.; ROCHA, F.; SANTOS, L.; ALVES, A. Microencapsulation with chitosan byspraydrying for industry applications: a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, v. 31, n. 2, p. 138-155, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. tifs.2013.04.001.
Food emulsions play an important role in product development and formulation, as well as to encapsulation of food additives. Conventional methods for emulsion production may present some drawbacks, such as the use of high shear stress, high energy demanding and polydisperse droplet size distribution. In this sense, membrane emulsification emerges as an alternative method to overcome all this issues and to produce fine and stable emulsions. Linseed oil has been widely studied in the last years, due to its nutritional composition, being the richest ω-3 vegetable source and for that reason it was used as the raw material for emulsion production. Premix and direct (cross flow) membrane emulsification were carried out using three different membrane materials: polissulphone, cellulose ester and α-alumina membrane. For premix membrane emulsification (PME) the variables transmembrane pressure, membrane material, surfactant type and membrane mean pore size were evaluated. The membrane mean pore size was the crucial factor to achieve emulsions by PME, once it was not possible to achieve stable emulsion with mean pore sizes lower than 0.8 μm. For direct membrane emulsification, transmembrane pressure, surfactant concentration and cross flow velocity were evaluated by means of a experimental design. The evaluated responses were stability, droplet size and distribution and dispersed phase flux. For all the variables studied, only dispersed phase flux showed to have significant influence of pressure. Comparing both methods of membrane emulsification, premix showed to be more suitable in terms of emulsion production throughput and droplet size correlation with membrane pore size, however, in terms of stability, direct membrane emulsification showed much better results. Encapsulation of linseed oilbyspraydrying was promoted using the optimum point of the performed experimental design and the droplets size distribution has considerably changed with the addition of the wall material to the emulsion.
GRACIA-VALENZUELA, M.H., VERGARA-JIMÉNEZ, M.J., BAEZ-FLORES, M.E. and CABRERA-CHAVES, F., 2014. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps. Archives of Biological Sciences, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1367-1370. http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/ABS1404367G. HELANDER, I.M., ALAKOMI, H.L., LATVA-KALA, K., MATTILA-SANDHOLM, T., POL, I., SMID, E.J., GORRIS, L.G.M. and VON WRIGHT, A., 1998. Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 3590-3595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf980154m. HEO, G.J., KIM, C.H., PARK, S.C., ZOYSA, M. and SHIN, G.W., 2012. Antimicrobial activity of thymol against pathogenic gram-negative bacteria of fishes. Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 103-106.
Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 5, n. 7, p. 8082-8095 jul. 2019 ISSN 2525-8761 Lower temperatures present lower encapsulation efficiency due to the high moisture in the system air, very close to the saturation point of the air. This inhibit water evaporation and disturbs the formation of the outer crust, allowing the oil to migrate through the particle instead of stay in the core. This also interferes in the particles sizes since, due to the high humidity in the system, particles stay wet for longer time and tend to merge and give rise to larger particles. Alternatively, higher temperatures have the crust formation too fast, as stated before, that impacts negatively the efficiency of the encapsulation. So an equilibrium point must be found to assure both process and cost efficiency.
Microencapsulation is a technique that has been utilized to protect flavor components from destructive changes and to convert flavor into a free flowing form. It is employed to preserve the stability, bioactivity and bioavailability of active components (Sansone et al., 2011; Schweiggert, Hofmann, Reichel, Schieber, & Carle, 2008). The process allows sensitive ingredients to be blended or homogenized in a solution which contains macromolecules and emulsifiers to form a stable emulsion. Encapsulating agents are used exclusively or in association with other encapsulating agents to achieve an ideal composition (Fernandes, Candido, & Oliveira, 2012). Maltodextrin, gum arabic, pectin and guar gum are examples of encapsulating agents which have been utilized in the encapsulation of bioactive compounds (Ravichandran et al., 2014). Hydrolysed starch may be combined with a surface-active biopolymer, such as gum arabic which has become a popular and common spraydrying ingredient due to its emulsifying properties providing excellent volatile retention during the drying process. Combinations of gum arabic and maltodextrin were found to be effective for the encapsulation of oils (Jafari, Assadpoor, He, & Bhandari, 2008). Spraydrying is the most widely utilized method ofmicroencapsulation in the food and beverage industry (Gharsallaoui, Roudaut, Chambin, Voilley, &Saurel, 2007). More recent technologies include emulsion electrospraying which has the advantage of encapsulating under milder conditions and can be utilized for thermosensitive bioactives (Gomez-Mascaraque& Lopez-Rubio, 2016).
