in Italy (Pati, 1984), than France (Leclant and Renoust, 1986), Spain (Mier Durante et al., 1995) and Germany (Thieme and Eggers-Schumacher, 2003). InMontenegro it was found on 5 September 2007, in Miločer (near Budva), on many Lagerstroemia indica trees. It makes big colonies consisting of immatures and alatae viviparous females on the undersides of leaves. The alatae are broad-bodied (Fig. 4a) and pale yellow with dark brown markings on the head and prothorax. The paired tubercules on abdomen and forewings are very distinctively marked (Fig. 4b, c). The processus terminalis on the antennal segment VI is less than 1.5 times as long as the base (Fig. 4d).
Remarks and discussion — he discovery of the described representative of Roncus inSerbia sup- ports the fact that the taxonomy of this genus is still far from being complete (Ćurčić, 1972, 1984, 1988, 1992a, b; Ćurčić and Beron, 1981; Ćurčić et al., 1993, 2004, 2010a, b, c, d, e, f, g; 2011a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h; Hadži, 1937). he variety of cave-dwelling speciesof Roncus described elsewhere by Ćurčić et al. (2004), ofers further proof that this taxon is presently sub- jected to intensive radiation or divergent diferentia- tion into newspecies. Furthermore, the diversity of Roncus representatives in the Balkan regions border- ing on Serbia (Ćurčić, 1984; Ćurčić and Beron, 1981), compared to the same features in other areas, points to the Balkan Peninsula as a center of origin and genesis of numerous forms of the genus. In addition, the occurrence of numerous Roncus species with ex- tremely limited distribution areas demonstrates their endemic nature.
In this study, a total of 32 aphid species, belonging to 21 genera, were trapped. The species trapped with higher frequencies were: Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878), Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758), Aphis spiraecola Patch (1914), Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy (1907), Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus, 1758) and Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach (1843). The other species occurred in frequencies below 1% (Schuber et al., 2009). This study also showed that Brachycaudus persicae (Passerini, 1860) is the only aphid species, which colonizes P. persica in Araucária, PR, Brazil and the occurrence of the other speciesin larger quantities may be related to the higher diversity of families of weeds in the orchards (Schuber et al., 2009). There were no statistically significant differences when comparing different sampling methods tested (Figure 1). However, for catching the syrphids, the yellow pan trap was more efficient because it collected 62.2% of the total specimens, while the blue sticky traps collected 25.3% and the samples in the invasive plants 9.2%. These results confirm the observations of Guajará et al. (2004), who observed that Syrphidae were attracted by the yellow color of the sticky traps. The samples with the funnel, the yellow sticky cards and visual collections accounted for 3.3% of the syrphids collected.
Abstract. The results of pollen analyses of hyaena coprolites from the Early Pleistocene cave of Trlica in northern Montenegroand the Late Pleistocene cave of Baranica in southeast Serbia are described. The Early Pleistocene Pachycrocuta brevirostris, and the Late Pleistocene Crocuta spelaea are coprolite-producing species. Although the pollen concentration was rather low, the presented analyses add considerably to the much-need- ed knowledge of the vegetation of the central Balkans during the Pleistocene. Pollen extracted from a copro- lite from the Baranica cave indicates an open landscape with the presence of steppe taxa, which is in accor- dance with the recorded conditions and faunal remains. Pollen analysis of the Early Pleistocene samples from Trlica indicate fresh and temperate humid climatic conditions, as well as the co-existence of several biotopes which formed a mosaic landscape in the vicinity of the cave.
where he reported two (Latzel, 1882), and later seven (Latzel, 1884) species. Ater that, in papers about myriapods from Albania and Yugoslavia (1929) and from caves on the Balkan Peninsula (1959), Attems quoted 13 and 33 speciesof millipedes from Serbia, respectively. More detailed data on the distribution of this group inSerbia were given by Karl Strasser (1971). In “Catalogus Faunae Jugoslaviae” he intro- duced 47 speciesand subspecies of these arthro- pods. Describing new forms, the list was extended to 53 taxa by Mršić (1985) and subsequently to 70 by Ćurčić et al. (2002). he last taxonomic survey of Serbian millipede fauna was given by Makarov et al. (2004) in a monograph: “he Diplopods ofSerbia, Montenegroand the Republic of Macedonia”, where they stated that 80 speciesof diplopods inhabit the territory ofSerbia.
