Predmet rada je jedan sintaksi~ko-semanti~ki model, ~iji je di- stinktivni element lokativ s predlogom U i relevantnim obele`jem `ivo (+): qudsko bi}e. Ovaj model se ostvaruje u tri razli~ite varijan- te — s intranzitivnim ili tranzitivnim glagolom odre|ene seman- ti~ke klase i u kolokacijskoj vezi s imenicom / zamenicom odre|ene se- manti~ke klase. Odgovaraju}im analiti~kim postupkom, sve tri vari- jante ovoga modela osvetqavaju se iz sintaksi~ko-semanti~ke i pragma- ti~ke perspektive.
Semantic web approach for dealing with administrative boundary revisions: A case study of Dhaka City 27 One the other hand, relational data model is very manageable and consists of predefined grids with strict rules of the kind of data hold by each cell. Relational data model preserves data integrity. The main drawback of relational dataset is the difficulty of a simple modification of any part of the dataset. RDF data model of semantic web preserves both flexibility of spreadsheet and data integrity of relational data model. It follows the standards set by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to allow data combination onthe web. RDF integrates data in cells with self –describing meaning set by vocabularies that define relationship withthe entity. The RDF data model is known as a semantic data model as the word semantic refers to ―meaning‖ and the meaning of each cell is attached to it 25 . Data model provides a framework that it automatically knows what information about a company implies to each of the employees and what is the relation withthe companies. Semantic web navigates through relations withsemantic meaning. Let us take a look at well-established data model and the uniqueness of semantic web (Table 5). The uniqueness here is the data integrated using semantic meaning of entity and their relationship. It is very important to know two terms to integrate the data according to the meaning- vocabulary and ontology. Vocabulary is a collection of well-defined terms that is consistent according to the context. Onthe other hand, ontology is used to define the contextual relationship behind a vocabulary. The detailed discussion of ontology, vocabulary and RDF are noted in section 2.4.
In recent years, 3D virtual indoor/outdoor urban modelling becomes a key spatial information framework for many civil and engineering applications such as evacuation planning, emergency and facility management. For accomplishing such sophisticate decision tasks, there is a large demands for building multi-scale and multi-sourced 3D urban models. Currently, Building Information Model (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are broadly used as the modelling sources. However, data sharing and exchanging information between two modelling domains is still a huge challenge; while thesyntactic or semantic approaches do not fully provide exchanging of rich semantic and geometric information of BIM into GIS or vice-versa. This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating BIM and GIS using semantic web technologies and Resources Description Framework (RDF) graphs. The novelty of the proposed solution comes from the benefits of integrating BIM and GIS technologies into one unified model, so-called Integrated Geospatial Information Model (IGIM). The proposed approach consists of three main modules: BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF graphs construction, integrating of two RDF graphs, and query of information through IGIM-RDF graph using SPARQL. The IGIM generates queries from both the BIM and GIS RDF graphs resulting a semantically integrated modelwith entities representing both BIM classes and GIS feature objects with respect to the target-client application. The linkage between BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF is achieved through SPARQL endpoints and defined by a query using set of datasets and entity classes with complementary properties, relationships and geometries. To validate the proposed approach and its performance, a case study was also tested using IGIM system design.
The proposal presented in this study seeks to properly represent natural language to ontologies and vice-versa. Therefore, the semi-automatic creation of a lexical database in Brazilian Portuguese containing morphological, syntactic, and semantic information that can be read by machines was proposed, allowing the link between structured and unstructured data and its integration into an information retrieval model to improve precision. The results obtained demonstrated that the methodology can be used in the risco financeiro (financial risk) domain in Portuguese for the construction of an ontology and the lexical-semantic database and the proposal of a semantic information retrieval model. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed model, documents containing the main definitions of the financial risk domain were selected and indexed with and without semantic annotation. To enable the comparison between the approaches, two databases were created based onthe texts withthesemantic annotations to represent thesemantic search. The first one represents the traditional search and the second contained the index built based onthe texts withthesemantic annotations to represent thesemantic search. The evaluation of the proposal was based on recall and precision. The queries submitted to themodel showed that thesemantic search outperforms the traditional search and validates the methodology used. Although more complex, the procedure proposed can be used in all kinds of domains.
GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language)，at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA withthe property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts ’ experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.
