Top PDF Microsatellite variability between apricot and related <it>Prunus</it> species

Microsatellite variability between apricot and related <it>Prunus</it> species

Microsatellite variability between apricot and related <it>Prunus</it> species

Dario Grattapaglia – EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology - Brazil Georgios J. Pappas Jr. – EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology - Brazil Giancarlo Pasquali - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS - Brazil Jaqueline Grima-Pettenati - Université Toulouse – France

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Genetic diversity in section Rhizomatosae of the genus Arachis (Fabaceae)

Genetic diversity in section Rhizomatosae of the genus Arachis (Fabaceae)

The genus Arachis (Fabaceae) native to South America, contains 80 species divided into nine sections, three of which contain species of special economic importance such as the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), belonging to the section Arachis, and some perennial forage species from sections Caulorrhizae and Rhizomatosae. We used microsatellite markers to assay genetic variability among 77 accessions of four species from section Rhizomatosae, the diploid Arachis burkartii (2n = 2x = 20) and the tetraploid Arachis glabrata, Arachis pseudovillosa and Arachis nitida (2n = 4x = 40). A total of 249 alleles were found in the fifteen loci analyzed and a high degree of intra and interspecific polymorphism was detected. The lowest intraspecific variation occurred in Arachis burkartii, while the smallest estimated interspecific value was between A. nitida and A. pseudovillosa and the largest was between A. burkartii and A. nitida. High observed heterozygosity was detected in A. glabrata. The diploid accessions grouped in one cluster and the tetraploid accessions in another. It was possible to distinguish all 77 accessions and the genetic distance between accessions could not be correlated with geographic origin.
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Transferability and use of microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of the germplasm of some Arachis section species of the genus Arachis

Transferability and use of microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of the germplasm of some Arachis section species of the genus Arachis

The Arachis section is the most important of the nine sections of the genus Arachis because it includes the cultivated peanut, Arachis hypogaea. The genetic improvement of A. hypogaea using wild relatives is at an early stage of de- velopment in spite of their potential as sources of genes, including those for disease and pests resistance, that are not found in the A. hypogaea primary gene pool. Section Arachis species germplasm has been collected and main- tained in gene banks and its use and effective conservation depends on our knowledge of the genetic variability con- tained in this material. Microsatellites are routinely used for the analysis of genetic variability because they are highly polymorphic and codominant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transferability of microsatellite primers and the assay of genetic variability between and within the germplasm of some species of the Arachis section. Four- teen microsatellite loci developed for three different species of Arachis were analyzed and 11 (78%) were found to be polymorphic. All loci had transferability to all the species analyzed. The polymorphic loci were very informative, with expected heterozygosity per locus ranging from 0.70 to 0.94. In general, the germplasm analyzed showed wide ge- netic variation.
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Implementing IT Financial Analysis

Implementing IT Financial Analysis

During these meetings, several aspects of the tool’s functioning were clarified with the expert. Moreover, these meetings were used to build a representation of the DSI in the SAS ABM. The model was built based on the documentation used in the previous iteration and was validated by the expert on SAS ABM. The model used reflected the same universe of the Financial Management System. The Resource Module has two dimensions: Cost Type and Supplier, since this is the information that was used to aggregate cost in the previous tool. Separating the resources in two different dimensions would allow for more information to be extracted from the cubes. The rest of the modules have one dimension, which consists of Services and Customers, respectively.
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Green Computing Green IT

Green Computing Green IT

Green Cloud – Eficiência Data Center 83 Sistema Mecânico Retira calor Sistema Elétrico Alimentação Carga crítica TI. TI = 36% Suporte = 64%[r]

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Let us do it ourselves

Let us do it ourselves

Traditionally, large companies in the medical field present us with ‘‘objects of desire’’, which are not always gen- uinely desired applications. Frequently, these proposals are accompanied by a massive marketing campaign (or con- vincing strategies). Special locations recruit engineers and occasionally, health professionals, to develop (often behind closed doors) new generations of old equipment.