As a result of the individual collector‘s work within the First Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica, which is today a cultural monument of the city of Belgrade, a single tree of the North American species carya-pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. K. Koch) was cultivated. The tree is about 35 years old. In the site in Belgrade, which represents the transition between the former habitat of mesophilic pedunculate oak forests and xero-thermophilous oak forests of the southern rim of the Pannonian plain, the pecan tree had a rapid growth in height and thickness, and it pro- duced fruit in 2013. Total height of the tree is 20 m, length of the trunk clear of branches is 6.0 m and the trunk diameter at breast height is 57 cm. The fruits are elliptic, pointed at both ends with an average length of 50.5 mm, an average width of 20.7 mm, and 1 kg has a total of 145 walnuts.
In the present study, material from a sample of pseu- doscorpions collected in the Bukarička Pećina Cave, nr. Risan, Montenegro, has been examined. his sample contained a new taxon – Chthonius (Ephip- piochthonius) rhizon n. sp. To complete the study of Balkan Ephippiochthonius species, the material of other species was reexamined in order to deine their precise taxonomic rank.
Abstract: Aim: We record new occurrences of the invasivespecies Ceratium furcoides in reservoirs and their affluents in the Paraná River basin, State of Goiás (GO), central-western Brazil, andin some localities in the São Francisco River basin, northeastern region. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative phytoplankton samples were collected from Corumbá Reservoir and Cascatinha Falls, Caldas Novas, GO, and João Leite Reservoir, Goiânia, GO, both in the Paraná River basin, and samples from the São Franscisco River basin. Specimens of C. furcoides were observed with optical, epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Results: The individuals of C. furcoides from these environments agreed morphologically with populations in other reservoirs in Brazil and other locations, especially concerning the tabulation and the shape of the fourth apical plate. These environments ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions. Physical and chemical variables of these waterbodies, compared to other environments where this species was found, demonstrate that C. furcoides is a highly eurytopic species. The dispersal pattern of C. furcoides seems to be more complex than upstream-downstream regulation, since the species occurs in high-altitude environments and systems upstream from previously recorded locations. Conclusion: An analysis based on the areas of occurrence and the chronology of the records demonstrated that C. furcoides has spread toward northern Brazil. Studies of the relationships among populations recorded in other parts of Brazil and South America are required in order to develop accurate models of dispersal for this invasivespecies, and will facilitate the development of management policies for aquatic systems in Brazil.
Bosnia and Herzegovina andMontenegro indicated the species to be associated with rapid mountain river habitats (R e i s e r, 1896; R e i s e r, 1939) . At that time, glacial oligotrophic mountain lakes were not inhabited by fish, but rather by newts and frogs ( C v i j i ć , 1889; C e r o v i ć , 1935) . Several studies indicated that goosander is a rare speciesin these regions, nesting in hollow trees. Forest man- agement and wood exploitation caused old trees with holes wide enough for nesting to disappear almost completely. In the middle of the 20th cen- tury, the goosander remained only in Dobrudja and on Lake Prespa. The relict range on Lake Prespa is 280 km distant from Serbiaand today includes just four or five pairs ( M a k a t a s c h , 1950; S a g e , 1966; M a k a t a s c h , 1974; M i c e v s k i , 1998) . This population did not disperse to a nerby oligo- trophic lake (Lake Ohrid) or to the large artificial Mavrovsko, Debarsko, and Tikveško Lakes.
