he **distribution** network directly **and** critically affects the structure, complexity, costs **and** overall efficiency associated with operating a Supply Chain (SC), as well as the service level, the two critical factors in any SC [1]. This directly influences the aptitude **of** participants in a SC (whether is under control **of** a single or a conglomerate **of** companies) to enter or stay competitive in a market. An aspect **of** the utmost importance is the escalating complexity **of** **distribution** **networks**. As SC become increasingly large **and** complex, a general trend today, due mainly to globalization [2], designing the **distribution** network becomes vital [3], [4]. Due to sheer size, capacity **of** classical tools to solve **and** optimise LA problems in real **distribution** **networks** was exceeded. For this reason,

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The first neurological network model was introduced by McCulloch **and** Pitts [19]. The Hebbian rule[20] represents neural learning procedures, which implies that the connection between two neurons is strengthened when both neurons are active at the same time. In [21], Werbos developed a learning procedure called backpropagation **of** error. Later on, the backpropagation **of** error learning procedure was separately developed **and** published by parallel distributed processing group [22], in which weights **and** biases are adjusted by error- derivative (delta) vectors backpropagated through the network. Backpropagation is commonly applied to feedforward multilayer **networks**. Sometimes this rule is called the generalized delta rule. Numerous ANN models are constructed; the differences in them might be the functions, the accepted values, the topology, the learning **algorithms**, etc.

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Nowadays, a number **of** metaheuristics have been developed for dealing with multiobjective optimization problems. Estimation **of** **distribution** **algorithms** (EDAs) are a special class **of** metaheuristics that explore the decision variable space to construct probabilistic models from promising solutions. The probabilistic model used in EDA captures statistics **of** decision variables **and** their interdependencies with the optimization problem. Moreover, the aggregation **of** local search methods can notably improve the results **of** multi-objective evolutionary **algorithms**. Therefore, these **hybrid** approaches have been jointly applied to multi-objective problems. In this work, a **Hybrid** Multi-objective Bayesian Estimation **of** **Distribution** Algorithm (HMOBEDA), which is based on a Bayesian network, is proposed to multi **and** many objective scenarios by **modeling** the joint probability **of** decision variables, objectives, **and** configuration parameters **of** an embedded local search (LS). We tested different versions **of** HMOBEDA **using** instances **of** the multi-objective knapsack problem for two to five **and** eight objectives. HMOBEDA is also compared with five cutting edge evolutionary **algorithms** (including a modified version **of** NSGA-III, for combinatorial optimization) applied to the same knapsack instances, as well to a set **of** MNK-landscape instances for two, three, five **and** eight objectives. An analysis **of** the resulting Bayesian network structures **and** parameters has also been carried to evaluate the approximated Pareto front from a probabilistic point **of** view, **and** also to evaluate how the interactions among variables, objectives **and** local search parameters are captured by the Bayesian **networks**. Results show that HMOBEDA outperforms the other approaches. It not only provides the best values for hypervolume, capacity **and** inverted generational distance indicators in most **of** the experiments, but it also presents a high diversity solution set close to the estimated Pareto front.

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A quasi-steady aerodynamic approach has been adopted to yield the expressions **of** lift (L), drag (D) **and** aerodynamic moment (M) in the hovering flight condition (Marques, 1993). The induced velocity, which yields a free airflow velocity parallel to the y-axis, has been neglected. The small displacement consideration results in the assumption that the blade cross-section remains parallel to the yz plane. Mass **and** elastic axes are not coincident, but the aerodynamic centre is taken at the same point **of** the elastic axis **and** cross-section intersection. The NACA 0015 airfoil has been assumed, which leads to coincident blade cross-section aerodynamic **and** pressure centres. A blade element dx has been taken **and** the corresponding load element has been computed. Considering that the blade elastic displacements in the free air flow **and** an operational region for the blade angle **of** attack, the aerodynamic loading results:

