All the studies were carefully decided by two investigators (X.Y and Z.Y.Z) independently based on titles and abstracts, and then found full text for any potential eligibility. Any disagreement was resolved by fully discussion to consensus. Furthermore, if necessary, we turned to the original authors for missing data. Each inclusion article must meet to following criteria: (1) The diagnosisof CRC was based on colonoscopy or histological examination; (2) The matched control individuals were included with a recent negative result of colonoscopy and without a personal history of any types ofcancer; (3) All blood samples were collected prior to colonoscopy and without any treatment; (4) The researchers assessed the miR-92ain blood sample alone; (5) The studies should contain the data of sensitivity, specificity (or the possibility of deriving such values from the data), and a clear cut- off value; (6) Only the study with more than 20 cases and matched controls were included. All the studies were excluded if they had any of the following items: (1) Duplicate publications; (2) Letters, editorials, meeting abstracts, case reports and reviews; (3) Unqualified patients and control subjects, as well as their blood samples; (4) Insufficient data. If the same author reported their results acquired from the overlapping population or multiple published data in the different works, only the nearest or the most complete report was included.
metastasis of CRC, which was consistent with the conclusions of most included studies. Present evidence from the meta-analysis indicated that MUC1 might be a promising biomarker to pre- dict the status of CRC metastasis at the time ofdiagnosis. The expression of MUC1 in CRC tis- sue can be determined by IHC method with monoclonal antibody against MUC1, which can be done simultaneously when pathologists conduct pathological diagnosis with tumor tissue obtained from surgery or biopsy. It is relatively easy to realize and popularize in clinical prac- tice, which is of great significance to help surgeons determine treatment strategy. The establish- ment of the relationship between MUC1 expression and CRC metastasis may also help to clarify the metastasis risk of CRC patients at the time ofdiagnosis, especially those without symptoms or signs of metastasis. If MUC1 is highly expressed in a CRC patient without meta- static manifestation, it is worthy to do more detailed examination in search for any existing small metastasis. Patients with over expressed MUC1 may need more radical or aggressive treatment after diagnosisand more rigorous care after tumor resection due to a relatively high risk of metastasis. However, present study only proved the correlation between MUC1 expres- sion and CRC metastasis. The positive rate of MUC1 expression in CRC patients with metasta- sis differed greatly in previous retrospective studies, and the sensitivity and specificity of MUC1 in predicting CRC metastasis have not been validated in prospective studies. Besides,
DNA methylation is a common mechanism for inactivating tumor-suppressor genes in cancers . Monitoring aberrant methylation patterns have aided in the detection of tumor cells in clinical specimens such as tissue biopsies or body fluids. RASSF1A is a putative tumor suppressor gene and plays an important role in the regulation of different types of human tumors. Previous reports demonstrated that genetic variation of RASSF1A affect prostate cancer susceptibility and the frequency of RASSF1A methylation was found to be significantly higher in patients’ group compared with control . To further confirm RASSF1A promoter methylation status in PCa patient’s diagnosis, we carried out a meta-analysisof 16 studies involving 1431 cases and 565 controls to derive a more precise estimation of the association. Our results suggested that RASSF1A methylation is a potential risk factor for PCa as detected both in body fluid and tissues. The frequency of RASSF1A methylation in PCa cases was 14.73 times higher than that in control individuals. In addition, due to differences between cases and controls between studies, we performed sensitivity analyses and removed select studies to make the data more homogeneous and observed no major changes to our conclusion. Importantly, frequent methylation of RASSF1A gene showed significant associations with Gleason score, although it did not correlate with pathological stage or PSA levels in this study.
We calculated the pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR+), negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR-), and 95% confi- dence intervals (CIs) for each criterion. A summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve was generated, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. To assess the clinical utility of SPG for GC and AG diagnosis, Fagan’s nomograms were plotted. The threshold effect was assessed by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistics; I 2 > 50% indicated moderate to high heterogeneity. Meta-regression was performed to identify possible sources of heterogene- ity. Subgroup analyses were also performed as necessary. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of each individual study on the summary accuracy of SPG detection for GC and AG. A funnel plot followed by the Begg and Mazumdar's test was used to explore potential publication bias. All analyses were performed with Stata 12.0 (College Station, TX, USA), Meta-DiSc statistical software, and RevMan 5.3 (Cochrane, USA).
underestimation of risk estimates. Although most studies adjusted for other known risk factors for CRC, unknown confounders cannot be excluded as a potential explanation for the observed findings. Third, significant heterogeneity was observed across studies, which would throw some doubt on the reliability of the summary RR estimates. This significant heterogeneity might exist in terms of study design, demographics of participants, ascertain- ment of anthropometry, duration of follow-ups, and confounders. We are unable to account for these differences, despite the use of appropriate meta-analytic techniques with random-effect models. Moreover, by conducting stratified analysis, we found that the risk estimates of BMI/WC and the risk of CRC were robust and stable across various study characteristics. Finally, potential publication bias is impossible to be completely excluded because small studies with null results tend not to be published.
