In Romania, the establishment of the market economy has required the elaboration and implementation of agricultural, alimentary and nutritional policies, based on scientific criteria, to ensure that the structure of Romanian agriculture would come close to that of the European Union agriculture. Agricultural policy needs to be coherent, flexible and directed towards the economic, social and environmental protection performance. Worldwide practice shows that empiric experience of economic agents does not suffice, but requires plenty of scientific knowledge. The hereby study undertakes to carry out a radiography of the production potential of agricultural operations in Romania andto demonstrate theneed for improving practicalinformation systems inagricultureandspecializedindustry.
Inthe case of copper wire manufacturing unit the process starts with up-caster. The next machine is Conform Machine i.e. continuous extrusion machine. The third process is stripping, the strips are used inthe three types of wire one is enameled to CTC, second is PICC andinthe last the busbar. So, here we need production leveling method to stop the over production and wait time. In this company the two types of enameling method are available one is PVA and other is Epoxy. To under stand the structure of theindustry we needto draw the current state map. The current state map is draw with the help of the Microsoft visio10 andthe start e-VSM software. To draw the value stream mapping inthe process industry for all variety is too difficult. Therefore here I took only one variety of a product. After the current state mapping we will draw the future state map. After the current state mapping we will draw the future state map. Inthe Future state mapping we can see the effect of elimination of waste. As we see the figure 1, the customer demand move to production planning and control department and then to supplier. Here theinformation are not come from the department like upcaster, conform, enamel, PICC, BUSBAR, and CTC. So the whole demand will give to supplier on the basis of hypothesis. This is the critical problem which can create two type of waste like waiting or inventory. Waiting arises, when demand goes less than the real demand. Inventory arises, when the demand goes more than real demand. So here we can introduce the term informationsystem like KANBAN. The kanban is inthe form of card which will produce with the required demand and after fixed amount spent. It is also helpful in scheduling. To compare these two techniques like current state map and future state map we need a VALUE STREM MAP.
Dynamic search in a specialized domain brings several challenges. For instance, to find about “hand washing importance” in a domain covering Ebola outbreak in Africa, a dynamic search system should find documents covering multiple aspects of the user’s underlying informationneed, such as “Sierra Leone campaign” and “Nigeria campaign” so as to maximize user satisfaction. At the same time, to minimize user effort, this broad coverage of aspects should be achieved as early as possible. This informal defi- nition resembles that of a related problem, which has received considerable attention from the IR community in recent years: search result diversification [Santos et al., 2015]. However, in contrast tothe standard diversification problem, dynamic search is inherently interactive. In particular, a dynamic search system must interact with the user in order to continually identify aspects of interest that should be covered by the subsequently returned documents. Inspired by state-of-the-art diversification approaches [Santos et al., 2010; Dang and Croft, 2012; Hu et al., 2015], in this chap- ter, we introduce a working instantiation of the general framework for dynamic search described in Figure 2.1, as a means to analyze the impact of each of its components.
as already noted, some of the low-emission cars, such as hybrid car, fuel-cell car and hydrogen car, are already under commercialisation trials, although it will take some time for these cars to be publically accepted due to obstacles such as high price and insufficient infrastructure for these new technology cars. Global warming does not wait for man though, so long as carbon dioxide production is not stopped. So before technology reaches that level, some of the social measure is needed to control carbon dioxide production, such as law and regulation legislation. Everybody wants to enjoy car driving, but few people know they are polluting the environment, or some people pretend they have no knowledge that they are polluting the air by driving their own car. Everybody has to be responsible for their commodity product and its subsequent production of carbon dioxide. The author has already written that economy makes some people hesitate to be responsible for what they are doing now because of the lack of evidence. If evidence is shown individually, everybody feels responsible, although information that just monitors actual carbon dioxide density does not make them feel responsible. The car is a very convenient and useful commodity. It works very well and is used not only in emergency situations, but also for enjoyment for those who enjoy driving. But it is difficult to clearly see who should be responsible for this kind of problem. Such being the case, the evaluation of the “Polluter Pays Principle” way of thinking would be conducted by the author. This idea is to force the polluter to be responsible for compensation in proportion to how much environmental pollution has been caused based on the evidence. Some countries have already introduced the carbon tax or other similar taxes although other countries have not done so due to reason of economy. The monitoring and recording equipment can be easily made considering the use of current technology with less expensive cost. Some industries, however, are not so keen to equip this kind of equipment and even have a negative reaction to this whole idea because sometimes the emission gas record may have an adverse effect of lowering the customer’s acceptance of the products. It is obvious that more discussions and negotiations are needed to promote this activity to further improvethe situation. Hence, the author would like to encourage people who really wish toimprovethe environment by introducing the idea of polluter pay principle. Through this principle, it is estimated that the introduction of some kind of tax related tothe stopping of global warming may be possibly agreed upon in 2010 in Japan.
