Tributaries ofcoronarysinus: The great cardiac vein and middle cardiac vein are t he 2 m ost consist ent ly present t ribut aries ofcoronarysinus . The great cardiac vein has been r epor t ed t o vary consider ably in it s course [12,13]. Lat eral and post erior venous branches are seen in <50% ofhuman heart unlike the great cardiac vein and middle cardiac vein w hich are seen in >90% . Ort ale JR et al.  have indicat ed t hat t he left marginal vein may vary in it s course in relat ion t o t he lat eral w all of t he heart and drain eit her int o great cardiac vein or int o t he coronarysinus, but t his m ay not be definit ive . In the present study, left marginal vein w as absent in 2 specim ens and sm all cardiac vein w as absent in 1 specimen (Table 2).
Experimental studies regarding coronary embryogenesis suggest that the endocardium is a source of endothelial cells for the myocardial networks. As this was not previously docu- mented inhuman embryos, we aimed to study whether or not endothelial tip cells could be cor- related with endocardial-dependent mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Six human embryos (43–56 days) were obtained and processed in accordance with ethical regulations; immunohistochemistry was performed for CD105 (endoglin), CD31, CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin antibodies. Primitive main vessels were found deriving from both the sinus venosus and aorta, and were sought to be the primordia of the venous and arterial ends of cardiac microcirculation. Subepicardial vessels were found branching into the outer ventricular myocardium, with a pattern of recruiting α-SMA+/desmin+ vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Endothelial sprouts were guided by CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/vimentin+ endothelial tip cells. Within the inner myocardium, we found endothelial networks rooted from endocardium, guided by filopodia-projecting CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/ vimentin+ endocardial tip cells. The myocardial microcirculatory bed in the atria was mostly originated from endocar- dium, as well. Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial networks. A general anatomical pattern of cardiac microvascular embryogenesis was thus hypothesized; the arterial and venous ends being linked, respectively, to the aorta and sinus venosus. Further elongation of the vessels may be related to the epicardium and subepicardial stroma and the intramyocardial network, depend- ing on either endothelial and endocardial filopodia-guided tip cells in ventricles, or mostly on endocardium, in atria.
The septomarginal trabecula is a muscular structure which transmits the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle. It is usually sup- plied by a branch from the second anterior septal artery. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries may happen on the septomarginal trabecula. They are of great significance in order to prevent ischemia during a myocardial infarction. Surgeries such as Konno’s and Ross’ procedures implies in knowledge of these vessels anatomy. The coronary arteries of 50 humanhearts were injected with latex and subsequentely dissected with the purpose of identifying the arterial branch that supplied the septomarginal trabecula. The trabecular branch arose from the second anterior septal artery in 38% of cases, and the branch arose from the first anterior sep- tal artery in 26%. One of the hearts had its septomarginal trabecula supplied by the conus arteriosus arteryliterature. Anastomoses between the right and left coronary arteries were found inside the septomarginal trabecula. The right branch of the atrioventricular bundle is subject to a great number of clinical conditions and is often manipulated during surgery, thus, the studyof the septal branches of the coronary arteries and the trabecular branch is essential.
