Top PDF OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF GLOBALIZATION IN RURAL AREAS. CASE STUDY: BOTOSANI COUNTY

Globalization involves a multitude of complex processes and phenomena (economic, technical, cultural, educational, and social) that are designed to change society, integrating it into the worldwide circuit and having positive effects on countries. Major foreign investments have an important role, especially in the commerce sector, and cultural exchanges and international migration. Globalization has started because of problems facing the whole world, such as: improving the quality of life, natural environment degradation and pollution, depletion of natural resources, economic crises, etc. Thus, globalization can be considered a process with a significant role in creating strategies of a country for worldwide or European integration from a socio-economic point of view.
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THE ROLE OF EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME IN POPULATION STABILITY IN RURAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF BIRJAND COUNTY

THE ROLE OF EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME IN POPULATION STABILITY IN RURAL SETTLEMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGES IN THE CENTRAL PART OF BIRJAND COUNTY

considered as a functi on of models and versions that not only did not heal the pains and resolve the challen- ges, but also exacerbated problems and the resultant challenges due to the lack of att enti on to specifi c environmental and cultural requirements of each region. Among the results of these challenges is the migrati on of villagers and evacuati on of rural sett lements. Rural sett lements in Birjand are small and dispersed units with regard to their natural, social and economic cha- racteristi cs over ti me and based on guided or spontaneous movements in following water and soil resources. In such villages, the unemployment rate is high because of the limited resources of producti on. Consequently, the rate of migrant-sending is high in these villages. Additi onally, communicati on constraints and diffi culty in providing services to these villages, along with so- cial developments, have made these villages unstable. In order to reduce the instability of such sett lements, specialized research is necessary and inevitable. In this respect, the present study is intended to explain the factors aff ecti ng populati on stability in rural areas of the region. The- refore, the main research questi on is as follows: “What are the eff ecti ve factors in populati on stability of rural sett lements in the area under study? And which of these factors have the most impact on populati on stability of rural sett lements in the central part of Birjand County?
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THE HUMAN RISKS CAUSED BY DEINDUSTRIALI-SATION. CASE STUDY: CERNA RIVER BASIN (HUNEDOARA COUNTY)

THE HUMAN RISKS CAUSED BY DEINDUSTRIALI-SATION. CASE STUDY: CERNA RIVER BASIN (HUNEDOARA COUNTY)

Population ageing is a phenomenon that affects the entire population of Romania. Low living standard, social insecurity, and external migration, as well as legislative changes aimed at family planning, contraception techniques and sex education, have led to declining birthrates in the Cerna river basin. In the rural areas, the phenomenon was accentuated by the "exodus" of the second half of the last century, when many families moved their residence to Hunedoara.

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Globalization and rural economic inconstancy (Case study: Kashmar County)

Globalization and rural economic inconstancy (Case study: Kashmar County)

The debate on the distributional effects of globalization is often polarized between two points of view. One school of thought argues that globalization leads to a rising tide of income, which raises all boats. Hence, even low-income groups come out as winners from globalization in absolute terms. This optimistic view has parallels with the Kuznets hypothesis from the development literature, which proposed that even though inequality might rise in the initial phases of industrial development, it eventually declined as the country‟s transition to industrialization was completed. The opposing school argues that although globalization may improve overall incomes, the benefits are not shared equally among the citizens of a country, with clear losers in relative and possibly even absolute terms. Moreover, widening income disparities may not only raise welfare and social concerns, but may also limit the drivers of growth because the opportunities created by the process of globalization may not be fully exploited. The sustainability of globalization will also depend on maintaining broad support across the population, which could be adversely affected by rising inequality.
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A Study of Rural Elderly’s Health Information Needs and Seeking Behavior

A Study of Rural Elderly’s Health Information Needs and Seeking Behavior

This study used questionnaires and purposive sampling to survey the elderly p e o p l e l i v i n g i n X i k o u To w n s h i p a n d Meishan Township in Chiayi County. 107 copies of the questionnaires were returned and 92 copies were valid for analyses (return rate: 86%). The respondents of the valid sample consisted of 66.3% women and 33.7% men. The average age was 72.5. Overall, the education level of respondents was on the low side: one-fifth of respondents were illiterate and almost half had no further education above elementary school. In response to the respondents’ reading efficiency, the survey was conducted by structural group
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Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Explicit and implicit approach of sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