The main lessons learned from these theories are that, while part of the wage gap is attributable to human capital differences between the genders, the process of allocation of males and females inthe labor market leads to a type of sorting in which women end up relatively more concentrated in occupations, industries, firms, and occupations within establishments (job cells) that pay lower wages. This implies that empirical analyses of the determinants of the sex pay gap should take into account not only the human capital differences between the genders but also the patterns of female segregation along these dimensions. Another implication of these theories for empirical work is that unobserved (tothe analyst) characteristics of workers and firms play crucial roles as determinants of wages andthe sorting process of males and females inthe labor market. Lack of control for unmeasured traits of workers and firms may thus generate serious biases inthe estimates of the effects of gender segregation on the wages of males and females, and therefore on the gender wage gap.
shows that the ratio YPCR decreases when water costs increase, decreases when the demand for water increases (particularly for the drought years), and decreases when the irrigation performance is lower. In reality, with current maize prices, it is dif- ficult with fully irrigated crops: farmers needto at- tain a land productivity threshold of 12 ton per ha. With drought farmers have to valour all sub-prod- ucts, e.g., for animal feeding. Under drought water is insufficient for fully irrigate the cropped area andthe option may be to adopt a reduced deficit in as much as possible of the area. Water managers often refer theneedto increase then the water produc- tivity instead of maximizing land productivity. But this is only possible with a limited deficit. There is a strong needto understand better the economic relations of irrigation, including those on costs and benefits of adopting a better performing irrigation systemand relative to irrigation water costs.
Still according Muniz et al. (2007, p. 54), based in previous papers about safety management andthe guidelines developed by international organisms and empiric studies about safety and enviroment climate, the authors consider that the safety management system is a multi dimensional concept, composed by the following dimensions: (1) a safety policy that reflectsprinciples and values of the organization in this area; (2) the promotion of employee’s participation in sefety activities, through direct incentives or consulting with them on issues related to their well-being at work; (3) employee training, so they will be able to perform their job inthe healthiest and safest way possible; (4) the communication and transference of information about the risks the employees are exposed, as well as the correct way to fight them; (5) the planning of actions to be performed, in order to avoid accidents and be able to react quickly in an emergency, distinguishing two sub-dimensions: preventive planning and emergency planning, and, finally (6) the control or feedback over the actions taken inthe organization, through the analysis of the
Feature extraction refers tothe process of transforming an input dataset into a new representation set of features which accurately and concisely represents the original information (Yitayew, 2012). An obvious advantage of feature extraction when assisted with feature selection is that only small amount of memory and processing time will be required inthe feature space as redundant information is removed inthe process. This section is devoted tothe extraction of the different features considered in this paper. In total, thirty-seven features; twenty- three from each of the three PolSAR datasets and fourteen from the IKONOS dataset are extracted and used for this study. 3.2.1 Polarimetric Features
make them actually helpful only to large opera- tors. While these approaches may intend to have more impact with the available scarce economic resources assigned to sustainable agriculture, it might be leaving behind small farmers, who can have more difficulties than large scale farmers in investing in new practices and marketing their products. More importantly, such approaches imply a disregard for the social goals of sustain- able agriculture, which support small farms that bring greater economic and social benefits to communities. In addition to all the economic constraints encountered by farmers, there are also barriers to acquire informationand knowl- edge needed to make a transition. A great num- ber of farmers suffer from lack of knowledge about the implementation and benefits of sus- tainable agriculture practices. This is aggravated by the fact that sustainable agriculture is a highly skilled profession. These factors can limit the farmers’ ability to adopt sustainable prac- tices to a considerable degree. The research of Baughman et al. (2012) examined the impact of the Government Performance and Results Act on accountability and evaluation activities in two state Cooperative Extension Systems. Re- searcher emphasized the importance of stake- holder involvement inthe program planning and evaluation process and had systems and processes in place to involve stakeholders. Dwyer (2014) emphasis towards systemic ap- proaches, developed territorially in partnership with farmers, is needed. Emerging non-policy innovations and new initiatives may offer les- sons for an improved approach.
However, Dos Santos and Pires (2009) show that private investment in Brazil is little sensitive to changes intaxes, implying that the ability of policymakers to induce an increase inthe former variable through the traditional tools of fiscal policyis very limited. In this sense, Demir (2009) employs a model of portfolio choice in order to explain the low investment rates of three developing countries (Argentina, Mexico and Turkey) during the 1990s. The author argues that, given risk, uncertainty, imperfec- tions in capital markets and relative returns, firms may prefer to make reversible short- -term financial investments than irreversible long-term fixed ones. This can also be the reason lying behind the insensitivity of Brazilian private investment in relation totaxes, but that remains a hypothesis to be investigated in future research.
