Top PDF On the occurrence of rainstorm damage based on home insurance and weather data

On the occurrence of rainstorm damage based on home insurance and weather data

On the occurrence of rainstorm damage based on home insurance and weather data

Abstract. Rainstorm damage caused by the malfunction of urban drainage systems and water intrusion due to defects in the building envelope can be considerable. Little research on this topic focused on the collection of damage data, the understanding of damage mechanisms and the deepening of data analysis methods. In this paper, the relative contribu- tion of different failure mechanisms to the occurrence of rainstorm damage is investigated, as well as the extent to which these mechanisms relate to weather variables. For a case study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, a property level home insurance database of around 3100 water-related dam- age claims was analysed. The records include comprehen- sive transcripts of communication between insurer, insured and damage assessment experts, which allowed claims to be classified according to their actual damage cause. The results show that roof and wall leakage is the most frequent failure mechanism causing precipitation-related claims, followed by blocked roof gutters, melting snow and sewer flooding. Claims related to sewer flooding were less present in the data, but are associated with significantly larger claim sizes than claims in the majority class, i.e. roof and wall leakages. Rare events logistic regression analysis revealed that maximum rainfall intensity and rainfall volume are significant predic- tors for the occurrence probability of precipitation-related claims. Moreover, it was found that claims associated with rainfall intensities smaller than 7–8 mm in a 60-min win- dow are mainly related to failure processes in the private do- main, such as roof and wall leakages. For rainfall events that exceed the 7–8 mm h −1 threshold, the failure of systems in the public domain, such as sewer systems, start to contribute considerably to the overall occurrence probability of claims. The communication transcripts, however, lacked information
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A dataset of cetacean occurrences in the Eastern North Atlantic

A dataset of cetacean occurrences in the Eastern North Atlantic

The route of the ship during sampling and the positions marked by the MMOs are recorded using a tablet with an inbuilt GPS and running the application MyTracks (https://my-tracks.pt.aptoide.com). This application regis- ters, among other variables, the date and time (programmed for GMT + 0), the speed (in m/s) and direction (in °) of the vessel and the GPS coordinates (in decimal format, WGS84 coordinate system). The recommended record- ing settings are maintained: recording every 10 seconds or 10 metres (whichever the smallest) and with minimum precision of 50 m. These settings were occasionally changed in order to overcome battery life issues. The applica- tion, although working efficiently at sea, on rare occasions, generates errors in the date and time recording (with the time going forwards and backwards). This issue demands a careful verification process during data entry. An adaptation of the protocol was made during the first year of the project (2012 campaigns), in which a Garmin GPS (with similar settings) was used, with positions being annotated by hand and later imported into Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. During this year, the use of alternative survey stands (e.g. deck of the ship) was explored. Besides data on cetacean occurrences, information about the weather conditions, marine traffic and the presence of other pelagic megafauna is also collected. To record weather conditions, observers assess sea state (using the Douglas scale), wind speed (using the Beaufort scale), visibility (on a categorical scale of values from 1–10 thus covering visibility ranges from 0 m to more than 50000 m, estimated based on the definition of the horizon line and ref- erence points at a known range, e.g., ships with an AIS system) and the occurrence of rain. This information is registered at the beginning and end of each survey leg (a survey leg being a continuous period of sampling) and every time there are significant changes in the conditions. For the marine traffic, small and big vessels (less than and over 20 m in length), detected with or without binoculars, all around the ship´s position, are registered at the beginning and end of each survey, at every sighting of cetacean species and every hour. For pelagic megafauna other than cetaceans, the data are always collected opportunistically, as sampling effort is dedicated uniquely to cetacean species. In these cases, only taxonomic information and the number of individuals (as well as optional comments about the sighting, e.g., animal behaviours, presence of calves or others) are registered. Whenever MMOs cannot gain access to the survey stand (e.g. during safety drills, manoeuvres) or when weather conditions are unfavourable for cetacean monitoring (e.g. at Beaufort or Douglas values > 4, visibility < 1 km or heavy rain), the sampling effort stops and any data collected until effort resumes is considered opportunistic (off-effort).
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Drought evolution characteristics and precipitation intensity changes during alternating dry–wet changes in the Huang–Huai–Hai River basin