IR is greater than 2.63W, it will burn the skin ofgrape berry. Experimental observed time to dry 1.5439gm water inside grape berry and calculated time to dry 1.5439gm water having 2 hours difference. This is because of grape’s biomass structure. So, grape size is also a very important factor while drying. As the grape size increase drying time is also increases. Grape size also affects the drying rate graph.
Dyster aquaculture is mainly found in China, and its annual yield of approximately 3.89 million tons accounts for more than half of oyster production worldwide (Chen et al., 2014). Dyster, called “sea milk” in Western countries (Wang et al., 2008a), consists of up to 52.6% and 12% (dried weight, DW) proteins and fats, respectively (Cruz-Romero et al., 2007). Ots proteins are composed of various amino acids and a high taurine content (Je et al., 2005). Dyster is also rich in ω-3 unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which constitute approximately 50% of its total fatty acids (Cruz-Romero et al., 2008), Dyster extract performs many functions, including anti-bacterial (Defer et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2008), antihypertensive (Qian et al., 2008), anti-oxidation (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014), and anti-cancer activities (Umayaparvathi et al., 2014), ACE inhibition (Wang et al., 2008b), and DNA damage repair (Qian et al., 2008). Therefore, oyster is globally considered as valuable seafood with high nutritional value.
This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with β -cyclodextrin ( β -CD) followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- β -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of β -CD, were observed after freeze- drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with β -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.
Docosahexaenoic acid is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid with important metabolic activities. Its conjugated double bonds make it susceptible to decomposition. Its stability may be improved through fatty acid entrapment with a spray-drying technique; however, the many parameters involved in this technique must be considered to avoid affecting the final product quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the entrapment conditions and yields of fish oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester. Microcapsules were obtained from Acacia gum using a spray-drying technique. The experimental samples were analyzed by chromatography and delineated by Statistica software, which found the following optimum entrapment conditions: an inlet temperature of 188 °C; 30% core material; an N 2 flow rate of 55 mm; and a pump flow rate of 12.5 mL/minute. These conditions provided a 66% yield of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in the oil, corresponding to 19.8% of entrapped docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester (w/w). This result was considered significant since 30% corresponded to wall material. Keywords: encapsulated fish oil; gas chromatography; response surface; optimized conditions; omega-3.
Figure 1b shows the X-ray pattern obtained for the HAp. Through the analysis of the diffratogram it was observed that the HAp is the only crystalline phase present in the sample according to the JCPDS (9-432) cards. There was no indication of the presence of the phases β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) and CaO (JCPDS 4-777), which can be formed during the synthesis (Murugan and Ramakrishna 2006, Donadel et al. 2005). Figures 1c and 1d show the X-ray pattern obtained for IOMP/HAp = 0.7 and IOMP/HAp = 3.2, respectively. The XRD patterns of the coated samples could be attributed to the phases hydroxyapatite and iron oxide (magnetite/ maghemite) as the only phases which indicate coating of hydroxyapatite on the particles surface.
New technology is available and a prototype dryer has been developed that has the unique feature of taking the moisture out of the air stream before it is heated and passed through the seed mass. The heat generated when the water is removed is reintroduced into the air stream and raises the air temperature. In contrast to the 40°C temperature required by conventional bin dryers, the temperature of the air stream in the new technology never exceeds 32°C. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of this new technology for drying peanut seed. The evaluation included measuring the capability of the prototype to deliver temperatures and air flows suitable for efficient and safe drying. The effect ofdrying on the physical and physiological qualities of peanut seed was evaluated.
