Top PDF OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION AND EUROPEAN COOPERATION OPPORTUNITIES

OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION AND EUROPEAN COOPERATION  OPPORTUNITIES

OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION AND EUROPEAN COOPERATION OPPORTUNITIES

As shown above, the role of institutions is not completely discredited, as they are given a position of monitoring, evaluation and consulting. Although there is a tendency to view international institutions as the “watchdogs” of established commitments, they do have a certain influence on the behavior of the actors, setting up a context governed by principles, norms, regulations and procedures which are accepted by participating states and which govern the interactions of various actors in various areas of interest. Such an influence can be seen in an international institution like the European Union both in the vertical and horizontal plan of developing interactions. In such a context, the OMC is a good example. Annually, member states must present the European Commission with a report on the pr ogress they’ve made achieving their set goals and with the list of priorities for the upcoming period. Once every 3 years, more substantial reports must be presented based on all the areas covered by the OMC. Monitoring the progress is done through a 3-level system: primary and secondary levels deal with common indicators for all member states; the tertiary level deals with the indicators used for each individual country, depending on the national specific and conditions of internal politics – these indicators are set by the countries themselves.
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Against the odds. The Open Method of Coordination as a selective amplifier for reforming Belgian pension policies

Against the odds. The Open Method of Coordination as a selective amplifier for reforming Belgian pension policies

Abstract: Tackling pensions' problems means engaging with what Pierson (2001) has called ‘immovable objects’. Additionally, the EU competence for drafting specific legislation in this area remains unfulfilled potential, while EU legislation in other policy areas creates indirect pressures on national pension policies. Under such circumstances it seems that the room for an effective European intervention in the domain is limited, especially for “soft” modes of governance such as the Open Method of Coordination on Social Protection and Social Inclusion (SPSI). The pension's strand of the SPSI OMC is often referred to in academic writings as a bureaucratic nightmare which only involves experts and technocrats, even if some cognitive effects have been acknowledged. I take issue against the view of the OMC as mere window dressing. This chapter argues that OMC is “effective” in that it provides opportunities to create policy windows of opportunity which EU and national policymakers use in their efforts to discuss, manage and reform pension systems. Building on John Kingdon's (1995) theoretical framework and applying it to both the EU level and the (most likely) case of Belgium, I conclude that the pension OMC influences, against the odds, three core streams of the policy formation process. First, OMC influences the acceptance of compelling problems so that decision makers pay serious attention to them; secondly, OMC brings about changes in the political stream; and thirdly OMC makes certain ideas ‘take hold and grow’, so that they matter (more) in the policy soup. The core mechanisms through which OMC operates are puzzling, through deliberate learning and de facto socialization, and powering, through usage of the OMC architecture and peer pressure as a result of comparisons with others.
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.23 suppl.2

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.23 suppl.2

In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of European- ization. This process is stimulated by the ori- entation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regu- lation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lis- bon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrad- ing of health policy more generally, health pol- icy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and pro- mote market-based health care provision.
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Coordination of international cooperation in the health field in the Americas

Coordination of international cooperation in the health field in the Americas

To ensure this dialogue and to improve the current practices and pro- cedures, it is proposed that country meetings be held on a periodic basis in which the Governments would indicate th[r]

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Climate and energy policy integration in the EU: a pathway to global environmental governace?

Climate and energy policy integration in the EU: a pathway to global environmental governace?

Increasing the amount of renewable energy is closely related to creating incentives for companies to invest in this sector. Therefore, the European Union has to ensure that the individual member-countries create those incentives. Furthermore, large investments in infrastructure guaranteeing the efficient distribution of renewable energy have to be undertaken by the EU in order to meet the set target. Only if an adequate infrastructure is created, it will also be able to support smaller businesses so that a fundamental change can happen (socio-technical transition). By doing this, engineer-expertise and know-how can be built, which can then be used to support projects worldwide and increase the European overall GDP. By counting on renewable energy such as wind, solar or tide energy natural processes are used to gather energy, rather than focusing on highly complex and technical processes such as nuclear energy or gas.
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European transnational cooperation in the making

European transnational cooperation in the making

processes in the SUDOE area in order to address com- mon challenges. But more important than the num- ber of applicants and approved projects (Table 1), is their quality and their potential impact to the lives of citizens. That is why a specific area of the SUDOE webpage (Humans of SUDOE) is dedicated to collect feedback from everyone involved in this programme on its impact on their lives. In a different perspec- tive, the next programming period can be particular- ly challenging with the introduction of a territorial perspective again due to the clear functionality of this geographical area. One possibility is to design a more specialised programme focused on tackling and mit- igating climate change risks or demographic chal- lenges. Moreover, for innovation, there could be a stronger concentration on the thematic area of health, following the establishment of already estab- lished networks in this arena. In a final remark, the underlying idea behind Cohesion Policy is to create Europe. Here, the cooperation between entities is the only way to create citizenship behaviours. In the SU- DOE area, this cooperation culture was lacking two decades ago, but not anymore, largely because of the implementation of SUDOE.
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On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations