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internet banking is a facility that is very helpful to have increased from year to year. But on the other hand, it seems obvious that the facilities **of** Internet banking has not been fully utilized by the community in Indonesia. On the other hand the people who perform manual transactions still feel that with the transactions they feel more comfortable **and** confident that the transaction run perfectly, coupled with still a lack **of** understanding regarding the use **of** information technology, especially in online transactions **using** internet banking system. On the other side **of** the bank, which acts as the service provider mentions that the low risk that happening, but if further investigation services also have a high risk so slowly - the land can discourage users against internet banking services so expect banks also need to review **and** determine any factors that could affect services so that services can be developed. There are several factors that can affect the condition **of** the weakness **of** internet banking services, among others; First, the quality **of** internet banking services have not been evenly distributed. This makes the customer is often doomed to failure transaction that resulted in disappointment. Second, reliability **and** security. Some modes crimes include forging website (modus crimes where the perpetrator makes viewing **and** website domain address exactly with the original bank website so that customers be fooled **and** actors can easily obtain a username **and** password. The website is also equipped with a key- logger (a virus the hidden **and** the duty to record every key typed user input keyboard to get the username **and** password **of** customers) so that this virus will record any data. Third, as well as SMS banking **and** mobile banking, internet banking also does

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Structural optimization **using** computational tools has be- come a major research field in recent years. Methods com- monly used in structural analysis **and** optimization may de- mand considerable computational cost, depending on the problem complexity. Therefore, many techniques have been evaluated in order to diminish such impact. Among these various techniques, Artificial Neural **Networks** (ANN) may be considered as one **of** the main alternatives, when com- bined with classic analysis **and** optimization methods, to reduce the computational effort without affecting the final solution quality. Use **of** laminated composite structures has been continuously growing in the last decades due to the ex- cellent mechanical properties **and** low weight characterizing these materials. Taken into account the increasing scien- tific effort in the different topics **of** this area, the aim **of** the present work is the formulation **and** implementation **of** a computational code to optimize manufactured complex lam- inated structures with a relatively low computational cost by combining the Finite Element Method (FEM) for structural analysis, **Genetic** **Algorithms** (GA) for structural optimiza- tion **and** ANN to approximate the finite element solutions. The modules for linear **and** geometrically non-linear static fi- nite element analysis **and** for optimize laminated composite plates **and** shells, **using** GA, were previously implemented. Here, the finite element module is extended to analyze dy- namic responses to solve optimization problems based in fre- quencies **and** modal criteria, **and** a perceptron ANN module is added to approximate finite element analyses. Several ex- amples are presented to show the effectiveness **of** ANN to approximate solutions obtained **using** the FEM **and** to re- duce significatively the computational cost.

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2.6 A **hybrid** approach (nonlinear regression approach) For one tea variety growing in the greenhouse, the neural network approach were applied to build the spectral-chemical relationship **using** nonlinear regression way. A one hidden layer feed-forward, error-back propagation artificial neural network were adopted in this research, for this algorithm has been frequently **and** successfully used in previous studies (Skidmore et al. 1997). To find the optimal number **of** nodes in the hidden layer, we investigated the training **and** test accuracies **using** different number **of** neurons (1-20) in the network (the maximum number was designed no more than 20 to keep the model parsimony **and** save the calculation time). Levenberg- Marquardt optimization method was used to train the **networks** in which the parameters **of** **networks** were adjusted adaptively (Lera **and** Pinzolas, 2002; More, 1978) **and** an earlier stop technique was applied in this **study** to avoid overtraining (Lin **and** Chen, 2004).

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Abstract. In the article we give the results **of** **comparative** analysis **of** the composition **of** the Eurasian hydromineral resources **and** we implement the assessment **of** their impact on the physiological condition **of** an organism **of** the person according to biochemical studies **of** venous blood. Processing **of** initial data on the composition **and** properties **of** mineral waters chloride-hydrocarbonate, sulphate-hydrocarbonate **and** chloride- sulphate types **and** venous blood are made **using** the method **of** mathematical **modeling**, developed by the authors **of** this article. It is shown that in the balneological impact hydromineral resources on the body hemoglobin **and** oxygen in the blood increases, glucose decreases, **and** acid-base pH shifts to high alkalinity.