their enzymatic activity stability. The removal of water reduces the movement freedom of the protein molecules and thus inhibits conformational changes leading to activity loss (Monsan and Combes, 1987). Consequently, dry solid formulations are often de- veloped to provide an acceptable protein shelf life. The study of stable forms of protein structures has been important in providing valuable information regarding possible folding mechanisms and the inter- actions involved in the stabilization of protein struc- tures (Bone, 1994). There are several drying tech- niques used in the production of dried plant extracts, fruit juices, blood products, microorganisms, and dehydrated foods, such as freeze drying, spouted bed drying and spraydrying. Spraydrying is used exten- sively for dryingof heat sensitive materials, includ- ing enzymes (Nijdam and Langrish, 2005; Costa- Silva et al., 2010; Costa-Silva et al., 2011). Drying in general may also alter the chemical structure of the protein due to partial loss of protein hydration. The replacement of water by capable of forming hydrogen bonds with protein excipients, e.g., sucrose and lactose, that are can promote protein stabilization on drying (Namaldi et al., 2006).
a complex process in which simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena contribute to moisture removal leading to substantial reduction in mass and volume product minimizing packaging, storage and transportation costs (Vega-Gálvez et al., 2010). Modeling ofdrying process brings mathematical as well as physical insight into the process; many studies have been devoted to analyzing the different aspects of this phenomenon. The principle of modeling is based on having a set of mathematical equations that can adequately characterize the system. A ‘good’ drying model should be simple, accurate, robust and able to capture major physics during drying; at the same time the model should require short computational time, favorable for quick decision-making in industry (Barati; Esfahani, 2011). Since knowledge of the moisture distribution inside the solid during ripening is of vital importance for the control of the process and the quality of the product, mathematical models to predict moisture
A composição a ser atomizada pode ser um sistema homogêneo (solução) ou heterogêneo (suspensão). No caso de soluções, fármaco e polímero de revestimento estão co-dissolvidos em um sistema comum, o qual é atomizado. Para as suspensões, uma solução polimérica é inicialmente preparada, e as partículas do ativo são adicionadas, sendo dispersas na solução polimérica. A suspensão polímero + fármaco é então atomizada. O fluxo de ar quente entra em contato com as partículas atomizadas, evaporando o solvente. O polímero de revestimento precipita e aprisiona o fármaco disperso na suspensão, formando, geralmente, microesferas. Visto que o spray-drying é um processo muito rápido, a arquitetura da gota é fixa e reflete a estrutura da partícula seca formada. As partículas secas, nas quais o fármaco está microdisperso, é coletado por um separador de pós.
he great amounts of eluents from animal food industries has led to investigations on the use of these by-products as substrates for the growth of phototrophic bacteria that consume organic matter and produce bacterial biomass (PONSANO; LACAVA; PINTO, 2003; AZAD et al., 2004; KANTACHOTE; TORPEE; UMSAKUL, 2005). Due to the nutritional composition of this biomass, some authors have suggested its use as a biofertilizer and animal feed supplement (PONSANO; LACAVA; PINTO, 2003; PONSANO et al., 2004; KANTACHOTE; TORPEE; UMSAKUL, 2005). Studies conducted with a particular phototrophic bacterium, Rubrivivax gelatinosus, in effluents from poultry and fish industries demonstrated this micro-organism ability to produce biomass that can be used as a nutritional and color additive in animal feed (PONSANO; LACAVA; PINTO, 2003; PONSANO et al., 2004; PONSANO; LIMA; TORRES, 2011; SANTO, 2011).
incorporation in food products, thus improving their functional value. The increased interest of fruit juices as probiotic carriers can be explained by the lack of dairy allergens and cholesterol  and their pleasant taste profile and refreshing characteristics. Carrot juice is an interesting medium to prepare a functional product due to the carotenoids and different com- pounds with antioxidative properties, i.e ., vitamins and minerals which may have an important role as inhibitors of free radicals production and subsequent oxidative processes related to the onset of cardiovas- cular diseases or cancer. However, survival of probio- tics is a problem due to various factors of the environ- ment including effects of acidic pH of fruit juices in storage conditions. Once ingested, probiotics are additionally exposed to unfavorable acidic conditions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and antimicrobial effects of bile salts solutions. Even some authors have reported that carrot juice containing Bifidobac- terium strains  and cashew apple juice enriched with Lactobacillus casei  allowed probiotic cells to grow in fruit juices and to maintain the viability for determined time period, it was demonstrated that sen- sory off-flavors are not well accepted .