Non-biting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) include a large number ofspecies, whose larvae are found in almost all types of waters. Emerged in large numbers and attracted to elect- ric lights, they cause unpleasant living and play an important role in allergic diseases (Lee et al., 1995; Yong et al., 1999). Total 1,113 adults were collected near Namdae Stream located in Muju-gun in 2008-2009. One newand eight newly recorded speciesof the genus Polypedilum were reported by Ree et al. (2010), and six newandfourunrecordedspeciesof tribe Tanytarsisni were also described by Ree et al. (2011). In addition, we report twonewandfourunrecordedspecies. The genera Thienemanniella and Nilotanypus are the first record inKorea. The type specimens were deposited in the collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank, Department of Environmental Medical Biology, Yonsei University. Therminology followed Saether (1980).
Exuviae grayish. Abdomen length 3.25-3.75 mm. Cephalic tubercles small, conical and apically pointed; frontal setae inserted subapically (Fig. 2). Hook row 340 µm about ¾ width of segment II. Pedes spurii B present on segment II. Pedes spurii A present on sternite IV. Patches of small spines in the posterolateral corners of paratergites V-VII small and inconspicuous. Sternites bare. Tergite I without shagreen; II- VI extensively covered with shagreenation; VII and VIII bare. Segment VIII with posterolateral yellowish brown anal comb
2004, T. impar Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino, 2004 and T. fastigatus Reiss, 1972). The shape of the superior volsella, especially the dorsolateral bulbous structure and the me- dian volsella with long simple and distally divided lamellae are the most distinguishing features that discriminate T. obiriciae, spec. nov., from these Neotropical Tanytarsus species. The hypopygium of T. obiriciae is also similar to that of T. breda (Roback 1960) in its general appearance (cf. Roback 1960), but differs from this species by the shape of the superior and median volsellae and by lacking the two long median tergite setae. The larvae exhibit an uncommon characteristic, the very long and annulated antennal seg- ment 2 that distinguishes it from other Tanytarsini. In the Guide to Chironomidae Larvae of São Paulo State (Trivinho- Strixino & Strixino 1995) this species was called Tanytarsini Gênero A sp.2. The feature is unique among the Tanytarsini, but similar to the annular Lauterborn organs pedicels of the Nimbocera patagonica and some Tanytarsus and Caladomyia species (Trivinho-Strixino & Strixino 2003; Trivinho-Strixino & Sanseverino 2003). This characteristic annulation of the second antennal segment of some spe- cies of Tanytarsus larvae was commented by authors as Roback (1966) with his Calopsectra sp.13, Nolte (1989) with Tanytarsus (b) and Epler (2001) with Tanytarsus sp. F.
A sister relationship between the Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae proposed herein was advanced by Lundberg et al. (1991a) and Britto (2002). Our analysis supports this hypothesis with three characters, which are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the two families. The first is an anteroventral fenestra in the quadrate that accommodates the end of the posterodorsal process of the anguloarticular and facilitates lower jaw movement and mouth opening. A similar fenestra arose homoplastically in the Bagridae (Mo, 1991). The second character involving the low vertebral counts, is somewhat tentative, and may be refined when data from an increased number ofspeciesof the Heptapteridae and Pimelodidae are available. Low numbers of vertebrae demonstrate size-related homoplasy in the Pseudopimelodidae as observed in Microglanis and Rhyacoglanis, both of which have the lowest counts and smallest body size, but are not sister groups. Absence of lateral trabeculae in the gas bladder is the third character uniting the Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae. It is of note that the absence of such structures may be plesiomorphic in the Siluroidei in so far as they are also absent in Diplomystidae (Marceniuk, Birindelli, 2010). In sum, much of the evidence supporting a sister relationship of the Pseudopimelodidae and Heptapteridae is equivocal and this question requires further study. Indeed, swim bladder morphology (Birindelli, Shibatta, 2011) and molecular (Sullivan et al., 2013) evidence indicates a sister relationship of the Pseudopimelodidae with the Pimelodidae rather than the Heptapteridae.
Most of the introductions in the Azores listed here are beetles (Coleoptera) represented by seven species, fourof which are new to the Azores. Some of them are potential pests like M. gallo- provincialis, harmful for pines, and the vector of the pathogenic nematode B. xylophilus which has been associated with major losses in pine timber production in Portugal as well as other regions in Europe (Braasch 2001). In addition, G. scutella- tus, dangerous for commercial Eucalyptus planta- tions, is also reported in the Azores. Five other new records are Hemiptera, being S. acuta known as a pest of a few crops. Thirteen species have their origins in Europe, twoin North America, three in South America, twoin Australia, andtwoin South Asia. Fourof the species have a cosmo- politan distribution being accidentally introduced in the islands by human action: C. morosus, C. gallica, C. viridis and S. acuta. As mentioned, some of these species (S. acuta, M. galloprovin- cialis, C. gallica, C. morosus and G. scutellatus) might become pests, or vectors of pests, in the Azores.