Keywords: Application of Information Technology to the Foundry Industry: Solidification Process: Numerical Tcchniqucs: Sensitivity Analysis; Borzndary Elcmcnt Mcthod.. Introd[r]

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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.  vol.45 número6

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. vol.45 número6

explanatory variables included gender, age group, type of HBV infecion, vaccinaion against hepaiis B, past surgical intervenions, having a tatoo, habit of sharing a toothbrush, use of illicit drugs, and personal antecedents of clinical hepaiis or jaundice. The variable categories were analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance esimates, calculaing Prevalence Raio (PR) and 95% CI. A inal muliple Poisson regression model including study variables with a p-value equal to or less than 0.10 was designed to control for confounding factors using Stata/IC 10.0 sotware 17 .
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A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

Este estudo avaliou por métodos sorológicos e moleculares a exposição e infecção por agentes transmitidos por carrapatos (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia spp.) em 172 cães de áreas rurais e 150 cães de áreas urbanas do município de Chapadinha, Estado do Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil. No geral, 16,1% dos cães amostrados (52/322) apresentaram soros reagentes para B. vogeli, com títulos finais variando de 40 a 640. Para E. canis, 14,6% cães (47/322) apresentaram soros reagentes com títulos finais de 80 a 163,840. Anticorpos reativos para pelo menos uma das cinco espécies de Rickettsia foram detectados em 18,9% dos cães (61/322), com os títulos que variam de 64 a 4096. Foram observados altos títulos para Rickettsia amblyommii. Três amostras de sangue canino (0,9%) e 9 (2,8%) foram PCR positivas para Babesia spp e E. canis. Os carrapatos coletados de cães urbanos eram todos Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensulato, e os cães rurais estavam infestados por R. sanguineus s.l , Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato e Amblyomma ovale. Um carrapato A. ovale foi encontrado infectado por Rickettsia bellii. Este estudo fornece um conhecimento epidemiológico para o controle e prevenção de doenças transmitidas por carrapatos de cães em uma região negligenciada do Brasil.
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Digital parenting

Digital parenting

The study outlined in this chapter was conducted with 212 families in the U.K. via an online questionnaire, followed up by ten family interviews. Volunteers were drawn from bilingual parenting groups on social media, thus assuming a certain level of interest in heritage language education, and a certain level of technological understanding. Questions in the questionnaire covered the language level parents hoped for in their children, resources used, and a sub-group of questions explicitly related to technology attitude, efficacy, and usage. From the data, it became obvious that parents essentially occupied one of three distinct stances in their attitude towards technology, being ei- ther forcefully positive, forcefully negative, or “curious”, i.e. having made some use of technology so far, but admitting to little awareness of availability, and wanting to learn more. In general, the younger the children, the more negative the parental attitude towards technology, mirroring the notion of gatekeepers explored by many research- ers previously (Hamilton et al., 2016; Samaha & Hawi, 2017). Nevertheless, 24 per cent of children of primary-school-age in the study had access to their own mobile device with internet access, with 54 per cent using a parental device, 12 per cent owning a computer, and 36 per cent using a family computer (multiple answers were possible). This shows that ownership of a mobile, internet-ready device is twice as ubiquitous as computer ownership among primary-school-aged children, and, although there is obviously a considerable difference in age at primary-school level, shows the trend for parents to facilitate internet access for their children. Looking specifically at language and motivation, it may not be surprising that 66 per cent of parents said their children were interested in computer games, 56 per cent said their children were interested in browser-based games, and 82 per cent stated their children were interested
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Challenges and opportunities of US student mobility: the case of the study in Portugal network

Challenges and opportunities of US student mobility: the case of the study in Portugal network

Driven by a broad and growing research literature, governmental authorities, academic departments, and international studies offices at universities all across the globe have increasingly examined the most effective ways to position themselves as attractive destinations to welcome international students and scholars willing to study/teach/research abroad. By excelling in these fields, institutions typically improve their rankings as “global” institutions, and thus their brand value tends to be able to attract even more talent – students and scholars, and other important sources of external funding. Concurrently, institutions help to promote and support their students’ (outgoing and incoming) abilities “to grasp how local communities and peoples are connected to broader processes of global economics, commodity production (including intellectual and commercial production) [and how] knowledge is generated” (UNESCO, 2013). These are increasingly seen as crucial features for student success.
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TEMAS LIVRES FREE THEMES