S. soda is an annual, succulent shrub up to 70 cm tall. It has fleshy green leaves and either green or red stems. The tiny flowers develop from inflores- cences that grow out of the base of the leaves near the stem (Slavnić, 1972; Akeroyd, 1993). S. soda is native in Eurasia and North Africa. It is also found on the Atlantic coasts of France and Portugal and on the Black Sea coast (Jalas and Suominen, 1989). It has become naturalized along the Pacific coast of North America, and there is concern about its invasiveness in California’s salt marshes (Baye, 1998). InSerbia S. soda is an endangered species which distribution is limited to saline areas in the northern part ofSerbia, while inMontenegro this plant can be found only on the Adriatic coast (Slavnić, 1972).
Here we provided a case study on how the combination of distribution modeling, field study and molecular and experimental work can offer essential glimpses into the nature of adaptive constraints during species invasions. The inference ofspecies climatic niche at both global and regional scales proved to be a crucial approach to identify potential niche expansion and to pin- point populations suspected of on-going adaptation. The combined study of allele association with environment and phenotypic traits also provided valuable insights into the nature of natu- ral selection imposed by niche expansion during colonization of a new climatic space. Thus, our results suggest that over the course of last decades, A. artemisiifolia may have been expand- ing its niche toward more stressful alpine conditions, but that this expansion will probably be slowed down in the future due to functional trait correlations and depleted adaptive genetic variation. Such results suggest that some species' climatic niches could evolve on very short timescales, and can thus be very labile ecological characteristics in some short-lived invasive organisms. Repeating this type of study would be now interesting to better understand under which conditions niche evolution can significantly impact species' range expansion, and better explore the population mechanisms of niche evolution.
Water beetles of the family Dytiscidae are cosmo- politan in distribution, but reach their highest di- versity in the tropical climatic zone. Knowledge of the fauna of diving beetles of the family Dytis- cidae from Montenegro is still limited and only a few papers deal with the diversity of this group (e.g., Guéorguiev, 1971; Mikšić, 1977; Pešić and Pavićević, 2005). Pešić (2008) listed 51 speciesof Dytiscidae in 23 genera in his checklist of diving beetles ofMontenegro.
In two cases (Cyprus, Georgia-Abkhazia) the conflicts were driven by the minority party’s fear of extinction. This means that strong intervention by the external powers is likely to be a necessary condition for successful settlement. Security guarantees provided by external powers to these small and weak ethnic communities become a crucial element for a settlement. In extreme cases federative solutions can be directly imposed, as happened in the case of the Dayton Agreement for Bosnia. However there are severe constraints on the imposition of solutions, both as a matter of realistic diplomacy (whether the external powers have the capacity to enforce a settlement), and as a matter of the international political norms for such forceful intervention (see chapter 1). Supposing that a settlement is imposed or very heavily mediated, there remains the issue whether the new political structures can ensure or at least favour a transformation of the situation that produced the initial conflict, creating new interests and incentives to overcome or displace past enmities. It is here that the Europeanization phenomenon is potentially valuable, and most immediately relevant to the cases of Cyprus andSerbia-Montenegro.