In relation to the PRTEE questionnaire, it was noted that in all three groups, the scores relating to PRTEE-90 were lower than those of PRTEE-0. However, the maximum scores in groups B and C were higher in PRTEE-90 than in PRTEE-0. This discrepancy can be explained by the scores of a single par- ticipant who reached 65.5 points (PRTEE-0) and 85.0 points (PRTEE-90), both in group B; and another patient who reached scores of 83.0 (PRTEE-0) and 91.5 (PRTEE-90), both in group C. It is also important to note that another five individuals pre- sented higher scores in PRTEE-90 (two in group A, two in group B and one in group C) (Tables 3 and 4). The values from the PRTEE-180 questionnaires were taken to be zero in all three groups.
Queues (or waiting lines) are general phenomenon in everyday life. Queues are usually seen at post offices, bus stops, hospitals, bank counters, petrol filing stations etc. Queues are formed when customers (human or object) demanding service have to wait because their number exceeds the number of servers available; or the facility does not work efficiently or takes more than the time prescribed to service a customer. Some customers wait when the total number of customers requiring service exceeds the number of service facilities, some service facilities stand idle when the total number of service facilities exceeds the number of customers requiring service.  defines queue as simply a waiting line, while put it in similar way as a waiting line by two important elements: the population source of customer from which they can draw and the service system. The population of customer could be finite or infinite. The banking sector which is the largest and most competitive unit of Ghana’s financialsector, acting as a financial intermediarybetweenthe surplus and deficit agents of the economy has always been the center of attraction to many customers that want to carry out one transaction or the other through the services provided by these banks. However, the major problem is the inability of the banks to match their service facilities to the needs of customers without much delay. The common experience in Ghana is that most banks do not have the facilities and capacities to service the number of customers without much delay on the part of the customers. The problem in this regard had been that though bank customers for instance, have always been desirous of spending the least possible time in banking transactions, this age-long desire is yet to be met by the banks. Banks on the other hand, want to attract, retain customers and at the same time optimize profit. Profit making in banks is a function of management ability to provide efficient services to customers at little or no time wastage . One major recurring problem in Ghanaian Banks is congestionat the banking halls; this has led to the movement of customers from one bank to the other, where they can obtain banking services without much delay. Despite technological advancement in the banking sector, such as Internet Banking, Mobile or Telephone Banking,
ABSTRACT | Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) usually develop exercise intolerance. In this context, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can help to increase physical performance. Objective: To undertake a systematicreviewandmeta-analysisof randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of NIV on exercise tolerance in patients with HF. Method: Search Strategy: Articles were searched in the following databases: Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and MEDLINE. Selection Criteria: This review included only randomized controlled trials involving patients with HF undergoing NIV, with or without other therapies, that used exercise tolerance as an outcome, verified by the distance travelled in the six-minute walk test (6MWT), VO 2 peak in the
ARM MPCore and IBM Cell are the examples of multicore processors employed in the real time embedded systems. Multicore processors are classified into two parts, (1) homogenous or heterogeneous .  states that most of the existing multicore processors are homogenous. The multicore processor is mainly concern for managing the tasks in such a way to utilize the cores effectively. The scheduler in the operating system is responsible for keeping all the cores in the processor busy during the execution of the real time tasks to improve the total execution time. Faults can be categorised into these main categories: permanent, transient and intermittent faults . Permanent Fault such as wear off of any part which require replacement from the spare part to restore the system functionality. Transient fault are the short term faults and can be distinguished from others with their duration of occurrence and causes. These may occur due to external noise and other sources Intermittent fault occurs happened at interims on account of some inward tedious glitch of the segments like temperature vacillations, power supply and noise . To have fault tolerance in multicore systems task scheduling is done. These fault tolerance scheduling algorithms increase the system reliability. In different fault tolerant system, software which is running on a single core employ redundant execution at different level of abstraction, at instruction and virtual machine level. Methods which operate at instruction level have low error detection latencies compare to hardware level. But methods which work at process level allow error propagation. In multi- threaded programs which are running on multicore processors, Shared memory access is frequent than interrupts or signals. For that achieve efficient execution of replicas is very much difficult. For that different deterministic languages are used. We can perform fault tolerance using redundant execution of software in which replicated copies give same output for given input. This method can be implemented using a user level library so it does not require modification in kernel. The error detection mechanism is optimized to perform memory comparisons of the replicas efficiently in user space . Depends on the use of multiple threads performance can be further increase. For scheduling of soft real time tasks with non-real time tasks two level hierarchical scheduling is used. This method decreases average deadline miss ratio and also support the real time requirements for other tasks. The principle _________________________