On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations

with the Baltic countries is the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University. The research conducted by its scholars in 2010—2011 makes it possible to draw certain conclusion on the potential, problems, and prospects for ex- panding ties in the field of research and innovations. All in all, the innova- tion potential of the Russian Federation — due to the incomparable area of the countries — exceeds that of all the three Baltic States taken together. The relative indices calculated per 1000 residents, or in relation to GDP, do not seem to be in favour of Russia. Research indices, however, improve the situ- ation, while those relating to the practical application of research results ag- gravate it.
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The absorption of UE funds in the current context of  the cohesion policy

The absorption of UE funds in the current context of the cohesion policy

Some projects involving EU funds had been audited, and irregularities were found, exposing the risk that some of the money could be returned to Brussels. Such problems particularly appeared when EU funds were transferred from the central government to local authorities. The local administrations must be careful with the funds of the Regional Development Ministry, of the Ministry of Agriculture's money, of the Ministry of Labour's, to comply with the procedures because the signals we have got so far are serious enough. Romania should agree to allow foreign experts to manage EU funding, but it has the problem of being very proud, considering this would impinge on its sovereignty, although this is just not the case.
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PREMISES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

PREMISES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

Abstract. Applying the principles of sustainable development and ensuring sustainable economic development are of primordial actuality for the Republic of Moldova. Promoting sustainable development presupposes correlating economic growth with improving the quality of life and health, education, social development and environmental protection. The issue of sustainable development as a complex phenomenon is approached under the conditions of the influence exerted by some constraints and restrictions, of the existence of some serious economic, social and technological gaps in regional and European context. The analysis of the external commercial flows of goods highlights the predominance in exports of products from the traditional economic sectors. Improving competitiveness of export is regarded as the decisive factor of sustainable economic growth. For the chapter regarding the reform of the investment climate, modest successes are recorded which did not give the necessary impetus to massive foreign capital entries under the form of foreign direct investments as compared with other Central and Eastern European countries. The low attractiveness for foreign direct investments is attenuated by the small size of the local market and the low purchasing power of the population. Ensuring economic sustainable development is approached within the context of creating the necessary premises and valuing the opportunities provided by the prostects for European integration of the Republic of Moldova.
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COMPANIES IN THE SET- UP AND COORDINATION OF MULTI- PARTNER SCIENTIFIC ALLIANCES

COMPANIES IN THE SET- UP AND COORDINATION OF MULTI- PARTNER SCIENTIFIC ALLIANCES

over the last twenty years due to the need of managing the increasing number of competitive and complex research funding applications (Langley 2012). It has become very common to find, in the majority of the research-intensive institutions, such as universities, a dedicated office that provides support to the individual researcher but that also represents the institution. The majority of the grants managers working in these offices are now highly qualified, but that was not the case until recent years (Langley 2012). One example is the one about the biotechnology and pharmaceutically companies. These companies face constant challenges in the course of the development of new products, but several of them are due to the poor project management skills of managers, who have no formal training in matters of project management. Academic scientists are allocated into management positions with a poor knowledge of the business side of science (Kashyap, 2002). This also applies to universities, R&D centres and other organizations.
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THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

Researchers that analyzed this concept have not reached an agreement on what power is, how it works, how it can be measured or how to interpret or weigh different empirical results, so that there are many different opinions and contradictions when it comes to both the role and the nature of power. For example, Kenneth Waltz argued that power is based on a number of components, such as "the size of population and territory, abundant natural resources, economic capacity, military strength, political stability and competence" (Waltz, 1979, 131), but emphasizes that "defining the concept of power remains a controversial issue" (Waltz, 1986, 333). Moreover, Robert Gilpin describes power as "one of the most controversial issues in the field of international relations" (Gilpin, 1981, 13), thus pointing out the lack of a consistent and coherent orientation in the literature when it comes to this basic. Gartzke believes that purely theoretical studies do not have enough relevance and legitimacy and therefore it is necessary to supplement them with evidence and empirical analysis (Gartzke, 2001, 11).
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Cooperation Networks in the Tourism Sector: Multiplication of Business Opportunities