Geospatial data harmonization is becoming more and more important to increase interoperability of heterogeneous data derived from various sources in spatial data infrastructures. To address this harmonization issue we present the current status of data availability among different communities, languages, and administrative scales from regional to national and European levels. With a use case in forest data models in Europe, interoperability of burned area data derived from Europe and Valencia Community in Spain were tested and analyzed onthesyntactic, schematic and semantic level. We suggest approaches for achieving a higher chance of data interoperability to guide forest domain experts in forest fire analysis. For testing syntactic interoperability, a common platform in the context of formats and web services was examined. We found that establishing OGC standard web services in a combination with GIS software applications that support various formats and web services can increase the chance of achieving syntactic interoperability between multiple geospatial data derived from different sources. For testing schematic and semantic interoperability, the ontology-based schema mapping approach was taken to transform a regional data model to a European data modelonthe conceptual level. The Feature Manipulation Engine enabled various types of data transformation from source to target attributes to achieve schematic interoperability. Ontological modelling in Protégé helped identify a common concept between the source and target data models, especially in cases where matching attributes were not found at the schematic level. Establishment of the domain ontology was explored to reach common ground between application ontologies and achieve a higher level of semantic interoperability.
Abstract – The term semantic dementia was devised by Snowden et al. in 1989 and nowadays, thesemantic dementia syndrome is recognized as one of the clinical forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and is characterized by a language semantic disturbance associated to non-verbal semantic memory impairment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe a Brazilian sample of 19 semantic dementia cases, emphasizing the clinical characteristics important for differential diagnosis of this syndrome. Methods: Nineteen cases withsemantic dementia were evaluated between 1999 and 2007. All patients were submitted to neurological evaluation, neuroimaging exams and cognitive, language and semantic memory evaluation. Results: All patients presented fluent spontaneous speech, preservation of syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, word-finding dif- ficulty, semantic paraphasias, word comprehension impairment, low performance in visual confrontation naming tasks, impairment on tests of non-verbal semantic memory and preservation of autobiographical memory and visuospatial skills. Regarding radiological investigations, temporal lobe atrophy and/or hypoperfusion were found in all patients. Conclusions: The cognitive, linguistic and of neuroimaging data in our case series corroborate other studies showing that semantic dementia constitutes a syndrome with well defined clinical characteristics associated to temporal lobe atrophy.
Sawant and Shah  presented a technique for generation of test cases based on UML  diagrams such as use case, class and sequence diagrams, and then transforming it into a Sequence Diagram Graph (SDG) , where each node stores the necessary informa- tion for the test case generation. A data dictionary is presented in the form of Object Constrained Language (OCL) . The UML diagrams are created withthe aid of tools such as MagicDraw  and Rational Rose  and then exported to eXtensible Markup Language (XML)  format. The XML file is then parsed to provide the extraction of different nodes of the graph and the generation of all sets of scenarios from start to end nodes. These sets of scenarios along withthe use case template and OCL data dictionary are traversed using BFS (220.127.116.11) for the generation of test cases.
1. INTRODUCTION In the period prior to 2003 Polytechnics in Zimbabwe had a mix of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), varying from one institution to the other. There was no uniformity as to what ICTs individual institutions invested in, so while some institutions had several computer laboratories of clone desktops, some did not have even a single lab. While some had connected to the internet through the dialup system which came through telephone lines, some had no idea what internet was.A breakthrough came in 2003 when a non- governmental organization called VVOB, a Belgian abbreviation which translates in English to Flemish for Technical Assistance, came in with a project called the College Information Technology Enhancement Programme (CITEP), which helped to finance, train personnel and equip polytechnics with standard computer and network infrastructure (VVOB project document, 2003). They conducted training workshops for personnel, procured standard desktops, and installed fibre internet connectivity and setup Ethernet networks in these institutions. This project became the basis for mobile computing in Polytechnics. When the project ended in 2008, the institutions were now coordinated and some managed to go a step further by installing wireless access points within institutions using the fibre backbone. This allowed staff and students who had WIFI enabled devices to be able to access internet and research
The deterministic model is converted into a stochastic MILP to capture the uncertainty onthe biomass availability and the conversion factors from biomass into products at biorefineries. This is modelled using a scenario tree approach. For each scenario (denoted by s) is known the value for each of the parameters and respective probability of occurrence. The stochastic model objective function is as follows:
This is the most important layer of the system and acts as a functional layer. All the user requirements are processed through this layer. For the sake of simplicity of the system, the layer is divided into two parts: one deal with core academics and the other fulfils general requirements. Academic facilities such as course content, online examinations, assignments, tutorials, progress reports are available anytime. Instructors and students may upload/download the assignments, projects, and home works with ease. The system provides the capability to add/remove courses at the beginning of each semester. Using thesemantic capabilities of the system, the students can watch online tutorials and seek help about topics that are difficult to understand. The system facilitates the users to take online examinations, thereby reducing the efforts of both instructors and students. The results are published as soon as the student finishes the exam. The progress report becomes available at the end of each semester. The students may download and print the transcript or can use it as ready online reference.