TEMAS LIVRES FREE THEMES

Abstract In order to study data about suicide at- tempts and do the mapping of occurrence areas, it was developed an ecologic and exploring study, making use of techniques of geoprocessing, based on confirmed cases of suicide attempts. Cases of self-poisoning were included in the urban area of Campina Grande county, in the period of 2010- 2013. A total of 446 suicide attempts were geo-re- ferred, pointing up an incidence of 120 cases out of each 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was most- ly feminine (66.4%), and 62.3% being up to 30 years old. Kernel’s map remarked hot spot areas. Compared to surrounding areas the suicide risk of populations within the hot spots was increased (38%; Relative Risk = 1.38; p= 0.0029), with an average estimative of 165 suicide attempts out of 100,000 inhabitants. Through identification of hot spots and index of living conditions of the neighborhoods, it is possible to set priorities in terms of public policies for the prevention of sui- cide attempts and control of the marketing of sub- stances that are potentially toxic.
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Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Synthesis of nanoparticeles in ductile iron with small additions of vanadium and niobium and its mechanical properties

Ductile iron is a modern construction material and offers wide range of mechanical properties with simultaneous high wear resistance and dumping capacity [1]. From foundry practice result that in many cases production of ductile iron ensure fulfillment the Standard regarding tensile strength as well as elongation but not always yield strength archives required value. Investigations enabling affirm whether the foregoing problem can be resolve by means of small additions of vanadium, niobium and nitrogen and heat treatment are the aim of this work.
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The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment  on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and  Singapore

The Impact of E-Commerce Securi ty, and National Environment on Consumer adoption of Intern et Banking in Malaysia and Singapore

Relative advantage is defined as the extent to which a person views an innovation as offering an advantage over previous ways of performing the same task (Roger, 1983; Agarwal & Prasad, 1997). Because Internet banking services allow customers to access their banking account from any location 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, it provides an enormous advantage and convenience to users (Tan & Teo, 2000). It also gives customers greater control over managing their finances, as they are able to check their accounts easily. Besides, a customer’s Internet experience, his or her banking needs can affect his adoption. As there are more financial products and services, it is expected that individuals with many financial accounts and who subscribe to many banking services will be more inclined to adopt Internet banking. Tan and Teo (2000) has reported that potential adopters of Internet banking services are likely to own multiple banking accounts and subscribe to various banking services. Rogers argues that potential adapters, who are allowed to experiment with an innovation will feel more comfortable with the innovation and are more likely to adopt it. Thus, if customers have the opportunity to try the innovation, certain fears of the unknown may be minimized. Government policy could also aid or hinder Internet diffusion (Mbarika, 2002). This is consistent with the national systems of innovation theory that posits that government policies may encourage or mandate technology development and adoption (King et. al., 1994; Wolcott et. al., 2001). Tan and Teo (2000) suggest that the greater the extent of government support for Internet commerce, the more likely Internet banking will be adopted, thus, confirming Goh’s (1995) suggestion that governments can play an interventionist and leading role in the diffusion of innovation. Potential users in turn would view new applications such as Internet banking services more favorably and hence be more like to use them. Thus, the second alternative hypothesis is:
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	Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

of chest radiographs to be misinterpreted. Reducing the pH cut-of used for tube aspirate pH testing may expose patients to a risk of inadvertent feeding if the consequent increase in radiographs to check tube position is associated with an accompanying increase in X-ray misinterpretation. This is debatable as misinterpretation of radiographs afects a cohort of patients with a tube aspirate pH between 4.0 and 5.5. Using the current guideline with a higher pH cut-of (5.5), all of these patients will be fed through the tube regardless of the actual tube site. Given a constant rate of tube misplacement, it is not possible to increase the number of inadvertent feeding errors using a lower pH cut-of, regardless of the risk of X-ray misinterpretation.
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An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