The main limitation of this study is that all the measurements and observations were made on autopsied heart specimens that have been fixed in formalin, which could cause some slight changes to the size and shape of the heart and relevant structures. Studies performed on post-mortem material may not directly correlate to the physiology of tissues in vivo. Therefore, we cannot say anything about behavior and dimension changes of the right atrium, main veins and the area of the CSO within the cardiac cycle. Despite these limitations, we believe that they do not impede our morphological analysis. It must be emphasized, that the choice of the appropriate access to the coronarysinus should be carried out based on a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s anatomy and clinical condition, available equipment and operator’s experience.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), coronary heart diseases constitute the main cause of death worldwide. Variation in the morphological pattern ofcoronary arteries and their major branches is an important factor in the assessment and treatment ofcoronary heart disease. The number of branches, their location and the myocardial mass irrigated are factors that determine the Submission 14-12-2015, Peer Review 17-12-2015,
No CXAs ended at the posterior interventricular sulcus. They ended more frequently at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle (64%) and in a smaller percentage at the crux cordis, in line with the majority of prior studies (Lumb and Singletary, 1962; Crick et al., 1998; Sahni et al., 2008). Shorter CXAs end as marginal branches, a fact observed in our studyin 1.3% of the cases, with an incidence lower than that observed in humans (9.1-25%) (Baroldi and Scomazzoni, 1967; Baptista et al., 1991; Kalpana, 2003; Ballesteros et al, 2007). In these cases the marginal branches, in addition to irrigating the obtuse aspect of the heart through their collateral branches, were seen to take part in the irrigation of the posterior aspect of the left ventricle together with the left ventricular branches of the RCA. The termination of the CXA at the posterior interventricular sulcus has been reported inhumanhearts with a frequency of 7– 23%, this being the trait of the left coronary artery dominance pattern (Baroldi and
AIMS & OBJECTIVES: Anomalous origin and distribution patterns of the coronary arteries may result in significant compromise of the blood flow and hearts which exhibit particular coronary artery dominance is considered to be more susceptible to coronary heart disease. With the above background, the present study is undertaken to study the coronary dominance pattern.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery, left gastric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons, anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS: The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE, Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92%, lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I, 2% to Type II, 2% to Type III, 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type, which has been accepted as the normal pattern of specimen, coeliac trunk divided into common hepatic & splenic arteries, the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION: In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I, 2% to Type II, 2% to Type III, 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917). The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type, which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.
cular image suggested a sinusof Valsalva aneu- rysm), morphologically normal valves, good left ventricular systolic function, and a moder- ate to severe aortic regurgitation with no other abnormal flows. A transoesophageal echocar- diogram was taken for a better image and showed a huge unruptured aneurysm (fig 1), which appeared to involve two Valsalva sinuses (non-coronary and right), and severe aortic regurgitation. Cardiac catheterisation indi- cated a similar pathology to that seen in the echocardiogram; other coronary vessels were normal (fig 2). Surgery revealed the aneurysm to be non-coronary and it was therefore corrected by direct sewing; the aortic valve was replaced with a St Jude prosthesis. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged on the seventh day.
The increasing demand of coal for meeting the requirement of the country paved to exploit the coal by opencast mechanized mining at ever increasing stripping ratio. While shovel has been the most widely used equipment, increasing use of dragline is being made in view of high capacity and lower operating cost of a dragline. The replacement of the teeth in shovel and dragline has been a matter of serious concern for the mine operators due to its associated cost and the idling of these equipment. Every Ground Engaging Tool (GET) manufacturing company claims good life of teeth, but such data relates to ideal condition and generally far from the actual condition of the mine. In actual conditions the life of a tooth is much less than what the manufacturing companies claim. Bucket teeth require replacement under the following two conditions:- i) Breakage of tooth
We further exploit the potential of a population-based computational approach to investigate the relative importance of ionic properties in determining changes in each biomarker in failing versus non-failing human cardiomyoctes. The correlation found in the previous section with respect to AP and Ca biomarkers suggests that different ionic properties determine AP and Ca biomarkers values, respectively, within each population. We use regression analysis to establish which ionic currents determine biomarker values in the failing versus non-failing population. Fig. 5 shows regression coefficients for each of the biomarkers under investigation at all BCLs in the non-failing (left) and failing (right) populations. For clarity, only coefficients reaching an absolute value greater than 0.2 are given (those that come outside of the grey band in the plots). Regression coefficients are shown for both failing and non-failing populations. Examples of regression fits are shown in Fig. S1 A-D in Supplement S1. Regression coefficients for all biomarkers at all BCLs are shown in Tables S8–S19 in Supplement S1. The regression method produces good fits as measured by the R 2 values which lay in a Figure 3. Histograms showing biomarker values obtained for the non-failing (blue) and failing (red) cell model populations. Histograms shown are recorded at BCL = 1500 ms, 600 ms and 300 ms (A–C: APD80, D–F: APD3080, G–I: CaTD80, J–L: CaTD3080, M–O: CaTmax and P-R: AP-CaT delay. In each panel, the circle indicates biomarker values obtained with the standard ORd model whereas the cross indicates the value obtained with the ORd model including 60% downregulation of G to , G CaL , J up and G Kr and 60% upregulation of G NaCa .