(Wu 2006) explored the technique of Social Annotations for theSemantic Web. These annotations are manually made by normal web users without a predefined formal ontology. Compared withthe formal annotations, despite social annotations are coarse-grained, informal and vague, they are also more accessible to more people and better reflect the web resources’ meaning from the user’s point of views during their actual usage of the web resources. As an example of social bookmark service, it can be shown how emergent semantics can be statistically derived from the social annotations. Furthermore, the emergent semantics can be applied to discover and search shared web bookmarks. The evaluation of the approach shows that the method can effectively discover semantically related web bookmarks that current social bookmark service cannot discover easily.
The development of fisheries sector was expected to keep the economy growth stable, to absorb more labor forces, to produce high foreign exchange, and the most important thing is to increase the income per capita as well as to give a muliplier effects to the society. The effect of economy from an economy activity is usually performed with input-output analysis approach (I-O) and Computable Geberal Equlibrium (CGE) to know the direct, indirect and induced impacts . The impact of economy in a productive activity, for example fisheries can be grouped into three catergories, i.e. direct advantage, indirect advantage, and induced advantage . Direct advantage is triggered from the fishing activity that needs input like labor force/ ship’s crew, fuel, Ice, clean water, supplies/ ration etc. That input can be obtained from other sector. This can cause indirect advantage. If ship’s crew is from local area, the expense of the crew can create induced benefit in that area. Not all the benefits or the impact can be felt by local society. Does the input come from the other area or imported one, the rotation of money can cause indirect benefit then. This is a leakage of benefit. The flow of the money from the fisheries activity to the local society at last creates the impact of economy and economy leakage. Even though it is a little, the empirical studies that try to count the downstream and upstream linkage in small scale fishing in a developing country tend to show that the number of added work is created through the downstream and upstream linkage that is significant enought . Downstream and upstream linkage is stated in Table 1. Generally, the international value chain for economic commodities is important for sellers, such as, tuna, salmon, skipjack tuna, shrimp and tilapia, which consist of some nodal with a product that passes over longer to achieve consumers. Whereas some species that is not economically important is important to the sustainability for local food which is part of the shorter value chain . Small scale fishing is very important as a source of livelihood, earning, production and world fish supply. Besides that, small scale fishing provides fish that directly gives contribution to increase the food and nutrition sustainability .
As the multinomial model is non-linear, the marginal effect of the treatment in a DID model is not the marginal impact of the interaction between time and treatment, but the difference of the cross-differences, as described by Puhani (2012). The results of Table 7 (in terms of marginal effects) show that the BVJ has a significant effect onthe probability studying and working at the same time, but not onthe other outcome variables. The estimated marginal effects mean that the probability of a youngster studying and working increases by 4.2 percentage points withthe BVJ, compared with a baseline of 30% in the control group in 2006. The estimated coefficients for the categories ‘studying only’ and ‘working only’ were negative but not statistically significant. It seems, therefore, that treated adolescents do not quit their jobs to study because of the program, but do both activities at the same time. This raises questions about the long run impacts of the program, since the quality of the night classes is notoriously low in Brazil.
Brands and companies resistance to Facebook is futile (Ochman, 2009). The first fact supporting this reality, midpoints people’s participation; if Facebook were to be a country, it would be the third most populated of the world, behind China and India only (TechXav/ Zhou Tong, 2010). This means that a huge number of brand’s potential consumers are reunited in this same “space”, waiting to be engaged (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Furthermore, Facebook has proved its power on influencing people’s mind and behaviour. One of the high moments in history, the Obama’s campaign election for President of United states (2009), earned its huge success, mainly due to the role Facebook and other social media took in sponsoring the campaign (Halligan & Shah, 2009). If Obama, were to be treated as a brand, we may say his brand knowledge, both in terms of awareness and image, was developed on a strategic basis across social media; with Facebook in front of the line, to give people the knowledge about the existence and values of the Obama brand. Along the campaign, the continuous communication on Facebook by Obama, built a strong customer- brand (American-Obama) relationship, helping to shape the eloquent involvement people felt with Obama, at the time of the campaign. In the end, the candidate’s marketing efforts in social media influenced the purchase intention (vote choice) of the American citizens, by electing Obama for President of United States, in 2009.