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Nearctic-Neotropical migrants [37,81]. Despite the observed **genetic** differentiation between the two populations **of** D. eliza, the question **of** how their isolation occurred remains unanswered. It is likely that the Veracruz population represents a relatively recent colonization event, though it is difficulty to directly observe immigration events in nature [82]. Colonization has been more important than large-scale vicariance in determining the phyloge- netic structure **of** hummingbird faunas, particularly the insular Mellisugini species assemblage **of** the West Indies [83], owing to their high dispersal ability, their capacity to adapt to novel environments [82–83], **and** the fact that migratory behavior can evolve rapidly in response to selection [37]. The Mellisugini are highly opportunistic generalists that, seasonally **and** altitudinally, cover large distances to track floral resources [5,84–85]. These migratory habits confer a natural vagility **and** may have predisposed them to fly long distances **and** tolerate a wide range **of** ecological regimes [84]. Although migratory behavior might have increased the colonization success **of** Mellisugini in the West Indies **and** remote geographic areas with a seasonal climate, vagrancy does not appear to predict the colonization **of** oceanic islands or remote areas [83], **and** it is not known whether migratory Mellisugini species are more prone to vagrancy than sedentary hummingbird species such as the Mexican Sheartail. An alternative explanation is that ancestral colonizers arrived naturally from Yucatan to Veracruz, a direction potentially assisted by the prevailing east-to-west trade winds **and** hurricanes. Our estimates **of** historical gene flow indicating a general trend **of** unidirectional gene flow between populations correspond to a Yucatan-to-Veracruz direction **of** historical migration.

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Kuo, Hu, **and** Chen [15] used a **hybrid** model incorporating Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN) **genetic** **algorithms**, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), **and** Self Organizing Map (SOM). RBNN was used however as the core approximator where the **genetic** algorithm was employed to enhance the results. Kuo, Hu, **and** Chen [15] noted that blending **genetic** algorithm with RBNN in one model is complicating the model **and** extending the computation time though it performs better. So, they proposed to inject Self-Organizing map in the procedure to reduce the effect **of** the complexity **of** the model on the computation time **and** combine the evolving feature **of** the **genetic** algorithm with the memory preserving nature **of** PSO to ensure the diversity in the population. The implementation was carried on different functions based on standalone models **and** their proposed **hybrid** model. Their results brings the least percentages **of** errors.

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This thesis investigates the application **of** evolutionary **algorithms** to align two or more 2-D images by means **of** image registration. The proposed search strategy is a transformation parameters-based approach involving the affine transform. A noisy ob- jective function is proposed **and** tested **using** two well-known evolutionary **algorithms** (EAs), the **genetic** algorithm (GA) as well as the evolutionary strategies (ES) that are suitable for this particular ill-posed problem. In contrast with GA, which was originally designed to work on binary representation, ES was originally developed to work in contin- uous search spaces. Surprisingly, results **of** the proposed real coded **genetic** algorithm are far superior when compared to results obtained from evolutionary strategies’ framework for the problem at hand. The real coded GA uses Simulated Binary Crossover (SBX), a parent-centric recombination operator that has shown to deliver a good performance in many optimization problems in the continuous domain. In addition, a new technique for matching points, between a warped **and** static images by **using** a randomized ordering when visiting the points during the matching procedure, is proposed. This new tech- nique makes the evaluation **of** the objective function somewhat noisy, but GAs **and** other population-based search **algorithms** have been shown to cope well with noisy fitness eval- uations. The results obtained from GA formulation are competitive to those obtained by the state-**of**-the-art classical methods in image registration, confirming the usefulness **of** the proposed noisy objective function **and** the suitability **of** SBX as a recombination operator for this type **of** problem.