This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The setting was a treatment unit for detoxiication of psychoactive substances of a medium-sized hospital, located inthe central area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, designed for treatment of crack users (adolescents between 14 and 18 years old), who remain hospi- talized for periods that vary from 9 to 12 weeks. The following inclusion criteria were adopted for the participation of relatives inthe study: being a relative of a crack user who is in process of detoxi- ication and being a resident of the municipality where the study was carried out. After a formal invitation, ten relatives (parents and grandparents, aged between 30 and 60 years) made themselves available to participate inthe study and signed a Terms of Free and Informed Consent.
ABSTRACT: The great challenge for the practice of agricultural aviation has been to avoid accidents. Although, there are technological progress and high resources for safety, accidents continue to occur. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence and occurrence of factors in agricultural aviation accidents in Brazil recently. Based on research and technical - scientific papers written by researchers and aviation authorities, recommendations directed towards reducing the risks associated with this aircraft modality are assessed. The main factors responsible for accidents are normally operational errors and maneuvers that cause flight collisions, engine failures and altitude loss. Professional awareness and qualification converge towards the success of the agricultural pilot inthe detection of inherent dangers or occasional inthe various systems involved.
The land use change in Alcalde has been similarly docu- mented for other communities in Rio Arriba County. Since WWII, acequia communities moved away from small tract subsistence agricultureto an agricultural system based on cattle production in order to maintain the irrigation system despite economic shifts inthe region. The move from field crop diversity to pasture forages for livestock feed provided economic gain for farmers to participate inthe post-WWII wage economy while maintaining irrigable acequia farm- land. The challenge today of prolonged drought and climate change coupled with the reduction of grazing animal units on US forest land will increase pressure on the grazing sys- tem. However, acequia communities have the opportunity to develop strategies for adapting the existing land use configu- ration of irrigable farmland into a system capable of dealing with the potential impacts of prolonged drought and climate variability. Possible strategies include value added crop pro- duction, use of drip irrigation, andthe use of alternative agri- cultural technology. The pre-WWII acequia community was resilient in that the farmers promoted crop diversity, utilized low energy inputs from farm machinery, and maintained sus- tainable practices on small parcel farms. Overall, land use conditions in Alcalde have been altered, but the acequia in- frastructure and farm plot arrangements have endured and have adapted over time, indicators of resilience with flexibil- ity to transform and meet climatic and other challenges inthe future.
Using the 4 components presented above, I was able to make a small analysis in order to characterize the agricultural sector of Prahova county. Even though that in terms of rural development this sector has decreased, it is still the main component and source of income for the rural areas. The repartition of the agricultural real estate by usage, the crops and animals raised may influence the wellbeing of the rural communities. The fact that overall productions have increased as mentioned can be beneficial as an important source of income and taxes. A strong attention however must be direct towards the animal husbandry sector. The sharp decrease inthe number of animals raised must attract the reaction of the regional and national authorities in order to take measures to stop this decline. Taking into consideration that the cereal production has grown constantly (one of the most important indicator in animal breeding) , mixed farms can be created with regional financial support in order to have a better use of the biological production, but
Three-dimensional structures of CBMs have been determined by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (Hashimoto, 2006). For determination of binding specificity of CBMs, several methods have been developed, andthe most commons are affinity gels (Tomme et al., 2000) and macroarray assays (McCartney et al., 2004). For the detailed analysis of the kinetics of binding, ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry), fluorescence analysis, UV spectroscopy analysis and quantitative binding assays are commonly used (Kallas, 2006). The increasing number of three-dimensional structures of different CBMs in complex with their ligands provides an invaluable tool for the understanding of the binding specificities (Pires et al., 2004). The topography of the binding site determines the binding specificity of CBMs to substrates. Currently, almost 30 000 CBMs are described inthe CAZy database, and based on evolutionary relationships, polypeptide folds and substrate preferences, grouped in 71 families, but the number of CBM families is still growing (CAZY server, http://www.cazy.org/Carbohydrate-Binding-Modules.html). Because the fold of proteins is better conserved than CBM sequences, some of the CBM families can be grouped into superfamilies or clans. However, this classification includes CBMs that display great variety in binding specificity. Thus, CBM families were classified into seven structural family folds (β-sandwich (1), β-trefoil (2), Cystein knot (3), Unique (4), OB fold (5), Hevein fold (6) and Hevein-like fold (7) (Boraston et al., 2004). The most common fold among CBMs is the β-sandwich fold, which can be divided into two fold sub-families: β-jelly roll and immunoglobulin folds (Hashimoto, 2006).