Publication and reporting bias also has to be considered. We did not look for unpublished papers, reviews or abstracts because the required data were usually available only in full publications. Another potential source of bias is related to the method used to extrapolate the HR. If the HR was not reported by author, it was calculated from the data included in the article or extrapolated from the survival curves, which involves making assumptions. In addition, each study adjusted for different covariates and only the studies that found significant results in univariate analysis performed multivar- iate analysis; thus, pooling the results may have produced bias. Nevertheless, no publication bias was detected using Egger’s test, suggesting that the statistics obtained approximate the actual results. In conclusion, the relative risk of recurrence and death for an individual patient whose tumor showed BVI by neoplastic cells was nearly 4 and 2 times higher, respectively, than that of a patient whose tumor did not show BVI by neoplastic cells. We have demonstrated the prognostic power of a single independent pathologic marker for NSCLC. We suggest that NSCLC patients with BVI receive adjunct systematic chemotherapy and that BVI
were calculated for oxaliplatin (mainly the FOLFOX regimen) and CPT-11 (mainly CPT-11 coupled with fluoropyrimidines). Except for RRs, outcomes could not be analysed in the taxane trials due to a lack of data. Third, two-thirds of the studies included in our analysis were phase II trials and were not adequately powered for determining a survival difference or used RR as the primary endpoint. Fourth the inclusion of trials of different ethnicity could have lead to potentially mixed or even better results. Five trials included patients of Eastern countries, and they presented the highest median OS among all included trials, probably because Asiatic patients have a better prognosis, and derive the greatest benefit by oral fluropyrimidines (e.g S-1). After exclusion of two Asiatic studies in OS and PFS analysis, the results did not changed. Finally, our analysis did not evaluate the effects of treatment according to HER-2 status. In fact, the addition of trastuzumab to CDDP plus fluoropyrimidine doublets was shown to enhance survival in patients with HER-2–positive GC . To our knowledge, no published randomised trial has compared chemo- therapy with and without CDDP plus trastuzumab. However, data from observational practice have shown that combinations without CDDP are feasible and as active as CDDP-based regimens . In the mean time, anyhow, the labelled indication of trastuzumab needs the association with CDDP and 5-FU according to the the registrative TOGA trial.
scientific articles on the subject in the various data sources and selected the eight ones that were randomized controlled trials, with data available. With the meta-analysisof 439 patients involved in these studies, the authors concluded that radiotherapy, especially when associated with glucocorticoid treatment, is effective in the active phase of the disease and must be indicated in the earlier stages of the same.
Major players in this role are Google and Yahoo. This model is also based on the pay- per click strategy discussed above. The Ad-publishers are supposed to give permission to Search Engine to place advertisements in their website and for every click a user makes on the advertisement the website owner gets paid by the Search Engine. People with creative ideas can get rich relatively quickly by permitting advertisers to piggyback on any web site that attracts a lot of viewers. It has been analyzed that Google pays Adsense publishers 78.5 cents on the dollar as revenue share. Google never officially disclosed details on revenue sharing but it has been observed that, as per rule Google shares 50 cents of every dollar to partners and can range up to the full dollar, depending on the size of the relationship. The study on revenue generated by Website owner’s shows that most of the revenue is generated by Search Engine Advertising Industry e.g. Google Adsense program. The revenue generated by some websites using Adsense has been summarized in Table . Many Indian companies are surviving on Adsense business and many Indian are earning month’s salary just through such pay per click programs. Many companies like ACT Media, Web Techies are specialized for successful Adsense campaign integration to the client’s website. The revenue generated by the program highly depends on the traffic of the website. Amit Aggarwaal (2006), owner of Digital Inspiration has revealed that his blog gets around 1.25 million hits per month with a majority originating from Google followed by direct traffic (like bookmarks, rss feeds, etc). The major traffic comes from four countries - US, India, UK and Australia (in the same order). The maximum site traffic comes from four countries - US, India, UK and Australia (in the same order) and the majority of revenue earned is from Adsense. Priya Shah, an Editor, Editor Http://EbizWhizPublishing.com in her article states that “Google's TOA prevents me from making any disclosures here, but I can safely say that I now make in a day what I used to earn in a month(over a year ago)”.