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The phylogenetic trees based on COI sequences (S2 Fig.) resulted in clearly differentiated clades for each species in accordance with previous studies [21,22]. Among the regressions used to correct the **genetic** distances according to geographic distances, the relationship **of** orig- inal p-distances against log-transformed geographic distances showed the best fit. As expected for the reduced geographic scale involved in the Delaunay triangulation, the asymptotic regres- sion failed in finding any significant solution. We thus computed **and** interpolated the residuals between p-distance **and** log-geographic distance. The resulting **genetic** divergence landscapes **and** the assignment **of** individuals to a species based on their position in the phylogenetic tree indicated, for both cryptic pairs, parapatry on mainland with a contact zone in the Iberian Pen- insula, **and** not a single case **of** coexistence on islands (Fig. 2). For Polyommatus, the strongest **genetic** divergence with respect to geographic distance corresponded to abrupt changes **of** dis- tributions across the narrow Messina **and** Bonifacio straits, along the Tyrrhenian Sea between Italy **and** Sardinia, between the Balearics **and** Iberia **and** between northern **and** southern Iberia. In southern Iberia the picture became more complex due to the existence **of** isolated popula- tions **of** P. Icarus in particular mountaintops, such as Sierra Nevada **and** Sierra de La Sagra. For Aricia, the highest divergence emerged across the Bonifacio strait, along the Tyrrhenian Sea, between North Africa **and** Sicily, between the Balearics **and** France, in Catalonia **and** along the Pyrenees. As a result **of** intraspecific divergence, minor differentiation was also found between Corsica **and** the Tuscan Archipelago **and** between Sicily **and** the Italian Peninsula. In summary, for both species pairs the most pronounced **genetic** differences were located over sea areas, con- firming that sea straits have strong power in the formation **and** maintenance **of** non-

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Shape recovery is a classical computer vision problem. The objective **of** shape recovery is to obtain a three-dimensional (3-D) scene description from one or more two-dimensional (2- D) images. Shape recovery from shading (SFS) is a computer vision approach, which reconstructs 3-D shape **of** an object from its shading variation in 2-D images. When a point light source illuminates an object, they appear with different brightness, since the normal vectors corresponding to different parts **of** the object’s surface are different. The spatial variation **of** brightness, referred to as shading, is used to estimate the orientation **of** surface **and** then calculate the depth map **of** the object

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The benchmark test is also conducted **using** the same environment. Previous research has shown that optimal patrolling can be obtained if all agents follow the same TSP or Hamilton cycle, equally distributed in time **and** space (Smith **and** Rus 2010; Pasqualetti et al. 2012). However, this is based on topological representation **of** the environment in which patrolling targets are treated as points. In this work an adjusted algorithm is adopted to fit the problem that patrolling targets are segments with physical length. The problem to solve, known as the Rural Postman Problem (Christofides et al. 1981), is to find a shortest circuit that traverses a subset **of** required segments (hotspots) at least once **of** a connected undirected graph. One well-known algorithm for this problem, the Christofides Algorithm (Christofides et al. 1981), is used in this work as the benchmark strategy. Note that this is a heuristic solution **and** has been proved that in the case where the underlying network satisfies the triangular inequality property, the performance **of** this algorithm has a bound **of** 3/2, which means the performance is bound accordingly: (Christofides Solution)/(Optimal Solution) 3/2(Pearn **and** Wu 1995). In the following discussion, the patrolling strategy based on Christofides algorithm is referred to as the Christofides Cycle Patrolling Strategy (CCPS).

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This indicator has been **using** by the community since 2003. Basically, the hypervolume **of** a set **of** solutions measures the size **of** the portion **of** objective space that is dominated by those solutions as a group. In general, hypervolume is favored because it captures in a single scalar both the closeness **of** the solutions to the optimal set **and**, to some extent, the spread **of** the solutions across objective space. There are many works on this indicator such as in [13] which the author studied how expensive to calculate this indicator was. Few years later, it was proposed a faster alternative by **using** Monte Carlo simulation ( See [14]) that it was addressed for many objectives problem by Monte Carlo simulation. In the order to get a right definition, you can look at [14, 13].

