In today’s technology-assisted society, social interactions may be expressed through a variety of techno-communication channels, including online social networks, email and mobile phones (calls, text messages). Consequently, a clear grasp of human behavior through the diverse communication media is considered a key factor in understanding the formation of the today’s information society. So far, all previous research on user communication behavior has focused on a sole communication activity. In this paper we move forward another step on this research path by performing a multidimensional study of human sociality as an expression of the use of mobile phones. The paper focuses on user temporal communication behavior in the interplay between the two complementary communication media, text messages and phone calls, that represent the bi-dimensional scenario of analysis. Our study provides a theoretical framework for analyzing multidimensional bursts as the most general burst category, that includes one-dimensional bursts as the simplest case, and offers empirical evidence of their nature by following the combined phone call/text message communication patterns of approximately one million people over three-month period. This quantitative approach enables the design of a generative model rooted in the three most significant features of the multidimensional burst - the number of dimensions, prevalence and interleaving degree - able to reproduce the main media usage attitude. The other findings of the paper include a novel multidimensional burst detection algorithm and an insight analysis of the human media selection process.
RF-EMR-mediated damage in other cell types. The RF-EMR used for communications, including mobilephone networks, is not of high enough power to be classed as ionizing radiation. The latter has sufficient energy to pull away electrons, dramatically altering the properties of affected molecules and typically creating extremely reactive radical species. RF-EMR does not contain sufficient energy for these processes. Nevertheless, this form of radiation may have other effects on larger scale systems such as cells and organelles, which stem from the perturbation of charged molecules and the disruption of electron flow [28,29]. Mitochon- dria have one of the largest standing membrane potentials in the body and their energetic functions are entirely dependent on the regulated movement of electrons and protons within the inner mitochondrion membrane. Theoretically, such fluxes might be susceptible to disruptions in local electric fields induced by RF- EMR, offering a potential link between this form of radiation and the non-thermal biological effects observed in this study.
When it comes to practically-oriented humandynamics research, the authors in  show the potential for urban studies and planning by using location-based services, in particular from mobilephone datasets from the city of Milano. Authors in  provided partial solution to the traffic congestion in the city of Abidjan using the CDR dataset for Côte d’Ivoire . Their analysis shows that by adding four additional routes and extending one existing route the people in Abidjan will reduce their travel time by 10%. Another field that has great benefit from time-sensitive information obtained from CDRs is the disaster response and disaster risk reduction, in terms of fast resource allocation and directing the emergency aid, as well as in analysing the people’s movement and migration after some emergency situation . The re- sults in  emphasized that social bounds are crucial for people’s movement in case of earth- quake. This kind of analysis could be further used to estimate the post-catastrophic population situation in a given region and to plan emergency aid more efficiently. In  the authors show how emergency situations can be detected by only observing normal collective calling patterns and alerting those patterns that exceed threshold around mean activity.
According to Castells (1996, 1997a, 1998), it is the complex, proliferating network principle that characterizes computer-mediated communications. Complex networking also characterizes social relations in the information age. This seemed to imply that changing social relations were an effect of technological change. Castells’s thesis is vulnerable to the critique of technological determinism (Williams, 1974; Winston, 1996). On the topic of technological innovation incommunications and its social impact, there are two general questions to ask. First, how do new communication technologies come about? Second, what is the relation of new technology to social and cultural change? The ideology of technological determinism awards absolute primacy to technology. It assumes a linear process of autonomous scientific discovery that is more or less swiftly applied to technical invention, resulting in smooth diffusion and eventual social transformation. When the history of any such technology is looked at closely, however, it becomes evident that a combination of cultural, economic and political determinations are involved in putting the accelerator or brake on technological innovation. Against sheer determinism, intention comes into the process, involving decisions, wise and unwise, along the way, which have unintended as well as intended consequences. Always alternative decisions could have been made that would have resulted in different outcomes and might yet still do so. However, it is in the interests of corporations in the business of developing and marketing new technologies to make extravagant claims about inevitable and beneficial effects on society and social relations. Castells is careful to defend himself against the criticism of technological determinism. He argues that there are two other major dynamics, in addition to the information technology revolution, shaping network society. These are the three interrelated processes identified by Castells (1997b):
Most researchers in HCI take interest in developing new design methodologies, experiencing with new hardware devices, prototyping new software systems, and exploring new paradigms for interaction. Designs in HCI aim to create user interfaces which can be operated with ease and efficiency. Many digital products that require users to interact with them to accomplish their tasks have not necessarily designed with the users in mind. The designer always claims how usable the products are; however, an even more basic requirement is that the interface should allow the user to carry out relevant tasks completely. In other words, the design must be both usable and useful for the user and it must be a user-centered design.
