ThegenusLecidella Körb. (Lecanoraceae; ) is a medium-size genus with approximately 80 accepted species . Thespecies are distinguished based on a few taxonomically diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters, in addition to secondary chemistry. Thegenus is generally regarded as taxonomically difficult due to a high degree of variation and/or plasticity in diagnostic characters. As lecideoid lichens, Lecidella was considered to be part ofthe huge genus Lecidea Ach. for a long time . Although Lecidella was established by Körber in 1855 , thegenus was not widely used until Hertel  recognized it as a subgenus of Lecidea and subsequently  at generic level mainly based onthe secondary chemistry which differs from Lecidea in the presence of chlorinated norlichexanthones. Lecidella was classified in Lecanora- ceae [28, 29] mainly based onthe similarity in ascus-type. Our knowledge ofspecies delimita- tion in thegenus vastly improved over the last decades with the improvement of identification of chlorinated xanthones using TLC (thin layer chromatography), HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), and mass spectrometry [30–39]. As currently circumscribed, Lecidella is comprised of crustose lichens characterized by black lecideine apothecia, persistent proper excipulum, clavate, large amyloid, eight-spored asci referred to as Lecidella-type , paraphy- ses that typically separate readily in KOH, simple, hyaline, non-halonate ascospores, curved, filiform conidia and the occurrence of xanthones in the majority ofspecies. Thegenus is wide- spread, fromthe tropics to polar regions, occurring on various substrata, including rock, detri- tus, bark, wood and mosses. Presently, about 10 speciesofLecidella have been reported in mainlandChina [40–42].
Legrand (2005) used six diagnostic characters to distinguish between the two sub- species, D. a. adamsi and D. a. drumonti. Among them, we found four characters, namely body size, general body shape, longitudinal bands onthe pronotum, and the shape ofthe triangular umbone ofthe elytra, to be ambiguous. He also illustrated the metasternal process and the parameres and explained in the key to subspecies that the ridge ofthe metasternal process does not reach the plate, and the process is weakly raised and more rounded anteriorly in D. a. drumonti. Also, the parameres of D. a. drumonti are shorter and with more acute lateral angles than of D. a. adamsi. However, we found that these characters were variable in the specimens fromthe two geographi- cally isolated populations (Fig. 8). For example, the shape ofthe lateral angles ofthe parameres of Tibetan D. a. drumonti (Fig. 8C, D) is similar to that of a D. a. adamsi from South Korea (Fig 8K, L), and another specimen of D. a. drumonti from Sichuan, China (Fig. 8G, H) resembles a D. a. adamsi from Dandong, China (Fig. 8S, T). We did not ind any signiicant diagnostic characters to separate the two subspecies and therefore the new synonymy is here proposed (Dicronocephalus adamsi drumonti Legrand, 2005 = Dicronocephalus adamsi adamsi Pascoe, 1863, syn. nov).
This genus is recognized by its T6 with lateral margin even, T7 with lateral mar- gin serrated, and holes associated with setae in the anterolateral corners of abdominal terga. Princis (1965) listed 22 speciesof Salganea worldwide. Bey-Bienko (1957) listed 3 speciesof Salganea from Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, China, 2 of which, S. amboinica (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893) and S. morio (Burmeister, 1838), prob- ably referred to S. taiwanensis and S. raggei respectively (Roth 1979). Roth (1979) reported 42 species and 4 subspecies in this genus, 3 speciesof which were fromChina. In addition, he erected 5 species-groups, based onthe anterior margin ofthe pronotum and male genital phallomere L2d, i.e., the papua species-group, the foveo- late species-group, the raggei species-group, the morio species-group and the nigrita species-group, although themolecular analysis result did not conform to this conclu- sion completely (Maekawa et al. 2001). Asahina (1988) considered that S. taiwanensis was composed of two subspecies onthe basis ofthe body size, male genital phal- lomere L2d and on distribution as well. But according to themolecularphylogeny and geographic distribution of wood-feeding cockroach genera Salganea Stål, 1877 and Panesthia Serville, 1831 in East Asia Islands, Maekawa et al. (1999a) did not agree with the subspecies designations of Asahina. Maekawa et al. (1999b) described one species and then described one species, providing the phylogenetic tree for 27 species and 3 subspecies ofthegenus Salganea in 2005. Up to now, there are 47 spe- cies and 6 subspecies recognized worldwide (Beccaloni 2007), of which 5 species are fromChina.
description obtained for S. kartabo sp. nov. was further shortened to match those of previously described species. Google Earth was used to estimate locality coordinates. The images were flipped for consistency when necessary. High-resolution versions ofthe images and distribution maps for all speciesof Simlops will be available at the PBI-Oonopidae page (http://research.amnh.org/oonopidae).