communication. , C). Bent / body position toward / closer to the opponent talk. Case shows that nurses preparing to respond in communication (speaking-hearing) , D) Maintain eye contact, parallel, and natural. With eye position parallel to the nurses showed willingness to maintain communication , E). Be calm / rilex. Will more noticeable when not in a hurry while talking and using motion / natural body language. In addition to these things therapeutic attitude can also be identified through non verbal. Said behavior, there are five categories of non-verbal communication, namely: a). Vocal cues, the cue paralingustik including all non-verbal speech quality eg sound pressure, sound quality, laughter, rhythm and speed of speech, b). Cue action, that all body movements, including facial expressions and gestures, c). Cue object, ie an object used intentionally or unintentionally by a person such as clothing and other personal items, d). Space gives a signal about the closeness of the relationship between two people. It is based on social norms and culture held, e). Touch, which physically between two people and is a non- verbal communication is the most personal. A person's response to these actions greatly influenced by the structure and cultural background, the type of relationship, gender, age and expectations. Stuart and Sundeen (1998 : 35 ). Friendly nurse in providing nursing services will always be polite in all circumstances and conditions. This will have a positive impact on the healing process of the client because the client will feel comfortable in receiving the service. Nurse friendly attitude will make the client feel familiar and close interpersonal relationships with nurses so that clients will be free to express complaints. Nurses are calm and patient in serving clients will
Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes inhuman otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles ofmorphological changes inhuman otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic) otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits) and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution) whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution) ofhuman and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.
Investigation of flow velocity in the coronarysinus – The pulsed Doppler sample was positioned in the coronarysinus within a distance of 10 to 15 mm from the ostium and at an angle between the Doppler beam and the long spindle of the coronarysinusof less than 30 degrees. Flow velocity was recorded during 06 consecutive cardiac cycles in pro- longed expiration in the basal state and during adenosine infusion. The diameter of the coronarysinus was measured in the basal state and after administration of the vasodilator drug. Intravenous adenosine was infused at a dose of 140 µg/kg/min, for 4 minutes, with recording of the flow velocity at the end of every minute. Anterograde systolic maximum velocity, anterograde diastolic maximum velocity, retrogra- de maximum velocity, systolic and diastolic velocity time integral (VTI S and VTI D, cm/sec) were analyzed. The coro- nary flow reserve was calculated as the relation between co- ronary sinus flow in the basal state and in a state of maxi- mum vasodilatation (CFR = PSV + PDV – PRV/basal PSV).
Summary. The work purpose was revealing of features of localization coronary arterial orifices, angles of origin and a course of their proximal segments in usually formed hearts and with transposition of the great vessels. Research is executed on 31 specimens of usually formed hearts and 31 specimens with transposition of the great vessels. For the estimation of position the orifices in aortic sinuses and orientation of a course of proximal segments ofcoronary arteries the morphological researches was carried out. For the purpose of carrying out of the statistical processing, the obtained data has been presented on schematic images. As a result of research statistically authentic differences in localization distribution coronary arterial orifices on a vertical axis are established at a transposition of the great vessels, in comparison with usually formed hearts. Peculiarities of an arrangement orifices with acute angles of origin their proximal segments ofcoronary arteries and them intramural course are established.