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Those traditional **algorithms** such as Cupidity Algorithm, Dynamic Programming Algorithm, are all facing the same obstacle, which is when the problem scale N reaches to a certain degree, the so- called “Combination Explosion” will occur. A lot **of** **algorithms** have been proposed to solve TSP. Some **of** them (based on dynamic programming or branch **and** bound methods) provide the global optimum solution. Other **algorithms** are heuristic ones, which are much faster, but they do not guarantee the optimal solutions. The TSP was also approached by various modern heuristic methods, like simulated annealing, evolutionary **algorithms** **and** tabu search, even neural **networks**. In this paper, we proposed a new algorithm based on Inver-over operator, for traveling salesman problems. In the new algorithm we will use new strategies including selection operator, replace operator **and** some new control strategy, which have been proved to be very efficient to accelerate the converge speed.[5]

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During the sheet hydro forming process, the work p iece or sheet meta l is placed over the die. The blank holder **and** cylinder combination is placed over the die. The bolts are properly tightened with the die **and** blank holder. Abov e the cylinder the punch is bolted with the piston **of** the hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic piston is wounded by spring in the hydraulic cylinder **and** it moves by stroke **of** hydraulic pressure. The punch **and** piston are connected by bolts. The total hydraulic cylinder is welded on rectangular holding device. Above the hydraulic cylinder the top base plate is welded with a holding device. The container (oil tank) is connected to rectangular holding device by bolts. The container (oil tank) is built by two piston such as high pressure piston **and** low pressure piston. With this, a relief valve, four ball **and** threads are arranged inside the container (oil tank).The container (oil tank) **and** hydraulic cylinder are connected by a T-pipe through which oil flo ws during the sheet hydro forming process.

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To the best **of** our knowledge, Teong Ong et al. [16] were the first authors to propose an evolutionary approach to generate terrains. They proposed an evolutionary design **optimisation** technique to generate terrains by applying **genetic** **algorithms** to transform height maps in order to conform them to the required features. Their approach breaks down the terrain generation pro- cess into two stages: the terrain silhouette generation phase, **and** the terrain height map generation phase. The input to the first phase is a rough, 2D map laying out the geography **of** the desired terrain that can be randomly generated or specified by the designer. This map is processed by the first phase to remove any unnaturally straight edges **and** then fed to the second phase, along with a database **of** pre-selected height map samples representa- tive **of** the different terrain types. The second phase searches for an optimal arrangement **of** elevation data from the database that approximates the map generated in the first phase. Since the height map generation algorithm is inherently random, the terrains generated from two separate runs **of** the al- gorithm will not be the same, even if they use the same map. While this has the benefit **of** allowing an infinite number **of** variations to be created, it could also inhibit the designer’s creation process, as each successive run would produce an entirely new terrain, even if the designer had made only a small tweak to the map between runs. To control this, the seed for the random number generator can be kept the same across separate runs **of** the algorithm, allowing the same terrain to be regenerated as many times as desired.

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Recently, micropumps have been designed with various types **of** actuator used as a device for control on mechanical movement according to the micropump’s application. Valveless micropumps are commonly driven by a piezoelectric element attached on the flexible diaphragm. By applying voltage on the piezoelectric material induces deformation on the diaphragm which creates displacement **and** generates pressure head inside the pump chamber. The ability **of** the micropump to direct the working fluid inside the chamber is based upon the flow resistance in the diffuser elements. Typical characteristics **of** piezoelectric actuators include large actuation force, fast response time **and** simple structure. Figure 1 shows the cross< section **of** piezoelectric micropump with piezo disc on the diaphragm.

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