In the last few decades, several species- specific primer sets have been developed for RKN diagnosis (Table 1). Primer design is crucial for the success of this approach. Species-specific primers must cover any intra-specific variation and not to amplify non-target nematodes (ROBERTS et al., 2016). Several primers designed for identification of tropical RKN species are based on SCAR (Sequence- characterized amplified region), including M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. paranaensis, M. exigua and M. enterolobii (Table 1). SCAR markers are developed fromthe characterization and sequencing of polymorphic bands resulting from RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis (CARNEIRO et al., 2016).
In this study, we used SSR markers and capillary electro- phoresis as tools to assess the genetic variation and deter- mine the relationships among different Festuca accessions from a wide range of geographical origins. These acces- sions are available in international collections (USDA and AGB), and the high quality and easily reproducible data presented in this work can be used to select diverse parents in breeding programs. They are also useful for maintaining the genetic variation in germplasm, which is crucial in uti- lizing the genetic potential of these genotypes for improve- ment of traits needed for adaptation to different conditions. In addition, the results fromthe flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in the Festuca accessions suggest that the ge- netic structure of fescue is more complex than previously thought. Thus, analyzing the DNA content of plants should be an easy way for creating new cultivars in this economi- cally important forage grass. Furthermore, the recent iden- tification and characterization of SNP markers in tall fescue morphotypes suggests that the SNP collection could be used for cultivar identification, genetic linkage map con- struction, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in this important crop (Hand et al., 2012b). Final- ly, the results shown in this study indicate that Festuca arundinacea Schreb. has a high level of genetic diversity within the INTA germplasm collection and, as a conse- quence, represents valuable material for future breeding programs.
Diagnosis. he new Apteroloma species, is most similar to A. jinfo, both species share the following characters in combination: body large (6.7–7.7 mm in length), dorsum dark brown with uniformly ferruginous appendages (Figs 1, 3), pronotum with wide base (Figs 1, 3), aedeagus with elongate apex in lateral view (Figs 5, 9) and sides before apex only slightly broadened in dorsal view (Figs 7, 11), female ventrite VIII with narrow spiculum ventrale (Figs 8, 12).
Diversity of bamboo-feeding planthoppers. he current authors paid particular at- tention to thespeciesof bamboo planthopper in ield research and collected large quan- tities of specimens in the past twelve years. A number of new taxa or new records were found and some of them have been published (Chen and Yang 2010). Based onthe literature and the result of ield work, thespecies diversity of Chinese bamboo-feeding planthoppers is very abundant and more than 84 species (in 18 genera) feed exclusively on Bambusoideae (Che et al. 2009; Chen and Yang 2010; Hou and Chen 2010a, b, c; Chen and Zhang 2011; Yang and Chen 2011; Chang and Chen 2012; Zhang and Chen 2013). hey mostly are members ofthe family Delphacidae (78 species in 15 genera), Caliscelidae (three species in two genera), Cixiidae (two species in one genus) and Tropiduchidae (one species in one genus). he genus Symplanella with three known species and three new species described in this paper, represents the second bamboo- feeding genus in the tribe Augilini after Pseudosymplanella Che, Zhang & Webb, 2009 (Che et al. 2009).
Discription. Male. Head creamy brown; compound eyes grayish black, ocelli black with grayish black ocellar ield; antennae and labrum brown; maxillary palpi brown with distal segments dark colored. horax brown with dark brown markings on mesonotum; legs brown, with tarsi and distal part of tibia dark brown. Abdominal segments mostly creamy white, with apical regions dark brown. Fore wing (Fig. 1A) hyaline with brownish tinge, pterostigma dark brown with dark brown band along proximal margin; veins brown, except for Rs fork and M-Cu 1a fusion hyaline. Ve- nation: Rs and M fused for very short distance, meeting at point or connected by crossvein; distal margin of discoidal cell straight; irst and second sections of Cu 1a almost equal length, diverging at angle about 120°. Hind wing hyaline with brownish coloration; veins brown.
Mycetophylax seems to be a small genus with marked geo- graphic distribution. It is restricted to the sand dune environments ofthe Atlantic coast. M. conformis and M. simplex are parapatric throughout most of their range (Fig. 2). M. conformis and M. simplex did not overlap in their geographic distribution along the Atlantic coast, but in Cabo Frio, RJ (Fig. 2). This pattern suggests that speci- ation between them could have been facilitated by vicariant events. The coast of Brazil is known to have been profoundly remodeled during the Quaternary (Dillenburg and Hesp, 2009). The sand dune fields along the coast were modified due to marine introgressions and regressions, which could have created islands that isolated populations and might have promoted speciation. Yet, M. morschi is sympatric with the other two species. However, their nests were positioned more inland, far from sea shore, where the vegetation is denser. This niche partitioning suggests that spe- ciation between M. morschi and other Mycetophylax species could have been facilitated by habitat shift events (Fig. 2B). The high phy- logenetic resolution (phylogenetic signal) among the Mycetophylax species may reflect that there has been sufficient time for the accu- mulation of shared derived nucleotide substitutions among lin- eages and that supports the observed monophyly.