we excluded temperature effects by keeping the mobilephonein a smaller cage within the home cage. Furthermore, animals were allowed to move freely within the home cage in order to reduce their contact with the phone, and both cages were kept in well-ventilated rooms throughout the experiment to further reduce the possibility of heating. Finally, to confirm the lack of thermal effect, we measured the facial temperatures of rats in both groups both before and after exposure to the phone. After 1 hour of exposure, the mean facial temperature did not differ significantly from the initial temperature in either group. This experimental design eliminated mechanical heat influence from the phone,
ABSTRACT: Mobile computing has become an invaluable and inevitable part of teaching and learning in educational institutions globally. Zimbabwean polytechnics are not spared and those institutions that have chosen to integrate mobile computing with existing teaching and learning applications stand to benefit more than their slow and stagnant counterparts. This paper is investigated whether mobile computing is being used in Zimbabwe Polytechnics. It is based mainly on primary research since no particular research has targeted Polytechnics in Zimbabwe and specifically the Polytechnic understudy in this area, thus a survey was conducted and the survey results were used as the main data source. However, secondary research was incorporated to see what other researchers have found in similar topics the world over. This paper identifies the mobile computing hardware technology, software and communication technologies used at the Polytechnic. It then outlines the achievements made in this area and the associated benefits of such achievements. Finally highlights the challenges currently being faced by the polytechnic in implementing mobile computing and the opportunities the institution can exploit by fully utilizing the technology. The main findings of this research were that Zimbabwe polytechnics in general and the polytechnic in particular have adopted usage of mobile computing to enhance their teaching and learning and administrative activities. There are visible and tangible achievements and benefits that have been realized. Opportunities have been identified which the polytechnic can exploit if it fully embraces mobile computing. However there are some challenges hindering the progress in this regard.
ABSTRACT: Apple yield estimation using a smartphone with image processing technology of- fers advantages such as low cost, quick access and simple operation. This article proposes a distribution framework consisting of the acquisition of fruit tree images, yield prediction in smart- phone client, data processing and model calculation in server client for estimating the potential fruit yield. An image processing method was designed including the core steps of image seg- mentation with R/B value combined with V value and circle-fitting using curvature analysis. This method enabled four parameters to be obtained, namely, total identified pixel area (TP), fitting circle amount (FC), average radius of the fitting circle (RC) and small polygon pixel area (SP). An individual tree yield estimation model on an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) was developed with three layers, four input parameters, 14 hidden neurons, and one output parameter. The system was used on an experimental Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji) orchard. Twenty-six tree samples were selected from a total of 80 trees according to the multiples of the number three for the establishment model, whereby 21 groups of data were trained and 5 groups of data were validated. The R 2 value for the training datasets was 0.996 and the relative root mean-
The new achievements inmobile device technologies opened the way for new applications designed to run on mobile devices. In the beginning, mobile devices offered very limited functionality due to small memory, computing power and difficult interaction. Nowadays, mobile devices become more and more popular, available memory grew considerably, being comparable with some desktop computers, mobile processors have improved performance, interaction is becoming more user friendly. These characteristics allow the development of complex applications that make use of available hardware capabilities. Business Intelligence applications help managers to make decisions based on quantitative methods applied to available business data. Mobile business intelligence applications extend such functionality on devices used by the decision makers . Such applications take several forms:
Valk, Rashid & Elder (2010) however posited that of the many different forms of ICTs, mobile phones are thought, for several reasons, to be a particularly suitable tool for advancing education in developing regions. Keegan (2005) stated that because of the lack of infrastructure for ICT (cabling for Internet and telecom) in certain areas in Africa, the growth of wireless infrastructure is enormous - even more rapid than in many first world countries. For Keegan (2005), using the mobilephone for learning is particularly suited to Distance Education because, “if serving the mobile learners is the focus of M Learning, then D.E institutions have always been doing this---serving learners anytime, anywhere”. Mobile technologies, which include hand held computers, Personal Digital Assistants, mobile phones, lap tops, and i-Phones, are all part of the emerging information revolution taking place worldwide. People need not work with large computers on desk tops, or made to carry laptops searching for wired internet connection. According to Bradford (2010), knowledge and learning is now literally at a person‘s fingertips via the mobilephone, and that several decades ago, when the nontraditional student began impacting higher education, distance education, asynchronous education and open or virtual learning emerged as a way to continually educate students.Keegan (2005) stated that: “ one and a half billion people, all over the world, are walking around with powerful computers in their pockets and purses but they often don’t realize it, because they call it something else…. today’s high-end cell phones have the computing power of the mid-1990’s PC, while consuming only one one-hundredth of its energy” . Statistics, as indicated below, have established the exponential growth of mobile phones in sub Saharan Africa, even surpassing the figures in some developed countries. This is indeed a pointer to the important role mobile phones are expected to play in educational delivery in Nigeria. For example,
In terms of generational analysis, this study found that the importance level of same technologies (i.e. in-room Xbox 360 consoles, in-room interactive tables and in-room interactive mirror/walls) are significantly more important for younger generations (i.e. Gen Y and Gen X) than for baby boomers. However, as only three in 14 technologies present differences between generations, it can be concluded that baby boomers are open to new technologies, as confirmed by Yang and Jolly (2008). However, baby boomers are not usually early adopters because they are less comfortable with, and ready to use, some technologies (Eisner, 2005; LeRouge et al., 2014). Hotels should take into consideration that the latest technologies are more important for younger generations than for baby boomers. This finding is consistent with previous studies that reported Gen X and Gen Y are more technologically savvy than older generations are, because the former generations have grown up in a digital world (Morris and Venkatesh, 2000; Hanna, 2009; Schoch, 2012). As technology continues to change – along with guests’ new desires – it is important to follow the evolution of the digital world, accompanied by an on-going study of customer feedback regarding new technologies, to identify what customers are looking for to enhance their hotel stay experiences.