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COP = benef it cost

COP = benef it cost

Condenser Evaporator Absorber Generator regenerator weak ammonia water solution strong ammonia water solution cold sink cold pump Food Expansion Valve liquid ammonia. 2 phase dry vapour[r]

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Calculating IT Services Costs

Calculating IT Services Costs

Abstract. The majority of current and future business models are relying on the involvement of IT resources. Always faster changing markets require a con- stantly adaption of business processes which leads to higher requirements for IT, and the crisis that affected most of the world's economy also forces organi- zations to stay efficient and competitive. The rapid growth of IT investments has put increasing pressure on managing IT costs for clearly weighing its bene- fits, but it is a very difficult venture, not only because efficient costing method- ologies are out of reach for most organizations but also because of the particu- larities of IT Services. As a solution to this problem, we propose a model using business process templates to calculate IT Services costs with much less effort and taking to account those particularities. Finally, we propose to demonstrate the model through field studies and evaluate it through interviews, Moody and Shanks Framework, Österle et al. principles and feedback from the scientific community.
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IKK<it>β </it>inhibitor identification: a multi-filter driven novel scaffold

IKK<it>β </it>inhibitor identification: a multi-filter driven novel scaffold

Volume 11 Supplement 4, 2010: Ninth International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB201B): Computational Biology and Immunome Research Volume 6 Supplement 1, 2010: Ninth Internation[r]

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Changes in semi-arid plant species associations along a livestock grazing gradient.

Changes in semi-arid plant species associations along a livestock grazing gradient.

Grazing is one of the most important biotic factors shaping plant communities. Biomass consumption by herbivores affects both plant species composition and community spatial structure [22–25]. In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, grazing reduces total plant cover, increases abundance of certain life forms such as annual plants, and changes the identity of dominant species [24,26]. Moreover, grazing may lead to increased positive interactions between plants as a result of associational defense; for example, some plant species protect themselves from herbi- vores by spatially associating with unpalatable plants [27–28]. Previous works testing SGH in ecosystems under grazing stress have found an increase in the importance of positive interactions at low grazing levels, but not at high grazing levels where negative interactions predominate [13,29]. Assessing the effects of grazing on plant interactions provides valuable information for ecosystem management (e.g. which species act as refuge for grazing-sensitive species; which species need a refuge to survive). Changes in community structure are central to detecting when an ecosystem is overgrazed [24].
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Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): application for conservation

Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): application for conservation

Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high po- tential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kin- ship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation.
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Some like it hot

Some like it hot

Unfortunately, the species composition of the resting or exiting An. gambiae s.l. compared to those entering the house is not known. Nevertheless, the proportion of gravid insects in resting catches varied in a similar fashion to that seen among the An. funestus. It is also possible that the different members of the An. gambiae complex behaved differently or disappeared from the study area at different rates. Nevertheless, all members of the complex did apparently disappear during the study so that, perhaps it was not just a specific species that was affected but was a complex wide problem. Meyrowitsch et al. (2011) were unable to determine the cause of the decline of An. gambiae s.l. in the Tanga region of Tanzania, three thousand kilometers to the north of Furvela. In the Kilifi area of Kenya population decline of An. gambiae, shown by a reduction in genetic diversity in the mosquito, was attributed to the introduction of LLIN’s (O’Loughlin et al., 2016). The decline in Furvela started before the introduction of any control measures and although the introduction of LLIN’s may have exacerbated the problem for the mosquito it may not have been the cause of the decline in the first place. The decline also paralleled that observed in malaria in the Rufiji basin (Ishengoma et al., 2013). That similar declines appeared to occur over a 3,000 km stretch of coastline indicates that a climatic factor was responsible.
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Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot( Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot( Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels

Apricot fruits (P. armeniaca L.) were collected at their optimum commercial maturity when enologically ripe in Uzumlu Town, Erzincan, Turkey. Bitter kernels belong to wild apricot fruits locally known as Zerdali, and sweet kernels are locally known as Hasanbey. The fresh fruit samples were transported to the laboratory where the stones were removed, and individual stones were hammered to obtain the seed kernel. Next, the skin was removed, and the kernels were dried on the bench and then ground to a powder using an electric blender. Powdered kernels were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus for 24 h. Subsequently, the methanol was evaporated with a rotary evaporator. After evaporation of the solvent, the w/w yield from the dry starting material was 14.3 and 12.6% for Hasanbey and Zerdali kernels, respectively. Water extracts were also prepared by adding 20 g powdered material to 200 mL boiling water in a glass flask, and the solutions were incubated at room tem- perature for 2 h on a rotating shaker (200 rpm). The mixture was filtered through Whatman (No. 1) filter paper, and the filtrate was lyophilized. The kernel extract yields were 8.2 (w/ w) and 7.9% (w/w) for the Hasanbey and Zerdali cultivars, respectively. All extracts were stored in a freezer at –24°C until use.
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BIBLIOTERAIA PARA IDOSOS: o que fica e o que significa BIBLIOTHERAPHY FOR OLD AGE: what it is and what it means

BIBLIOTERAIA PARA IDOSOS: o que fica e o que significa BIBLIOTHERAPHY FOR OLD AGE: what it is and what it means

The study intends to investigate the contribution that Bibliotheraphy can provide to aged people, in regard to their life expectations and social “isolation”, finding in the reading one of the roads for the dignity of human life. It is perceived that the insert of reading to this kind of groups, away of family and friends, is an important tool to make them believe in the certainty that they can be happy again. This research was accomplished in an institution named AMEM (Metropolitan Association of Eradication of the Begging), where old people are received without distinction of class, be of economical, social, race or religious credo. The 47 reside senior are assisted by 16 employees and volunteers of several areas, mainly from the health area. It was used as research method the qualitative approach, associated to the technique of sensitive listen, and as data collection instruments the interview, the tape recorder and the field diary. Bibliotheraphy arises in this context as a propiciator element of emotional and psychological support to the senior that live in those institutions, in order to allow them a better life quality.
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Entrepreneurs skills for creating and managing IT projects

Entrepreneurs skills for creating and managing IT projects

In the traditional perspective, entrepreneurship was associated with the creation of a business and therefore researchers argued that the skills required could be developed through training. In present days entrepreneurship is seen as a way of living very relevant to all parts of the economy requing a different approach to skills development as individual’s mindset, behaviour, skills and capabilities that can be applied to create value in a range of contexts: universities, social enterprises, organisations and new venture start-ups.
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Entrepreneurs skills for creating and managing IT projects

Entrepreneurs skills for creating and managing IT projects

In this section we will first consider how the theoretical concepts discussed in the literature, can be measured and related to the group of skills through factor analysis. Statistical analysis of data has been carried out using SPSS. As a primary set of measures, the Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin (KMO) was 0.755 which provides solid support for proceeding with factor analysis. It’s also important to refer that in the factor analysis process, the number of observations was 50 and two factors with eigenvalue > 1 were detected. They explain 71.8% of total variance and the extraction method was iterated principal factors and the rotation was oblimin oblique.
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Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

Compared to other types of food, fish may be considered expensive by consumers (Pieniak et al., 2008). In Turkey eating fish is misinterpreted as a luxury and that it only contributes to 3%  of the amount needed to correct protein deficiency (Aydın et al., 2011). According to a study conducted in Amasya, Turkey, 60% of fish consumers find the prices affordable and 30% find the prices high (Kızılaslan & Nalıncı, 2013). In the present study, a significant relationship between fish consumption level and income was detected (Table 6). Although price of fish is important and it is considered as expensive by 52% of the respondents (Figure 1), consumption cannot be increased by production or price policies alone. In our opinion, the most important reason is the fact that fish consumption habits are closely related to the cultural and geographic variables. It should also be noted that the income and price elasticity of the demand for fish is low (<1) in Turkey (Hatırlı et al., 2007; Akbay et al., 2008). Dn the other hand, 38% of the consumers believe that fish consumption can be increased through social awareness. The results of the Fisher’s exact Chi-square analysis indicated that there was a significant relationship between income class and “preferred type of fish”. It is understood that consumption of cultivated fish significantly increases with income (Table 4).
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Changing IT   Culture, Leadership & Employee Engagement – a basis to leverage IT  Organizational Excellence