Drought evolution characteristics and precipitation intensity changes during alternating dry–wet changes in the Huang–Huai–Hai River basin

Abstract. Abrupt drought–flood change events caused by atmospheric circulation anomalies have occurred frequently and widely in recent years, which has caused great losses and casualties in China. In this paper, we focus on investigating whether there will be a rainfall occurrence with higher in- tensity after a drought period in the Huang–Huai–Hai River basin. Combined with the Chinese climate divisions and the basin’s DEM (digital elevation model), the basin is divided into seven sub-regions by means of cluster analysis of the basin meteorological stations using the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method. Based on the daily precip- itation data of 171 stations for the years 1961–2011, the changes of drought times with different magnitudes are ana- lyzed, and the number of consecutive days without precipita- tion is used to identify the drought magnitudes. The first pre- cipitation intensity after a drought period is analyzed with the Pearson-III frequency curve, then the relationship be- tween rainfall intensity and different drought magnitudes is observed, as are the changes of drought times for different years. The results of the study indicated that the occurrence times of different drought levels show an overall increasing trend; there is no clear interdecadal change shown, but the spatial difference is significant. (2) As the drought level in- creases, the probability of extraordinary rainstorm becomes lower, and the frequency of occurrence of spatial changes in different precipitation intensities vary. In the areas I and II, as the drought level increases, the occurrence frequency of different precipitation intensities first shows a decreasing
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Rev. bras. epidemiol.  vol.13 número3

Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.13 número3

Let us suppose that n travelers depart from country A to country B, each of which with a probability p of being infected by an emerging infectious disease occurring in A. The proportion of infected persons (popu- lation prevalence) in A would give a rough estimate for probability p. An additional assumption is that the probability p that a passenger is infected does not depend on the probability that another passenger gets infected in the country of origin. Approxi- mately, there is a probability (1 – p) n that all
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Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

Nanoparticles as a new generation of materials are used in many fields. The basic methods for their preparation are the top- down and bottom-up techniques. The essence of the top-down technique consists in grinding the material to particles with nano dimensions, while the bottom-up technique assumes making structures from molecules or single atoms [1,2]. According to a method recently developed, the nanoparticles of metal oxides are produced through anodic dissolution of metals [3]. There are also thermal methods of obtaining metal nanoxides [4-7].
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Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Effect of heat treatment parameters on the properties of low-alloy cast steel with microadditions of vanadium

Table 2 gives the results of mechanical tests carried out on the low-alloy cast steel with additions of vanadium and compares them with the results of previous studies made on this cast steel (designated as P1 in Tables 1 and 2) subjected to heat treatment recommended by the respective standard [9].

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Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Winning the Oil Lottery: The Impact of Natural Resource Extraction on Growth Tiago Cavalcanti Daniel Da Mata Frederik Toscani

Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location of the producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state of the economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent of the field. Every well drilled inside the known extent of the field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
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DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

DISTRIBUTION OF THREATENED SPECIES TRIFOLIUM LUPINASTER L., HERACLEUM CARPATICUM PORCIUS AND RANUNCULUS THORA L. IN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS

Within the natural park a rich flora including a significant number of rarities such as: Lysimachia nemorum L., Ranunculus thora L., Silene rupestris L., Salix bicolor Willd., Trifolium lupinaster L., Woodsia alpina (Bolton) Gray, Sagina apetala Ard., Rhinanthus alectorolophus (Scop.) Pollich and so on and a great number of dacic elements such as: Gymnadenia carpatica (Zapał.) Teppner & E. Klein, Heracleum carpaticum Porcius, Pulmonaria filarszkyana Jáv., Poa rehmannii (Asch. & Graebn.) K. Richt, Cochlearia borzaeana (Coman & Nyár.) Pobed., Silene zawadzkii Herb. and so on can be found.
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Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