Cooperation Networks in the Tourism Sector: Multiplication of Business Opportunities

In fact, modern companies face many pressures from the ever changing external economic, technological, social and political environments [21]. The highly competitive market has led companies to look for new approaches to take advantage, adopting new strategies and models that allow them to be able to meet the current requirements [1, 2, 3]. The search for increased competitiveness and efficiency of the last decade resulted in several organizational approaches. Some of these approaches rely on dynamically reconfigurable partnerships in permanent alignment with the market, and strongly supported by information and communication technology [34]. We can affirm the need for organizations to adopt new organizational models in order to ensure a permanent adjustment to the market. These models should allow organizations to obtain enough dimension to act on a global market and simultaneously ensure enough flexibility so that they can quickly adjust to new market requirements [4].
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DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

This paper aims to investigate the notion that development cooperation financing practices are undergoing a “Southernisation” - that is to say, (re)emerging donors from the South like China, India or Brazil are influencing traditional donor practices and discourse. It aims to do so by means of an exploratory comparative analysis of European Union and Chinese development cooperation financing practices towards Latin America, and how they have evolved over the past decade (2007-2017). The paper finds that for this specific case study, the answer to this question is rather more nuanced than first expected. Firstly, although recent evolutions in EU’s discourse and practices in terms of development cooperation financing indicate a move towards the Southern model of development, at the same time China is moving quickly towards the traditional donor model with regards to certain issues including the use of conditionalities and environmental standards, among others. It thus would seem that whereas initial reactions by traditional donors indicated a definite move towards a “Southernisation” of development financing practices, lessons learnt by China over the past few decades have and are in some regards, reshaping their approach. Secondly, although EU development cooperation has become more focused on value for money, commercial interests and generally adapting to the new developing aid infrastructure, it is not clear whether this move comes as a direct result of the (re)emerging donor practices, or is rather being shaped by the current context taking place within its immediate neighbourhood.
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 Glimpses for Effective implementation of  Virtual Trainer

Glimpses for Effective implementation of Virtual Trainer

agent-oriented framework; the agent-oriented framework introduces two different types of agents. One is a manager and other is a learner. The manager monitors the learning progress of group and promotes the discussion, if necessary, so as to reach their common goal successfully. The learners are assigned to individual participants and act as interaction mediators among participants. This program is fully a joint reaction of both the resource person and the program participants. They share their innovations and findings in broader scope through this Training program and improve the grasping power of the Employees.
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Application of an electronic bulletin board, as a mechanism of coordination of actions in complex systems - reference model

Application of an electronic bulletin board, as a mechanism of coordination of actions in complex systems - reference model

The methodology of reference modelling is used for the representation of complex systems and interactions existing between their constituent elements. Reference models are designed for the presentation of concepts of operation of different elements (objects), and illustrate their actions (processes). Reference models make it possible to build a complex system structure and select suitable tools that will support the automation of actions (processes) described by the models. Last but not least, reference modelling allows the development of structural and methodological frameworks that prove useful for the optimization of complex systems.
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The Open Method of Coordination on health care after the Lisbon Strategy II: Towards a neoliberal framing?

The Open Method of Coordination on health care after the Lisbon Strategy II: Towards a neoliberal framing?

Data corresponding to the new set of indicators is also produced (SPC 2008), and this further constitutes the field of power/knowledge. The data lists Member States (not always comprehensively given limitations in available data) in relation to each indicator. For instance, in 2006, life expectancy was 79.5, 71.1 and 80 in Belgium, Lithuania and the Netherlands respectively. This data can be used by actors to highlight differences in performance, but the indicators and data have yet to be used as the basis for target setting or benchmarking. However, it is noted there is a need to “make a better use of the commonly agreed indicators” (EC 2008a: 3). Indeed, the indicators are “sufficiently robust as a basis for the introduction of quantitative targets [...] [which] would introduce a new dynamism” (ibid.: 5), in particular by supporting the implementation of the objectives. Examples of targets include “health-status related targets, for example on increasing life expectancy [...] and healthy life years, and reducing infant mortality”, but they are directed at optimisation: “Health status is decisive for active participation in the labour market, longer working lives and for reducing poverty” (ibid.). Even without an overt reference to the market, the indicators, perhaps to be enhanced by targets, place equity and solidarity within a neoliberal frame because they seek to optimise performance. In any case, optimisation is reinforced by the explicit overarching objective of interaction with the LSII. Thus, the indicators provide a “more or less technical means of locking the shaping of conduct into the optimization of performance” (Haahr 2004: 218).
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Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the European Community and Latin America

Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the European Community and Latin America