humeral width of pronotum. Head (Fig. 2), in lateral view, with clypeus slightly inflated and frons slightly rounded. Head (Fig. 3), in frontal view, with face wider than long; clypeus as long as wide, lateral margins slightly convergent apically, apex straight; maxillary plates produced ventrally as far as clypeus apex; gena with ventrolateral margins slightly rounded; frons approximately 1.1 times longer than wide, not excavate below anterior margin of crown; frontogenal suture distant from eye margin by short distance, approximately equal to scape diameter, and reaching antennal ledges, antennal ledge carinate and trans- verse. Forewing (Figs 1, 2) without extra cross veins; appendix developed and involving first and second apical cells, as wide as maximum width of first apical cell. Foreleg with profemur, in frontal view, 3.5 times longer than high; profemur AV row with five or six setae and PV rows absent; protibia more or less cylin- drical, with a longitudinal carina adjacent to PD row; protibia AV row formed by long setae, gradually increasing in thickness and length toward apex; AD formed by many small setae; PD row with four long setae; PV row developed, with very small setae near base andfour or five long setae on apical two-thirds. Hind leg with femoral setal formula 2:2:1; metatibia AD row with intercalary setae between macrosetae; PV row with setae of apical half formed by sequence of a thicker and three thinner setae; first tarsomere with two rows of setae on plantar surface, median row distinctly smaller in length than external row; apex with four platellae; second tarsomere apex with two apical platellae. Other characteristics as in subgeneric description.
During the survey of brachyuran fauna of Matuta planipes (Fabricius, 1798) has four adult female andtwo male species were collected in Chennai coast using trawl net. Trawl net hauled from depth of 40 m to 60 m. The specimen was preserved in 10% formalin and its taxonomy was confirmed to species level using various literatures (Sethuramalingam and Ajmalkhan, 1991; Jayabaskaran et al., 2000). The specimen was deposited in the Department of Zoology, Sir Theagaraya College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Remarks. The stated reason Zicsi (1972: 131) attributed his species to the semi-aquatic genus Eiseniella Michaelsen, 1900 was for its inferred amphibian habitat, although it was later transferred (e.g., Easton, 1983) to Eisenia. And whereas Zicsi had primarily compared his taxon to “meroandrisch” Eisenia kucenkoi (Michaelsen, 1902) from “Ost-Turkestan” (= =Xinjiang), a remarkable similarity to Eisenoides carolin- ensis from Appalachian southeastern USA was hitherto un- recognized. Both are squarish, with clitella and TPs having same range, the spermathecae are dorsal in 9/10/11 and cal- ciferous glands are in 11 & 12. Similarity extends to a report (Gates 1956: 19) of spermatophores on an Ei. carolinensis worm attached at 25/26 and on 27, as also found by Zicsi (1972) in E. koreana at 22/23. Exact relationship of the taxa remains unclear.
During our study four collections of P. apiciflorum were made. In our opinion, these collections and the types of P. apiciflorum and P. irwinianum belong to a single species, characterized by being a monoecious plants, with large, imperfectly acrodromous, coriaceous leaves up to 10 cm long, 1-2(-9) spikes per leaf axil, short spikes 1,3-4 cm long, with 4 articles, the articles with 6-10(-14) biseriate flowers, the male flowers dispersed throughout the articles, and ovoid, yellow- green fruits with closed tepals. Geographically, the Distrito Federal population is c. 300 km NNW of the type locality of P. apiciflorum, but the highland habitat is more or less continuous between the Distrito Federal highlands and the Serra de Paracatu, Minas Gerais. Furthermore, one of the specimens of P. apiciflorum (Heringer et al. 2927) cited by Kuijt (2003) and the type of P. irwinianum were found growing on Roupala sp. (Proteaceae). Within the Distrito Federal, Roupala montana Aubl. is common in cerrado (woodland savannas), while possibly distinct Roupala brasiliensis Klotzsch grows in mata de galeria (gallery forests); neither species was found as host to any other speciesof Viscaceae in the Distrito Federal (Caires & Proença, unpublished data).