Practical limits. In taxonomy, we are perma- nently faced to search new possibilities to enlarge our resolution power to find newand reliable traits to separate closely related incipient species. What kind of molecular genetic procedures would help us to confirm the taxonomic state of incipient caddisfly species? The routine „fingerprint” of mitochondrial DNA procedure „confirmed” only those Chaetopteryx species which are anyhow, easily separated by traditional gross morpholo- gical structures (Kucinic et al. 2013). These taxa are the so called well recognised “good species”. Easy to recognise them without any DNA sequences. Their species delimitation does not require fine structure analysis with very high sensitivity of fine resolution. Do the classical neutral markers really help us? It seems that mtDNA sequences are powerless to detect diver- gences in relation to any kind of phenotypic reality. These markers are really blind. At best their prediction potential is based simply on coinciding luck of micro (molecular genotypes) and macro (morphological phenotypes) shapes in differentiating among speciesof recently diverged or diverging clusters. Neutral markers could be almost fingerprinting sensitive. Often sorts comp- letely in isolated lineages much long before the evolution of reproductive isolation or phenotypic divergence develops. These markers could qualify independently evolving units after a short allo- patric phase and leading to taxonomic chaos. Especially in high mountain habitats where spatial
Of course, it is important to note that scientiic information derived from research forms only one component of environmental management decisions. Previous research suggests that scientists are not keen to make decisive statements, preferring instead to ar- ticulate uncertainty and recommend other sources of information, whilst managers often have to make rapid decisions before all scientiic information has been evaluated (Lach et al. 2003). Yet much of the information embedded in ecologically-focused research publications may be what is needed to inform policy and management but is incompre- hensible in its current form, and may need collating and interpreting. he perceived gap between invasion biology research and practice may be best addressed through collabora- tive working and the translation of research indings into information accessible to end users. Scientists have a duty, particularly when their work is publically funded, to ensure that the scientiic information they produce is not just published in journal articles but is explained to help resolve important policy questions (Lackey 2007). It may be that this is not a role for the scientists themselves, rather for specially trained knowledge facilitators (e.g. after Francis and Goodman 2010). Funders also have an important role in ensuring that applied research really is applied. Efective engagement is necessary to ensure that research is contextualised (Esler et al. 2010), whilst synthesis methods such as meta-anal- ysis may help to address the diference in focal scales by combining data from multiple studies to inform decision making (Stewart 2010). Recent initiatives to collate primary research data to inform environmental management more broadly have advocated the use of synthesis methods such as systematic reviews or maps or synopses of conservation evidence (e.g. Pullin et al. 2009; Sutherland et al. 2013), and these may prove useful tools for invasivespecies management information.
)n the context of the cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training of the people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective of the European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets of the services andof the goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation of the individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
Argyrodiaptomus bergi shows an endemic distribution in the lower La Plata River basin. The present record is nearly 1,000 km from the other known sites, and is probably near the northern limit of the species’ distribution. However, compared to other speciesof the genus that are distributed over larger areas, such as A. azevedoi which occurs in northeastern, cen- Figure 3-13. (3) Argyrodiaptomus bergi adult male, scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs (1,000 µm); (4) right A1, segments 11-18 (400 µm); (5) right A1, segments 20-22 (100 µm); (6) rostrum (50 µm); (7) right maxilliped (200 µm); (8-12) frontal view: (8) leg 5 (400 µm); (9) basis, part of exopod 1 and 2, and endopod of right leg 5, and left leg 5 (200 µm); (10) leg 5 (400 µm); (11) basis and endopod of right leg 5, and left leg 5; (12) left leg 5 in frontal view (200 µm); (13) left leg 5 in caudal oblique view (100 µm). Scale bars: 3 = 1000 µm; 4, 8, 10 = 400 µm; 5, 13 = 100 µm; 6 = 50 µm; 7, 9, 12 = 200 µm,
ABSTRACT: The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and fe male urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male a nd female urine was done for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, temperature, pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion (direct) methods for nitrogen content. Temperature, pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer, temperature/pH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly, phosphorus in male urine was significantly (p<0.05) higher than th at in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally, NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage . There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen, and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally, urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine (after six months storage) was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male (30.4(3.4*)-1-43.7) and female (34.4(6.5*)-1-62.8) urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers, such as 21% N ammonia. However, the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was higher in male urine tha n in female urine during the 2nd and 3rd months of storage. Ecosan urinals (a designed urinal that seeks to separately collect urine to optimize its usefulness) should be designed to separately collect urine for specific NPK requirements for crop production. Results of this study suggest that concentration of NPK in human urine is comparable to commercial chemical fertilizers. Hum an urine in agriculture should progressively be promoted by governments and other agencies.