El programa ALAMED (Programa de Cooperación Científica y Técnica entre la Comunidad Europea y países de América Latina, Asia y Mediterráneo) es una cooperación complementaria al programa[r]

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At the (Semi)Periphery: the Development of Science and Technology Studies in Portugal

At the (Semi)Periphery: the Development of Science and Technology Studies in Portugal

The first major research project on STS can be dated to the early 1990s, when the Gulbenkian Foundation commissioned a team of sociol- ogists from CIES-ISCTE to characterise the behaviours, attitudes and ex- pectations of Portuguese scientists. For that, the team applied a question- naire survey to a sample of a thousand scientists working in higher educa- tion and other public institutions (leaving out business companies, where the number of researchers was insignificant), from all scientific fields. The survey encompassed three main dimensions: the social and cultural struc- ture of science, the representation of scientific knowledge and the interac- tion between science and its contexts, as well as a socio-demographic characterisation of researchers (Jesuíno 1995). This study allowed the analysis of issues such as scientific practices of publication and interdisci- plinarity (Stoleroff and Patrício 1995), the representations of science held by scientists (Jesuíno and Ávila 1995; Jesuíno 1996), identities, borders and communication networks (Vala and Amâncio 1995), class origins of scientists (Machado et al. 1994), the internal stratification of the scientific field (by measuring the distribution of scientific capital – Ávila 1997), the creation of a typology of researchers according to their patterns of activity (Ávila 1998), and the views of scientists regarding public opinion and sci- ence policies (Costa el al. 1995; Costa 1996).
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Optimizing tax assistance for a better world: a legal perspective

Optimizing tax assistance for a better world: a legal perspective

The transnational effort on automatic exchange of data, in its present form, has the intention to implement a system for constant flow of data, mainly between developed states and tax havens, largely ignoring the developing states necessities in this process. In late 2014, the OECD finally convinced, for the first time, a series of tax havens like Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Cyprus, San Marino and Switzerland, to commit to the automatic exchange of data regime on multilateral grounds. By 2014, most tax havens signed the Multilateral CAA. Other tax havens, like Hong Kong, Singapore, and the United Arab Emirates soon followed, meaning that all these states that in the past were constantly against automatic sharing of information, are at last quitting to be a tax haven. This means that offshore fiscal evaders have two choices: or they stop evading taxes, or they shift their assets to other states that don’t have the automatic exchange of information. Thus, developing countries have a curious scenario, because tax evaders normally look for jurisdictions that don’t legislate much, don’t levy a lot of taxes, and don’t share fiscal information. Now they must search for new jurisdictions where the abovementioned aspects are present, and several developing countries fit these criteria. Overall, they are vulnerable to tax administration and legislation due to financial difficulties. Many of them are not currently in the automatic exchange of information regime, and won’t be part of it any time soon. The Global Forum’s analysis gives strong proof of this fact, because in the answers of 37 developing states, on their status of readiness for automatic exchange of information, evidenced that only 3 developing states were transmitting data automatically, with nearly half of the inquired states have responded that they are planning to begin automatic sharing of data but don’t know when they can be capable of doing so, and nearly 15% of the countries, stated they had no intention to begin automatic exchange of tax information.
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Building intelligence cooperation in the European Union

Building intelligence cooperation in the European Union

quantity and quality, keeping their budgets unchanged. Thus, cooperation allows, on the one hand, the maximization of existing resources, avoiding, on the other hand, the overlapping of missions in operational terms (Gruszczak, 2016: 88-89). From a security point of view, the existence of shared risks and threats in the EU area encourages cooperation and a common agenda, as in the case of counter-terrorism. Still, intelligence sharing has sometimes benefited the EU's decision-making process more than the effectiveness of a common counterterrorism strategy. This is because shared intelligence has primarily fuelled European counterterrorism policies, with recurrent low operational and tactical impact, areas where intelligence (operational and tactical) tends to remain at the national level (Muller-Wille, 2008: 69). Although cooperation allows economic and security gains, it also has an internal origin, which is determined by the nature of the European integration process itself, marked by successive spillover effects. The introduction of cooperation policies in security matters has determined cooperation in adjacent areas, where the growing cooperation in intelligence with the development of the CFSP is included (Fagersten, 2014: 103). However, cooperative practices face obstacles in different areas, proposing below an exploratory model that systematizes the dimensions and determinants of cooperation from the grouping of large contextual domains that may affect a political phenomenon (Goodin and Tilly, 2006). Briefly, we can frame the challenges of sharing security intelligence in five major dimensions: cultural, security, legal, economic, and psychological.
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