One OR in P. octo (PoctOR25) and one in P. excessana (PexcOR14) were confirmed as being female-biased in their expression in antennae by qPCR (S3 and S4 Figs). Even though not significantly female-biased by qPCR in either of the two Planotortrix species, OR22 showed a trend towards higher expression in female than in male antennae by RNA-Seq-counting. In C. obliquana, C. herana and also in E. postvittana, OR22 was also detected as being female- biased [30,48]. In total, two sets of orthologous receptor genes were more highly expressed in female antennae than in males in all fourspeciesofNew Zealand endemic leafroller moths by RNA-Seq counting (OR22 and OR25; S1 and S2 Figs and ), suggesting an important role for these receptors in adult females. However, gene expression analysis by qPCR only con- firmed a significantly higher expression in female than in male antennae for OR25 in P. octo and OR 14 in P. excessana. Further investigation of the female-biased receptors in these species within the endemic New Zealand leafroller complex will be useful to understand the evolution of host specificity and polyphagy . Also, it has been shown in several moth species that males produce short range pheromones. These pheromones are used in close proximity and are an important factor during courtship [77,78,79,80,81]. Female-biased ORs in Planotortrix and Ctenopseustis species could be involved in detecting pheromones produced by males and facilitate mate recognition.
Female (paratype IBSP 112979). Coloration as in male, with less brown hairs covering abdomen dorsally (Fig. 13). Total length 27.0. Carapace 10.0 long, 7.7 wide, fovea short 1.35 and procurved. Clypeus narrow, 0.35. Anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior recurved. AME 0.44, ALE 0.42, PME 0.28 and PLE 0.46. Eye group trapezoidal, wider than long (Fig. 12). Basal segment of chelicerae with 11 and 13 teeth (left and right, respectively) in one row on promargin, with ca. 45 basal smaller teeth. Rastellum with few strong setae. Intercheliceral tumes- cence absent. Labium 1.9 long, 1.2 wide, with two cuspules. Endites with 90 and 95 cuspules on internal basal angle (left and right, respectively). Serrula absent. Sternum oval, 5.1 long, 4.7 wide, profile in transverse section slightly domed. Six ster- nal sigilla, median and posterior away from margin by ca. one length, oval-elongated, posterior four times the size of anterior pair. Measurements: Palp: femur 4.3/patella 2.7/tibia 3.2/ cymbium 2.2/total 12.4; legs: I: femur 6.2/patella 4.4/tibia 4.7/ metatarsus 3.7/tarsus 2.0/total 21.0; II: 5.6/3.8/3.9/3.6/2.1/19.0; III: 5.0/3.5/3.2/4.7/2.3/18.7; IV: 7.0/4.1/5.5/7.0/2.8/26.4; spination: Palp: tibia v0-0-1p-0-3ap; legs: I: metatarsus v2-1r-0- 2ap; II: tibia v0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus v0-2-2-0-3ap; III: patella d0- 0-1p-0-1p-1p-1p-0-0, p0-0-1-1, tibia d0-0-1-0, v1p-0-2-0-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-2-0-1p-2-0-0-0-2, v0-2-0-2-0-3ap, p0- 1-0-1-0; IV: tibia v1r-0-1r-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1, r0-1-0-1, metatarsus d1-1p-0-2-0-2, v0-2-0-1p-1r-1p-0-5ap, p1-1-0-1-0-1-0-1-0. Palp with one row with three prolateral teeth. Pseudopreening combs on metatarsi III-IV. Tarsi I-IV not flexible. Scopulae on tarsi and 3/4 anterior of metatarsi I. Scopulae divided on 3/4 of tarsi II by one band of 4-6 strong setae (Fig. 11) and 1/4 anterior of meta- tarsi II by one band of 6 strong setae. Scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I-II symmetric. Superior tarsal claws with two rows of 2-3 teeth on all tarsi. Third claw on tarsi IV (about 1/8 of length
The high degree of genetic diversity among tomato begomoviruses (two definitive species, one in MG and the other in RJ/ES, plus an additional four possible newspecies) suggests that indigenous viruses are being transferred from natural hosts into tomatoes by the whitefly vector. These viruses have probably been associated with weeds or wild plants, and did not reach the tomato until recently due to the absence of an aggressive vector. Reports of begomovirus infection in weeds and other wild plants can be found in the Brazilian literature as far back as the 1950’s (Costa, 1955; Costa, 1976; Costa & Bennett, 1950). The A biotype of B. tabaci, although capable of transmitting begomoviruses, does not normally colonize tomatoes. Conversely, the B biotype readily colonizes this host (Brown et al., 1995). Therefore, after the introduction of the B biotype into Brazil, transfer of the indigenous begomoviruses from natural hosts to tomato became possible.
Gupta (2000) views gender to refer to the widely shared expectations and norms within a society about appropriate male and female behavior, characteristics, and roles. It is a social and cultural construct that differentiates women from men and defines the ways in which women and men interact. Worthy to note that there has been some controversy on the social relationship between the two sexes that make up gender and this has raised a lot of dust and storm. Agriculture is the most assured engine of growth and development and reliable key to industrialization. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world (Ogbe et al, 2003). It is a very important staple food consumed in different forms by millions of Nigerians. Cassava roots are rich in energy, containing mainly starch and soluble carbohydrates, but are poor in protein. Cassava is once seen as the food for the poor but due to its value addition it is therefore a food for all. These and other features endowed it with a special capacity to bridge the gap in food security, poverty alleviation and environmental protection (Clair et.al, 2000). In many rural areas in Nigeria and several developing countries, women play a crucial role in providing and improving household food security (CTA, 2005).