Base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways play critical role in maintaining genome integrity. Polymorphisms in BER and NER genes which modulate the DNA repair capacity may affect the susceptibility and prognosis of oral cancer. This study was conducted with genomic DNA from 92 patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and 130 controls. The cases were followed up to explore the associations between BER and NER genes polymorphisms and the risk and prognosis of OSCC. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XRCC1 (rs25487), APEX1 (rs1130409), XPD (rs13181) and XPF (rs1799797) genes were tested by polymerase chain reaction – quantitative real time method. The GraphPad Prism version 6.0.1 statistical software was applied for statistical analysis of association. Odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio (HR), and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox proportional hazard model were used for prognostic analysis. The presence of polymorphic variants in XRCC1, APEX1, XPD and XPF genes were not associated with an increased risk of OSCC. Gene-environment interactions with smoking were not significant for any polymorphism. The presence of polymorphic variants of the XPD gene in association with alcohol consumption conferred an increased risk of 1.86 (95% CI: 0.86 – 4.01, p=0.03) for OSCC. Only APEX1 was associated with decreased specific survival (HR 3.94, 95% CI: 1.31 – 11.88, p=0.01). These results suggest an interaction between polymorphic variants of the XPF gene and alcohol consumption. Additionally APEX1 may represent a prognostic marker for OSCC.
In M onkey Foet us t he cells are parenchymal in nat ure. The lymphocytes are densely packed in t he cortex of t hymic lobule stem cells formed in t he bone marrow migrate t o t he t hymus. Here t hey come t o lie in t he superficial part of cortex an d d i vi d e r ep eat ed ly t o f o r m sm al l lymphocytes. The medulla of each lobule also contains lymphocytes, but t hese are less densely packed t han in t he cortex (Fig. 3A). The cortex is darkly stained and medulla is light ly stained (Fig. 3B). There are scatted Hassall’s corpuscles seen in t he medulla (Fig. 3C). The gland is surrounded by capsule. The capsule extends int o t he interior of gland and forms interlobular connective t issue (Fig: 3D). The interlobular septa do not extend int o t he medulla (Fig. 3E). M ast cells are seen but less in num ber (Fig. 3F). The size of t he Hassall’s corpuscle is varying from 5µ t o 20µ. In ear ly em br yonic st age of hum an foet us lym phocyt es aggregat ion along w it h blood vessels are seen everyw here (Fig. 4A). Hassall’s vessels are seen in medulla (Fig. 4B). After 10 w eeks the cells were reticulo epithelial in nature. Lymphocytes are present . They migrate from bone m arrow and aggregat e in t he t hym us. There is no cortex and medulla different iat ion. Hassall’s corpuscles are not seen. After 15 weeks t he cortex and medulla different iat ion begins. Hassall’s corpuscles are seen, but it s size is very small. Blood vessels are more in number. The
All of the studied Euphorbia taxa had unique inflorescence structure, named cyathium. The morphological traits of cyathium were used in identification keys of this genus in different flora and were unique morphological features. Mishra and Sahu (1985) said that morphological traits of cyathium in various Euphorbia taxa might prove precious. This structure taken into attention associated with other morphological traits for easy recognition and also distinguishing the existing relationships between taxa. Prenner and Rudall (2007) believed that cyathium is intermediate between a single flower and an inflorescence contains a cup-like involucre enclosing numerous male flowers and a single female flower. The male and female flowers have been reduced to single stamens and single pistil, respectively. From this fundamental construction different complications have evolved, containing colorful subtending bracts, secretory glands of cyathium with petaloid supplements as well as fusion or addition of cyathial glands. Some of the mentioned features display synapomorphies for special clades within this genus. Contrary to the provided data by the cyathium and its variations, relationships between species in the genus Euphorbia on the bases ofmorphological features have been proved to be ambiguous in many cases (Steinmann and Porter 2002).
transducer (model BG-25 g, Gould, Valley View, OH) was attached through a heart clip to the apex of the ventricles to record the contractile force (developed tension) on a Gould recorder (model RS 3200). A dia- stolic tension of 1.0 g was applied to the heart. Electrical activity was recorded with an electrocardiograph (Nihon Kohden, To- kyo, Japan) with the aid of two cotton wicks placed directly on the surface of the right atrium and left ventricle (bipolar lead). Cor- onary flow was measured by collecting the perfusate over a period of 30 s at regular intervals. The composition of the perfusion solutions was as follows: 1) Krebs-Ringer solution: 118.6 mM NaCl, 4.75 mM KCl, 2.52 mM CaCl 2 , 2.52 mM KH 2 PO 4 , 1.17