Changing IT Culture, Leadership & Employee Engagement – a basis to leverage IT Organizational Excellence

10 increased availability for customer attendance and more effective support on problem resolution). Considering that the Culture Workshops have been focused on these variables it is valid to assert that there is an effective congruence between the investment made and the perceived service improvement. Based on the interviews which have been conducted, it is also possible to assert that the improvement effort, at internal processes’ level and at service quality, has been visible for the customer top-management structures. Most of them have done explicit references to the teams’ customer proximity and have perceived this program, and its communication strategy, as an explicit evidence of a strong improvement commitment – thus recognizing Changing IT as a structuring element for the new IT unit’s positioning (next to its internal customers). According to the internal Culture Survey, it is also important to emphasize the great congruency between Employees and Internal Customers – in the sense they perceive the IT Unit’s culture positioning: a typical Market Culture structure, focused on results, with major attention on service delivery’s quality monitoring. Although, within the Culture’s Value dimension it has been denoted some enforcement on items related to a hierarchical culture – control, rules’ accomplishment, maintenance and stability. Besides the evident greater concern with the customer’s satisfaction focus, employees still perceive the IT Unit as somewhat focused on internal processes.
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INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRONOMY AND MARKET COMMUNICATION RELATED TO IT

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRONOMY AND MARKET COMMUNICATION RELATED TO IT

Summary. A number of innovative development processes of gastronomy services and their market communication, using inte- grated impact on the perception of the services in focus by customers, have appeared recently in the area of gastronomy market. The essence of this solution is the process of creating a comprehensive image of the new directions offer catering. The aim of this study is to analyse the determinants of food service creation process using solutions such asŚ Żood Źesign, molecular cuisine and fusion cuisine in terms of market communication, based on the analysis of the experience of the world, our own observa- tions in Polish gastronomy and preliminary studies. The research method embraces descriptive method and structural analysis of the analysed phenomena and activities shaping services. Our study confi rmed that gastronomic services created by innovative concepts, represent themselves a synthetic, clear and materialized form of the communication market and when presented with the use of integrated marketing tools tend to attract consumers’ interest.
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Cellular and substrate-specific interactions characterising some of the esca pathogens of grapevine

Cellular and substrate-specific interactions characterising some of the esca pathogens of grapevine

On the test of growth other thing to have in consideration is the presence or absence of anti-fungal compounds. Fungal compounds can be soluble or insoluble in water (it can append that both type of anti-fungal compounds coexists in the wood). They can also have more effect or even be specific to some species of fungi, but fungi can also have mechanisms that suppress this plant defence. It this possible that the wood of Ficus carica have some anti-fungal compounds, the fungi T. versicolor and F. mediterranea in general ad grown more slowly on these media, when compared with other media. Other reason for this situation can be caused by some type of less affinity of the fungi to the type of wood. In P. chlamydospora this situation in Ficus media as not observed, this can be caused the rate of growth very low of this fungus, it can append that this specie need of more time to be observed some difference. Anti-fungal compounds can also explain why F. mediterranea and P.chlamydospora in some cases grown more in the media of Prunusand Vitis -. It is possible that both types of anti-fungal compounds (soluble and insoluble) are present in the wood, the wood that was not used to create the broth have the two types of anti-fungal compounds that caused some difficulty on the development of the fungi. The media that were created with the broth ore the wood used on the broth have only one type of anti- fungal compounds and fungi grow more easily on those cases. However it is on very difficult to explain the results, many of the hypotheses discussed here are only speculation. There is no test that confirms the presence or absence of anti-fungal compounds. The availability of the nutrients that are in the wood passed to the media, or not, is also speculation. There is no guaranty that in the media of wood dust directly mixed with agar, the soluble matter do not passed to the agar, in fact that is very unlikely. Also it is improbably that the wood used to create the broths passed all the soluble matter (nutrients and anti-fungal compounds) to the water, some substances stay on the wood, and become available in the media. For now the explanations given here are only hypothesis.
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