This research highlights three key issues. First, it suggests that mobilephone-enhanced networks present complex and contradictory opportunities and outcomes for women as a consequence of gender inequalities. They expand women’s agency by helping them build confidence, improve their well-being and achieve what they prioritise or place most value in relation to proximate networks, for example family, but women do not necessarily reap wider gender equality and development achievements. They also emancipate women in some areas of their lives (for instance, provide a sense of more autonomy, control and consciousness), but present a site for gendered struggle, control and resistance in terms of negotiating gendered values and identities. Deep structures (Geels & Schot, 2007) manifested through legitimacy battles over gender ideologies and discourses structure network participation (Fuhse, 2009). There are still huge inequalities materially and discursively inflected in engagement inmobile phones-enhanced networks. Entrenched traditional gender ideologies create tensions in negotiating new identities (Baston-Savage, 2007; Green & Singleton, 2007) and gendered scripts (Shade, 2007) relating to mobilephone practices are still unsettled, drawing on a range of competing and conflicting discursive resources, ideologies and experiences.
The questionnaire used was based on the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS) originated by Chin , with some amendments to comply with the mobile environment. The questionnaire contains forty questions in six sections and the last section focused on the mobile setting. We also create a semi-structured instrument for the interview session, to support the data from questionnaire. The questions were designed so as not to be too technical, and the session was conducted in an informal manner, the overall aim being to obtain participants‟ opinions and perspectives on using mobile application. Examples of questions include the feeling after completed the task, the comment on menu arrangement, voice assistance, interface, screen, satisfaction on system speed and safety. We also ask participants to comment on the devices for both iPhone and O2 Orbit in term of screen size, speed and text size.
Some observers (q.v. Humphrey and Berger, 1990; Humphrey et al., 1996; Olney, 1999; Klee, 2004; Garcia-Swartz et al., 2006) suggest that the increased use of cashless payment system, (i.e. money or scrip which is exchanged only electronically via computer networks) has led to predictions of a ‘cashless’ society. In a cashless society, consumers can make payments over the Internet, payment at ‘unmanned’ vending machine, ‘manned’ point of sale (POS) using mobilephone device, personal digital assistant (PDA), smart cards and other electronic payment systems, including debit and credit cards. Governments and commercial entities provide strong encouragement and support for cashless transactions. Although there are benefits such as cost saving and efficient use of resources, social commentators and environmental activists have expressed concerns that it would increase overall consumption, increase personal debt levels, reduce savings and that the resultant ‘over-consumption’ will have an adverse impact on the society and environment (Nocera, 1994; Libow, 1955; Taylor and Tilford, 2000; Zavestoski, 2002; MacDonald et al., 2006).