averaging as it allows retaining as much data as possible. We extracted all relevant associations and used a shifting unit ofanalysis approach (e.g., ) to conduct analyses both at the level of individual outcomes (e.g., for depression only), and at the level of broader outcome groups (e.g., negative mental health), in which case we averaged associations for different negative mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety and distress. Where multiple articles reported associations from the same study or data source, these associations were averaged. There were 25 such studies, reported in 70 articles. Studies utilized in multiple papers included the following: Family and Community Health Study (FACHS; k = 11), Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA; k = 4), United for Health Study (k = 4), Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study (ABC; k = 3), California Health Interview Survey (CHIS; k = 3), Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE, k = 3), International Comparative Study of Ethnocultural Youth (ICSEY; K = 3), Latino Acculturation and Health Project (k = 3), National Survey of American Life (NSAL; k = 3), Black Women's Health Study (BWHS; k = 2), Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS; k = 2), Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study (MADICS; k = 2), National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; k = 2), National Survey of Black Americans (NSBA; k = 2), Oslo Health Study (k = 2), and Sinai Improving Community Health Survey (k = 2). We also examined associations from papers by the same first author where the names of data sources were not mentioned but where the methodology and samples characteristics were identical or nearly identical, suggesting the same data may have been used in multiple papers. Nine such potential data sources, each reported in multiple papers, were identified in discussion between two reviewers. Associations were averaged for each data source using CMA.
resuMO: A crença de que o preparo mecânico do cólon está relacionado à diminuição de complicações na cirurgia colorretal ele- tiva é baseada em estudos observacionais e opinião de especialistas. Seu questionamento motivou os autores na busca sistemática da literatura, com a realização de meta-análise, seguida de três atualizações. Método: Fontes de informação foram EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, IBECS, Registros de Ensaios Clínicos Casualizados da Colaboração Cochrane e cartas para os autores. Os estudos foram incluídos de acordo com os critérios de casualização. Os desfechos clínicos estudados foram: deiscência anastomótica, mortalidade e infecção da ferida operatória. A análise dos grupos foi dividida em duas comparações: comparação I, grupo submetido a preparo mecânico do cólon (Grupo A) comparado ao grupo sem preparo (Grupo B); comparação II, Grupo A, submetido a preparo do cólon e Grupo B, realizado apenas enema retal. resultados: Foram analisados 5.805 doentes em 20 ensaios clínicos. Na comparação I, deiscência anastomótica ocorreu em 4,4% (101/2.275 doentes) no Grupo A e 4,5% (103/2.258 doentes) no Grupo B. Na comparação II, deiscência anastomótica ocorreu em 4,4% (27/601 doentes) no Grupo A e 3,4% (21/609 doentes) no Grupo B. Conclusão: Apesar da inclusão de mais estudos, as evidências encontradas não demonstraram benefício no uso do preparo mecânico pré-operatório do cólon, assim como de enemas de limpeza do reto em cirurgia colorretal eletiva.
Since the initial recognition of the association of mir-21 with cancerin 2005 , mir-21 has stood out as the most extensively explored miRNAs. Recent studies involving cancer cell lines and xenograft models have implicated the oncogenic role of mir-21. Accumulating evidence has supported mir-21 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkerin various carcinomas. In our meta-analysis study, it was preliminarily concluded that mir-21 level facilitated the prediction of long-term survival in cancers including NSCLC and pancreatic cancer, which further validated the prognostic value of this oncomir. As a matter of fact, the noteworthy association between aberrant mir-21 expression and poor survival could be best illuminated by its indispensable role in carcinogenesis and metastatic cascade. Latest findings have shed light upon the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of mir-21, which Figure 3. Forest plots derived from the analyses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (A) and pancreatic cancer (B) studies. Fixed effect model was used as the pooling method. Studies are stratified based on the type of specimen: 1 for cancerous tissue and 2 for circulating mir-21.
that, according to evidence-based Dentistry, clini- cally significant results found in clinical and labora- torial researches will be incorporated in clinical prac- tice, especially in dependence on conclusions drawn from systematic reviews andmeta-analyses. For this reason, assessing articles and understanding their findings may be a valuable time saver for every clini- cian who wishes to introduce new conducts, tech- nologies or treatments into his/her clinical practice in a responsible and scientific manner. Therefore, reading a good systematicreview or meta-analysis would prevent clinicians from reading several origi- nal research articles (which may be gathered in the systematicreview) with a view to reaching a clinical conclusion. However, it is critical for the clinician to read systematic reviews andmeta-analyses with a minimum comprehension of their structure and characteristics in order to interpret their findings in a reliable and clinically advantageous manner.
he authors observed increased risk of infection in patients who received deceased donor kidney transplantation in comparison with living donor kidney transplantation, with an odds ratio of 2.65 [CI 95% 2.05 – 3.41]. his result represents an increased risk of 165%, much higher than the percentage reported in the CONCLUSION, which states that the risk for developing infection was 20% higher.
After a thorough reviewof the literature, no randomized trial was found; consequently, we do not get a deﬁnitive answer for that question. So, up to the present date, the individual management of postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps has to be based on the balance between beneﬁts and risks. For this purpose, we suggest that the approach of these patients should consider the different situation, as follows.