Male genitalia (Figs 7–10). Tegmen (Fig. 7) in lateral view strongly curved near base, ca. 3.5 mm in length, rhombic in shape and widest behind middle in ventral view; lateral lobes ca. two-ninths of total length of tegmen, provided with long setae on apical half. Median lobe (Fig. 8) slightly shorter than tegmen; moderately curved in lateral view; apex rounded subacuminate in antero-dorsal view. Tergite VIII (Fig. 9) nearly as broad as long, apex distinctly emarginate, with moderately long setae. Endophallus in non-everted condition (Fig. 10) long, about 3 times as long as me- dian lobe, with 3 membranous parts, BPH, MPH and APH; BMP short, about one quarter ofthe length of median lobe; MPH long, about 2.7 times as long as median lobe, strongly curved at basal two-thirds, with MT and CT fused each other, of which delimited from PB by a distinct constriction; MT+CT sparsely provided with small spicules which become denser near swollen apex; PB provided with same kind of spic- ules as MT+CT, which become denser at apical half, basal part of PB rather narrow, only 0.35 times as wide as anterior part; APH short, cylindrical in shape. Ejaculatory ducts double.
their purchasing behavior. The work on CSR and consumer choice could be a new growth opportunity for marketing. CSR initiatives with well-designed targets and high consumer awareness through communication could play an important role in successful marketing. Becker- Olsen et al. (2006) suspected the assumption that consumers will always reward firms for their socially responsible initiatives unselectively. They designed two studies to explore how consumers react to different CSR activities. In addition, they investigated the impact ofthe motivations and time choice of CSR initiatives. CSR activities that do not fit with a fir m‘s expertise have negative impact on consumers‘ attitudes toward a firm and the firm‘s credibility. Firms can be perceived as ―doing good‖ only by addressing selected CSR initiatives. CSR activities with low fitness with a firm are perceived as ―doing CSR business‖ by consumers, and lead to non-positive consumer evaluations. Perceived motivations of consumers have effect on consumers‘ evaluation of a firm and a firm‘s CSR initiatives. If consumers believe CSR initiatives are profit- driven rather than social-driven, then they will assess a firm and its credibility negatively. This leads to a low likelihood of consumers‘ purchase intention. The time of practicing CSR activities matters to consumers‘ assessments. Proactive CSR activities help firms get positive evaluations from consumers. In contrast, consumers regard reactive CSR activities as doing ―CSR business‖. Reactive CSR has non-positive contribution to a firm‘s image (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006).
In the present studies physiological aspect ofthe blood flow has been modeled with a view to estimate the physiological flow parameters such as pressure, against adverse conditions. The study is basically aims at as an advisory and precautionary mode. Efforts have been made to compare the results with practical situations available in the literature with respect to myocardial infarction [heart attack]. Blood flow modeling has paved the way for understanding the intricacy ofthe fluid flow pattern in the human body[1,2].The importance of blood flow in Cardiovascular system has been highlighted by Young. Later the models have been refined by accounting it for pulsatile aspect  and the effects of blood cells [5-6] by using micro-continuum theories [7-9].Effects of body acceleration and magnetism have also been studied onthe blood flows [10-12]. In the present model, blood is assumed to be represented by a couple stress fluids  and the model has been developed for the straight tube [Figure1].
Chapin (1940) proposed the new genus Serangiella, and characterized it as possess- ing nine antennomeres with the third strongly triangular, a roughly quadrate mandi- ble, and tarsi composed of 4 tarsomeres. He designated Oeneis lavescens Motschulsky, 1866, as the type speciesof Serangiella, but without seeing its type material. Ślipiński and Burckhardt (2006) examined the specimens used by Chapin (1940) for the de- scription of Serangiella and found that tarsomeres 3 and 4 are partially fused in some specimens. hey concluded that this character is unreliable for separating genera ofthe tribe Serangiini, and synonymised Microserangium with Serangiella.