In a conventional STATCOM system, the internal 3 phase inverter normally constructed by a 3-leg and 6-switch configuration provides the main control functions via connecting its output voltage with a controllable magnitude and phase angle in shunt with the compensated power system through a transformer. In this paper, a simple three-phase converter constituted by 2-leg and 4-switch is adopted to perform both the reactive power and voltage compensation tasks -. This arrangement can provide an alternative topology for STATCOM with lower system cost; however, the related controllers must be properly designed to achieve a satisfactory performance. Fig. 1 shows a simple test power system with the proposed 2-leg and 4-switch STATCOM configuration. As shown in Fig. 1, the STATCOM is connected to a utility distribution system at the load terminal. The utility system is represented by a three-phase voltage source behind series RL elements in each phase. The load is a three-phase, passive RL load. In a STATCOM system, the voltage acts essentially as a controllable synchronous ac voltage source. In addition to the dc voltage regulator, the
The morphological features of the newspecies, such as the absence of ventrocervical sensillae, fifth palpom- eres that are greater than the third and a long clypeus, per- mit its inclusion in the alphabetica group of the Martins- myia genus. Presently, eight species comprise this group (Galati 2003): Martinsmyia alphabetica (Fonseca, 1936), Martinsmyia brisolai (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1987), Martins- myia minasensis (Mangabeira, 1942), Martinsmyia mol- linedoi (Le Pont & Desjeux, 1991), Martinsmyia oliveirai (Martins, Silva & Falcão, 1970), Martinsmyia pisuquia (Ogusuku, Guevara, Revilla, Inga & Pérez, 2001), Mar- tinsmyia quadrispinosa (Floch & Chassignet, 1947) and Martinsmyia waltoni (Arias, Freitas & Barrett, 1984).
Description — Anterior carapacal margin wider than the posterior border. Carapace longer than broad. Anterior eyes with somewhat lattened lenses, pos- terior eyes smaller and spot-like (Fig. 5). Anterior carapacal border slightly convex, and with a small diferentiated epistome (Fig. 2); there are also tiny denticulations, particularly between the two median setae. he carapace bears 20 setae (Fig. 5): four an- terior, six ocular, six median and intermediary, andfour posterior setae. In addition, two or three pre- ocular setae are carried on either side (Fig. 5).
No estágio de pupa a diferenciação das subfamílias e gêneros de Chironomidae pode ser baseada, principalmente, pela morfologia do corno torácico, lobo anal e saco genital. As pupas de Ablabesmyia caracterizam-se por (Fig. 3): Cefalotórax: cornos torácicos elipsóides, átrio respiratório com reticulação distinta ou indistinta, papila pré-apical membranosa geralmente termina em um plastrão, ducto respiratório em vista lateral sinuoso com o ápice arredondado ou em “T”, pente torácico proeminente, apótema frontal destituído de tubérculos ou setas. Abdome: cicatriz em A 1 sempre presente, cinco setas
hairs along the ventromedial groove. Between the medial line and pc3 on the posterior margin of the head are 4(5)+4(5) setae. The frontal seta 'ap' is absent on the head dorsum, but unpaired setae sometimes cause asymmetry. The axial chaeto- taxy is reduced to 10(12);8(6)/4;4;4;4. The corner mesochaeta on Th. II tergum is stronger than the other setae of the ‘p’ row. The number of ‘s’ and ‘ms’ chaetae on Th. II – Abd. V is 3,3/2,2,2,2,4 (s) and 1,1/1,1,1,1 (ms). First coxa with seta. Tibiotarsi with 21, 21, 23 setae and 1,2,2 long and clavate tenent hairs dorsally in the apical whirls. Femora ventrally with one long curved seta and 2 s setae. VT with 2+2 posterior (caudal) and 3+3 laterodistal setae. Manubrium with 6(5)+6(7) pos- terior setae. The anterior and posterior manubrial subcoxae with (4+2)+(4+2) setae, respectively. Dens with 2 posterior and 1 anterior setae. The anal spines are very strong, amber colored and bent. The papillae of the anterior pair are very strong and connected by a bulge of strongly scle- rotized cuticle. On this bulge the polygons can coalesce to smooth areas. The medial meso- chaetae (a1) on Abd. V are slightly posterior to the medial macrochaetae (a2). Arrangement and parameters of setae and spines on the dorsum of Abd. V-VI as follows: a2-a2/a1-a1 = 2.5; a1- a1/a1-a2 = 1.5; a2-ASi/a2-Ase = 1.8; a2-ASi/a2- a2 = 1.6; a2-a2/a1-a1 = 2.2.