Influence of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of AlSi13Cu2 alloy

Test bed to investigation of porosity of the alloy consisted of the NEOPHOT 32 metallographic microscope equipped with high resolution camera connected to computerized system of image analysis. Next, with use of the MULTISCAN program there were performed photos of the investigated specimens (Fig. 5). Successive stage consisted on generation, with use of the image analyzer system, an image of specimens’ photos showing areas of porosity and contraction cavities only, on base of which the software could calculate surface area of the porosities and contraction cavities.
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Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

Identification of boundary heat flux on the continuous casting surface

In the paper the 2D task concerning the continuous casting technology is discussed. On the basis of the knowledge of temperature history at the selected set of the points from the casting domain the boundary heat flux is identified [5, 6, 7]. The identification of the boundary heat flux in the primary cooling

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The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

The Effects of Gender Segregation at the Occupation, Industry, Establishment, and Job-Cell Levels on the Male-Female Wage Gap

To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations of the share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared to the previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect of the data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One of the main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation of the segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
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The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

The studies of scale surface produced on outer diffusion layers

The tested material consisted of samples of the X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 ferritic-austenitic duplex steel (Fig. 1a), which have been aluminised in FeAl powder at a temperature of 900 o C for 6 hours (Fig. 1b). The alloy powders used in the presented experiment were formed in the process of self- decomposition of high-aluminium alloy. As a result of this decomposition, based on intermetallic phases of Fe-Al, the structure of a secondary solution was obtained. The chemical composition of the tested powder and of the material subjected to aluminising is shown in Table 1. The oxidation rate of the examined materials under the isothermal conditions was determined on a LABSYS TM Setaram equipment. Dimensions of the examined samples were 4x3x2,5 mm. The oxidation process was carried out in accordance with the following parameters:
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Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

Effect of Multipoint Sequential Water Mist Cooling of Casting Die on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi11 Alloy

The work is a continuation of research on the use of water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of the die-casting process for aluminum alloys. The paper describes the multipoint sequential cooling system of the casting die and its computer control and monitoring. It also includes results of the tests and analysis of cooling methods during making of the casting. These methods differ from each other in the sequence of casting die cooling and cause effective changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi11 alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of multipoint sequential cooling with water mist affects the microstructure refinement and reduces the segregation in the cast as well as more than by 20% increases the mechanical properties of castings in the rough state. The study also demonstrates that the sequential cooling of casting die accelerates the cooling of the casting and shortens die-casting cycle.
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Comparative study between the proposed shape independent clustering method and the conventional methods (K-means and the other)

Comparative study between the proposed shape independent clustering method and the conventional methods (K-means and the other)

Clustering is a central task for which many algorithms have been proposed. The task of finding a good cluster is very critical issues in clustering[2]. Cluster analysis constructs good clusters when the members of a cluster have minimize distances (Intra-cluster distances are minimized or internal homogeneity) are also not like members of other clusters (Inter-cluster distances are maximized). Clustering algorithms can be hierarchical or partitional[3].

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Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Performance Of Different Tillage Implements And Their Effects On Sorghum And Maize Grown In Gezira Vertisols Sudan