Carbon steel C120U grade is largely used onthe tools for cutting, for dies and knives, for stamping and drawing tools, hobs, thread rolling tools and in many other applications due to her typical properties - high hardness, good toughness and compressive strength. The surface of the steel can be modified by using surface engineering's techniques. Remelting of the surface layer by the source of concentrated energy is promising technique to improve properties of the materials [1-6]. Laser or electron beam use to melting of the surface of tool steels aims to obtain a modified layer with increased microhardness and abrasion resistance [7,8]. The surface remelted layer has usually a finer and more homogenous structure than its original base material. The remelting withthe arc plasma (TIG- tungsten inert gas or GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding) used as an economical and easily
The samples were remelted onthe surface withthe electric arc withthe use of the FALTIG 315AC/DC apparatus. The single remelting was applied. The treatment parameters were used: amperage of the electric arc I = 100 A, speed of the electrode movement v=200 mm/min. As the plasma formative gas, the argon was used. The treatment has been conducted at the depart- ment of Foundry and Welding of Rzeszow University of Tech- nology. After the remelting, there has been the conventional tempering done 1x1 hour in a temperature of 200°C for the steel C90 and 2x2 hours in the temperature of 560 °C for the steel HS 6- 5-2. Parameters of tempering (temperature, time and multiplicity) of the tested steels were selected according to the standard PN-EN ISO 4957:2002U. The microhardeness measurements were made withthe Hanemanna objective mph 100. The load used was 0,064 N, the operating time of the load was 10 s. Metallographic tests were conducted onthe optical microscope - Neophot 2 and Tesla BS-340 electronic scanning microscope.
In situations where a straight way would not be sufficient to over- come an obstacle, curved bridges become necessary, and the knowledge of the techniques and theories underlying curved ca- ble-stayed bridges is a requirement for the study of a more favor- able and/or optimized design, where all the factors influencing its behavior must be evaluated, such as: curvature, pylon position, cables position and inclination and cross section geometry. Therefore, structural models were applied to footbridges that al- low evaluating the influence of unilateral suspension of the deck. When comparing models results with deck’s suspension by the in- ner side and the outer side of the curve, it is possible to evaluate the most favorable performance of the structure for each situation. The parametric study of these effects and their understanding is one of the most important purposes of this paper.
Intermetals are creep-resistant materials with unique properties intermediate between the properties of metals and ceramics. Their low density, high strength and resistance to oxidation, combined with sufficient ductility and fracture toughness, make them an attractive material for machine elements operating at elevated temperatures and in corrosive environments. Intermetallic phases based on Fe and Al (called intermetallics) are intermetallic compounds very interesting in terms of the technological properties, which combine the properties of metals and ceramics. From the Fe-Al phase equilibrium diagram it follows that the widest use could have two phases: FeAl and Fe 3 Al. Of these two phases, more useful seems be the FeAl
There are skilled and highly talented street artists in many cities across Europe, for example one of the most famous musicians, Eric Clapton, started out performing on London ’s streets. 2 During the prototype phase of the project it became clear that the general perception of street art is rather controversial even if people like a particular street performance. According to conversations with artists, they feel their performance is not seen as a form of work but something that they do because they do not have an occupation. Unfortunately, this is also coupled withthe fact that they are constantly struggling to cover their monthly expenses since their income onthe street it is unstable, irregular, and dependent on seasonal factors and people’s charity. The fact that there are numerous organizations, projects, and institutions in place in cities like London that promote street art or support street artist (e.g. London Underground Busking 3 or Covent Garden street performer auditions 4 ) shows that civic society has identified this problem of non-visibility of talent and the likeliness of society to disregard street artists, and is already trying to develop solutions. However, these initiatives are punctual and not prevalent in many cities, the problem is therefore neglected on a larger scale. For these reasons, there is a need for an extensive large-scale organization of street artists that changes the image of street art and integrates their performances in the working world.