Finally, Table 6 presents the grades assigned to teams regarding the partial deliver- ies of the contest, according tothe criteria presented in Section 3.B. Inthe end of the contest, the teams did not deliver completely operational systems to be tested, since it was considered too complex to be developed in this context andinthe time frame avail- able. Consequently, the evaluation criteria planned for the last stage was not followed. The Kruskal–Wallis test was run to verify differences between the grades assigned tothe teams, and consequently tothe participants, of the different semesters. The null hypoth- esis considered was that “there were no significant differences between the grades given the semesters in which students belonged”. The null hypothesis could not be rejected for the ER_Model artifact, with a p-value of 0.097 (greater than 0.05); but it was rejected for the Requirements Elicitation andSystem Architecture artifacts with p-values of, respec- tively, 0.001 and 0.002 (less than 0.05), andin both cases the third-semester students had better grades.
I didn’t know what was happening. Then, I would, I cried, I would put a lot of force! Then, I saw her, like this, coming out. When I put my hand, it was Onelice’s head. So, I scream for the doctor, calling help that the baby was coming out. The doctor said that I lying, that I was making a scandal for nothing. Told me to shut up, if not he would let me have the baby there inthe corridor. You should see how he was fitting with me. Then, I told him that I wasn’t lying, no. Aí, eu gritando o médico, chamando socorro que a menina tava saindo. So, he came, looked at it and saw that it was coming out. Then, they put me in a wheel chair, that wheel chair for crippled people, and went running with me. Put me on that stretcher. Then, I put force, a lot. Then, the baby didn’t want to come out. So, they cut me like this. So, she (daughter) came out. Then, they sewed me up. I suffered! Anesthesia gave out, it began to hurt. They were sewing; it began to hurt the stitches. I suffered a lot from Onelice’s birth! (Odete, 21 years old, 3 rd grade).
Finalmente, na década de 90 aparece a Biologia Molecular, que está fundamentalmente ligada à Engenharia Genética, ciência nova que teve seu marco inicial em 1975. Esta ciência esta dando uma contribuição importante na determinação de novos alvos moleculares e novas metodologias para o estudo e produção de fármacos. Assim, entre as aplicações da Biologia Molecular pela indústria farmacêutica, podemos destacar: i) a determinação da etiologia gênica de algumas doenças. Neste caso é necessário, por exemplo, conhecer o porque da resistência de algumas bactérias a determinados antibióticos na procura de al- vos mais seguros para o efeito dos mesmos. Por outro lado, existem aproximadamente 5000 distúrbios genéticos que afetam o homem provocando várias patologias. O conhecimento dos genes que predispõem a determinadas doenças e como eles interagem deve conduzir à descoberta de novos e importantes fármacos, como no caso da hipertensão arterial, câncer, mal de Alzheimer, etc; ii) identificação e confirmação da participação de determinados receptores em certas doenças mediante a clonagem dos mesmos; iii) produção de peptídeos terapêuticos como no caso da insulina; iv) criação de organismos para screening; v) utilização de animais transgênicos mediante a in- corporação de genes humanos nos mesmos para determinar sua função e testar fármacos que atuem na sua expressão 10 .
Nonetheless, this new internal and predatory feature of capitalism seems to also be a burden. Nowadays, distances are quickly reduced andthe same practices become commonplace in every country. Electoral fraud, gross “public opinion” manipulations, submission to government by unions, diversified mafias, and corruption scandals, are practices no longer limited tothe periphery. The recurring unemployment threat is deepened in core countries through the expropriation of rights that limited workforce availability; perverse changes inthe modalities of labor force hiring are indiscriminately intensified. The (“free”) permanent availability of an enormous portion of the labor force is deepened, andthe phenomenon grows among the strata of workers believed to be protected from such an eventuality. Harsh work process hierarchies are reorganized in order to overcome the fierce competition imposed by capital, in a diffuse and sparse style. Internal competition becomes a “natural need” among workers with profoundly diverse working contracts as well as amidst those deprived of fundamental rights at work.
In Brazil, epidemiological data (1) indicate the growth of the elderly population, which results from decreased mortality and fecundity rates. In combination with socioeconomic inequalities, these changes are significantly affecting the age structure of the population, giving rise to problems inneed of an immediate solution, in order to guarantee that elderly persons will have the opportunity to preserve their physical and mental health and moral, intellectual and spiritual improvement, in autonomous and dignified conditions.