In 2017, 120.7 million Brazilians (57% of the whole population) had internet access . It is evident that people with little financial resources, education, knowledge and ICT access and skills, will hardly be integrated in the new paradigm of our society – unless there is a strong State intervention along with national and international organizations’ actions to overcome poverty and social inequalities (e.g., ). The huge benefits emerging from the ICT’s increasing access, speed and popularization, still do not reach everyone. Where ICT access and mastery in social contexts have been made available, citizens were empowered to follow up and intervene in their everyday interests, through public or community channels, challenging centres of power. Also, the various activities that can be done online, using Internet, are no more a privilege of only few social groups (e.g., ). But of course that such advantages and social gains cannot, by themselves, reduce poverty and promote social equality. The State could adopt a cohesive set of public policies to minimize social inequalities and promote economic development, safeguarding the ethical and humanistic dimension, and ensuring the exercise of citizenship for all. This presupposes transforming education and skills development, promoting social and digital inclusion, regulating professions, disseminating information of public interest, ensuring security and privacy in Internet use, simplifying and improving public services, fostering economic growth, competition and productivity, and stimulating collaboration and social participation networks (e.g., ). Based on the rapid technological development, the centrality of ICT in people's lives, and the need to reduce poverty and social inequality, some national states, guided by international guidelines, have adopted digital inclusion public policies, aiming to: 1) provide broadband access for all citizens; 2) offer and train new ICT skills, especially for the most disadvantaged populations; 3) improve quality and efficiency of public services through e-government applications; 4) provide citizens with the right to better exercise citizenship, in electronic democracy; 5) provide or generate new ways of creating economic value through electronic business and interactive content, among others (e.g., ; ;  ).
After recognising the direct of arrivals of the users by the MUSIC algorithm , the weights of the array can be adjusted by an estimator such MVDR. This is the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method of spectrum estimation. It finds the ML estimate of the power arriving from a point source in direction assuming all other sources as interferences. In beam –forming literature, this known as the MVDR beam former. It is also called the optimal beam former since in the absence of errors , it maximises the output signal to noise ratio (SNR) and passes the look-direction signal undistorted. For the directions of arrival (DOA) estimation problem, this method uses the array weights, which are obtained by minimising the mean output power subject to
Sarma et al. (2011) were used GWR, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate the long‐term trends in agricultural productivity. An important catalyst for better integration of GIS and spatial data analysis for improved interpolation has been the development of local spatial statistical techniques. Spatial analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are much related. Mapping the spatial distribution can be perform by GIS, such as Ibrahim et al. (2012) who perform mapping honeybee plants. GIS are important to perform four basic functions on spatial data: Input, storage, analysis and output. Sarma et al. (2011) also noted that GIS can perform predicting and mapping.
The MPEG Layer-III File or MP3 can contain the ID3v2 tag which able to store information not only the song and singer’s name but also song lyric and alblum cover figure. The steganography technique on audio generally only make use of the main body of the audio file, but has not ever use the part of the ID3v2 to hide an message. This study an steganography technique which make use of this ID3v2 tag space where message is encrypted using McEliece cryptosystem method which applying the public key in the form of matrix then inserted into the MP3 file applying Before All Frames (BAF) method, whereas the public key is inserted into album cover figure which is stored in the ID3v2 tag.
The demand for services and goods have multiple determinants. As the standard of existing theories, the demand is inluenced by the price of the goods themselves, the price of other goods, tastes, income, and population. Price is the major determinant of the demand for goods and services. In essence, the lower the price of an item, the more demand for goods. Conversely, the higher the price of an item, the less demand for goods. The price of other goods also affects the purchase, depending on the nature of the relationship between the two items, whether as a substitution, complementary, and no interconnection. Although goods / services are not interconnected, but still inluence demand if factors constant revenue because the increase in price will reduce purchasing power. Consumers will face a more limited budgeting problem so that they must choose certain types of goods. The selection will sacriice other options that reduce the demand for goods and services. Patterns of relatedness are indicated with an income elasticity with the request indicating the characteristic of the goods of which is essential goods, luxury, or inferior. The income elasticity, e>1 indicates the goods/services of a luxury item; while 0<e<1 is of basic goods; while e<0 indicates the type of inferior goods. Garbacz and Thompson (2007) found that income elasticities of ixed main lines was 0.291, while income elasticities of mobile was 0.933. But when model incorporates the instruments for residental landline and mobile monthly prices, income elasticities of mobile was 1.260 or indicate as luxury goods.
This study was not based on a randomized experimental design. It was conducted with the standard procedures of sample selection utilized by the marketing research company conducting the survey. Despite any limitations this might have caused, it had the advantage of showing the actual distribution of the interviews according to location: the large majority of respondents – 72% – were interviewed at home and only 28% outside home. This outcome is consistent with previous reports that reveal that approximately one third of respondents of mobile CATI surveys are not at home when interviewed (e.g. Lavrakas, Tompson, Benford & Fleury, 2010; Kühne & Häder, 2012; Häder, 2012). It also indicates respondents are more likely to respond when they are at home than outside the home even though the mobilephone allows respondents to be called at any time. The “preference” for responding at home is also confirmed by the fact the highest percentage of at-home interviews (over 75%) was obtained in the after 7 pm period (on weekdays) and the morning period (10 am-12 noon) (on