Male genitalia (Fig. 8). Uncus wide at base, narrowed toward bluntly rounded apex, length as long as basal width. Gnathos dilated basally, slender and pointed dis- tally, hooked apically, about 2/5 length of uncus. Costa wider than sacculus; distal process fi ngerlike, arising from about 4/5 length of valva, forming an acute angle with valva at outside, bearing a needlelike apical prong slightly exceeding end of valva. Valva about four times longer than wide, basal half slightly narrower, widened and arciform ventrally from middle to 5/6; distal 1/6 triangularly shaped, densely covered with long setae, narrowly rounded at apex; clasper fi nger-shaped, blunt api- cally; sacculus about half length of valva, basal half slightly wider than distal half. Vinculum broad, U-shaped; anterior margin slightly concave inward at middle. Jux- ta V-shaped; lateral lobe narrowed distally, curved inward. Phallus about same length as valva, thick at base; with three needle-like cornuti, longest one about 3/5 length
Vertex completely concealed by pronotum (Figs 13–14). Distance between eyes about 0.2 times width of head. Ocellus same as scrobe and ocellus width equal to in- terocular width (Fig. 14). Pronotum punctured and with two crescentic depressions on disc, rhomboidal, broader than long; with anterior margin curved and posterior mar- gin obtusely produced (Fig. 13). Tegmina and wings fully-developed, apex rounded (Figs 13–14). Fore femur with 5 or 6 spines along anterior margin and 2 apical spines. First segment of hind tarsus with spines along most of its length and plantula occupy- ing the terminal. Each tergite with a small ridge in the middle.
horax. Pronotum brownish black. Prescutum brownish yellow with three broad and nearly conluent brownish black stripes. Scutum brownish black with middle area paler, each lobe with a light yellow spot. Scutellum and mediotergite brownish black (Fig. 3c). Pleuron (Fig. 3a) yellow with two black stripes, upper one extending from cervical region to mediotergite, lower one extending from fore coxa to middle coxa. Hairs on thorax black. Fore coxa brownish black, middle and hind coxae pale yellow; trochanters brownish black; femora yellow to brownish yellow with tips darker; tibiae and tarsi brownish yellow. Hairs on legs black. Wing (Fig. 3d) tinged pale grey, black seams along cord and m-m and paler seam over base of CuA; veins pale brown, darker at CuA and A 2 and in clouded areas. Venation: Sc 1 ending a very short distance beyond origin of Rs, Sc 2 a greater distance before origin of Rs; R 2+3 ending beyond end of basal section of R 4+5 ; basal section of CuA 1 beyond fork of M and at one-third of cell dm; A 1 curved suddenly at middle, basal half nearly straight. Haltere length 0.8–0.9 mm, white.
Diagnosis. Postantennal organ oval, with numerous simple vesicles perpendicular to the long axis; antennal basis more or less indicated; clubs of AIIIO smooth, ribbed or granulated; Ant. IV with S-chaetae diferentiated or not, ms close to the second row of chaetae, and no bulb on Ant. IV; labral chaetae formula 4/1,4,2; no multiplication of dorsal pseudocelli, 3 (rarely 4 or 2) pseudocelli in the antenno-basal group, 3–4 (rarely 2 or 5) pseudocelli per half-tergum on Abd. IV, 3 (rarely 4 or 2) pseudocelli per half- tergum on Abd. V (1–3 in a postero-internal group, one in a postero-lateral group); chaeta d0 on head present, rarely absent; h. I usually with pseudocelli; Abd. VI with one or two axial chaetae (a0 or m0, or both); anal spines present or absent; distal whorl of tibiotarsal chaetae as 6, 7 or 9, no clavate tenent hairs; furcal rudiment as a inely granulated area with 4 small dental chaetae in two rows posteriorly, one manubrial row of chaetae present posteriorly to dental chaetae.
he aleocharine genus Tetrasticta Kraatz, 1857 (Aleocharini) contains 13 species worldwide (Maruyama and Sugaya 2002; Maruyama 2004; Pace 2000, 2008, 2013b; Yamamoto and Maruyama 2013). Pace (2010) synonymized Creochara Cameron, 1931 with Tetrasticta and repeated this arrangement in his recent paper (Pace 2013a). According to Yamamoto and Maruyama (2013), the synonymization of Tetrasticta by Pace (2010) does not provide suicient evidence and should not be consider as valid. Currently, no speciesof this genus has been reported from
To PNPD/CAPES for the Post-Doctoral Scholarship awarded to SAS; to Dr. Georgina Bond-Buckup (UFRGS) for identifying thespeciesof Aegla; to Dr. Suzana B. Amato (UFRGS) for the permission to use the Zeiss Axiolab microscope to take the photomicrographs; to the staff ofthe Laboratório MEV at Tecnovates, Univates for the SEM operation; to the biologists Camila A. Schmidt, Guilherme Consatti, Tairis Costa, and Gerson Luiz Ely Junior for their invaluable help in the field and in the laboratory; to the environmental engineer Daniel Martins dos Santos for the help onthe field and with the design ofthe maps; and to the biologists and english translators Joyce Baptista and John O’Donnell for kindly reviewing the English ofthe several versions ofthe manuscript.