Low crop productivity is one of the major problems that are facing agricultural production in the Sudan. Low crop productivity in addition to high production costs, low prices and high taxes had all resulted in a general deterioration of the agricultural sector. This has contributed in converting agriculture from an attractive business to a repellent activity and caused many farmers to abandon agriculture and migrate to cities. The agricultural sector in the Sudan contributes to about 48% of the Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and to about 93% of the foreign currency earnings (Ministry of Finance and National Economy, 1996). It also employs about 65% of the labor force. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is the major staple food crop in the Sudan. It is estimated that the annual consumption amounts to about 3.9 Million tons (Elsayed, 1999). It is cultivated in large areas that include both irrigated and rainfed. Farah, et al. (1997) reported that the area which is annually cultivated by sorghum is about 2.1 million ha, of which 80% is completely rain-fed, whereas the remainder is given supplementary irrigation throughout the growing season. The Gezira scheme contributes by 60% to the total irrigated production (Elsayed, 1999). Irrigated sorghum production is characterized by the use of disc harrows and ridgers for land preparation, improved varieties and fertilizers. However, yield per unit area in this sector is still very low 1400 kg ha -1 (Ibrahim, 1992). Great efforts had been put in the Gezira scheme to increase sorghum productivity which led to increase the average yield during the pervious seasons, this could be due to the high adoption rate of the recommended technical packages released by the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC). Maize (Zea mays L.) is traditionally cultivated along the banks of the River Nile in the northern states and it is also cultivated in southern states. The area cultivated by maize in the Sudan during the period 1989- 1995 is estimated to be about 21,840 hectares (FAO, 1995). However, maize is classified today as a new promising crop in the irrigated projects of central and eastern Sudan. The average yield per unit area of sorghum and maize of the Sudan are very low compared to other areas in the world have the same weather conditions. Vertisols of the Gezira scheme
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.27 suppl.2

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.27 suppl.2

Regional differences found for catastrophic health spending based on capacity to pay rela- tive to consumption were significant and did not follow a pattern linked to regional economic development. The Central Region showed the largest proportions of catastrophic spending, a region richer than the North and the Northeast. Further work would be needed to pinpoint the reasons. As possible explanations, we suggest our finding that private health insurance policies do not protect households from catastrophic health spending. In fact, some private policies may even increase health expenses through their induced demand for specialized and costly medical ser- vices, which are not always covered by them. Brasília, the capital, presents a large number of senior public sector staff, who may be in special need of these services. It has also the highest per capita income in the country, which may add to the unexpected finding. This, in conjunction with towns established not long ago, where public health services might not have had enough time to be sufficiently organized may explain the high- er proportion of catastrophic health expenditure in this region of the country. On the other end of the scale, the two richest regions in the coun- try (South and Southeast) presented the lowest proportions of catastrophic spending, which is probably linked to better wages and a better es- tablished health system.
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Car renting? Risk mitigation at the end of the contract

Car renting? Risk mitigation at the end of the contract

In Portugal, a lot of companies already found that they have more advantages on doing car renting contracts besides of buying an entire fleet, and already represents 15,6% of European Renting Market 1 . Renting is a flexible option which allows cost reductions, rationalization plans and passing of associated risks facing the car value – depreciation and used car sales. However, in the end of the contract the customers are sometimes surprised with extra costs from damages not included on vehicle normal usage. From the rental company side, we cannot say that they have extra costs but obviously they lose money on car sales.
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

Machine and tools elements made of the steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 immediately after the conventional hardening, need the tempering process. During the tempering, there is a transforma- tion of retained austenite into martensite and carbides release in martensite, what leads to the increase hardness of the high-speed steel, whereas in non-alloy steels tempering cause decrease the hardness.

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Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

Chromium and copper influence on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure

In this paper chromium to 1,00% and copper to 1,50% influence at constant molybdenum content of about 1,50% on the nodular cast iron with carbides microstructure has been presented. It was found, that as a result of synergic addition of above-mentioned elements there is the possibility obtaining an ausferrite in nodular cast iron with carbides castings. Conditions have been given, when in nodular cast iron with carbides at cooling at first in the form, then air-cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite, its mixture with lower bainite, martensite or ausferrite takes place. Transformations proceed during cooling and the crystallization of cast iron have been determined and the casting hardness has been presented.
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Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Statistical Assessment of the Effect of Chemical Composition on Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic AlSi17CuNiMg Silumin

Taking the above into consideration, for investigations the following alloys were selected: a hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin which was “enriched” with additions of ~3%Cu, ~1,5%Ni and ~1,5%Mg (added separately or jointly). A compilation of the examined silumins is given in Table 1.

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