An Analysis Of The Difference In Gender Level Of Cassava Production And Access To Land In Abia State Nigeria

technique was employed in sample selection. In the first stage, the three agricultural zones in the state were purposively selected. Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia. In the second stage three local governments actively involved in agricultural production was purposively selected from each of the agricultural zone making it a total of nine blocks. While In the third stage two communities was randomly selected from each of the local government. Twelve respondents was randomly selected from two sampling group. six each for male and female giving twelve respondents from each cell. A total of 218 respondents was selected for the study. The research instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire and scheduled interview. The result of the objective of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and mean inferential which involves the use of Z-test analysis. The formula used to compute the mean used in this study is specified below. The mean was computed by multiplying the frequency (f) of the responses under each response category by assigned value and dividing the (∑) of the product by the (N) no of respondents to the particular indicator as shown:
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STUDIES REGARDING THE SITUATION OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PRAHOVA COUNTY AND THE MANAGERIAL MEASURES WHICH NEED TO BE TAKEN

STUDIES REGARDING THE SITUATION OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PRAHOVA COUNTY AND THE MANAGERIAL MEASURES WHICH NEED TO BE TAKEN

Using the 4 components presented above, I was able to make a small analysis in order to characterize the agricultural sector of Prahova county. Even though that in terms of rural development this sector has decreased, it is still the main component and source of income for the rural areas. The repartition of the agricultural real estate by usage, the crops and animals raised may influence the wellbeing of the rural communities. The fact that overall productions have increased as mentioned can be beneficial as an important source of income and taxes. A strong attention however must be direct towards the animal husbandry sector. The sharp decrease in the number of animals raised must attract the reaction of the regional and national authorities in order to take measures to stop this decline. Taking into consideration that the cereal production has grown constantly (one of the most important indicator in animal breeding) , mixed farms can be created with regional financial support in order to have a better use of the biological production, but
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AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

Georgia, as an agrarian-oriented country, has a significant rural population. The majority of farmers have small family holdings, owning small parcels of farmland and working primarily for family supply. Therefore agriculture is very has a low output, which makes the country dependent on external resources, particularly foreign imports of agricultural products. Considering the available secondary information given in the national statistic, this study is based on an empirical research on the agricultural situation in Kakheti region and shows the possible income sources, showing the disparity amongst different employed groups. This study reveals that employment opportunities are very low/scarce for the agriculture profession as a whole; therefore most households have insufficient income to sustain family living expenses. As a result, many families consider state- funded pensions as primary source for their monetary income.
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Poverty and Food Insecurity in the Brazilian Rural: evidence for Rio Grande do Sul from an analysis of the Entitlements

Poverty and Food Insecurity in the Brazilian Rural: evidence for Rio Grande do Sul from an analysis of the Entitlements

The internalization of tasks (1) in family farming is related to the reduction of food insecurity, as the family units seek to increase their control over the production process. Thus the production for the family consumption performs the important function of maintaining internally the family unit the satisfaction of one of the main necessities for the social reproduction, the feeding. In addition to the access and availability of food, by keeping the production unit internal to producing food for own consumption, another principle of food security is achieved: quality and appropriateness to local eating habits. To ensure sanity and quality of food, family consumption production is generally free of pesticides and other chemicals. In addition to the use of animal manure, ash, food remains and other materials that do not compromise health are used. Animal husbandry also has differentiated management, with food coming from the establishment itself, such as maize and bran, in addition to the expansion of the breeding period, ensuring quality and flavor of the meat. In addition to sanitation and quality, these practices guarantee sustainable management, using resources available locally, in a form of co-production, without harming the environment, the future capacity of production and consumption and thus strengthening the socioeconomic condition of the family.
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Rev. Bras. Estud. Pedagog.  vol.94 número238 a02v94n238

Rev. Bras. Estud. Pedagog. vol.94 número238 a02v94n238

There are many definitions of globalization, or perhaps more accurately, there are many globalizations. Discussing the four faces of globalizationglobalization from above, globalization from below, the globalization of human rights, and the globalization of the war against terrorism – and their impacts on education and learning, this article offers an analysis of neoliberal globalization and how "competition-based reforms" affected educational policy in K-12 and higher education. These reforms are characterized by efforts to create measurable performance standards through extensive standardized testing (the new standards and accountability movement), introduction of new teaching and learning methods leading to the expectation of better performance at low cost (e.g., universalization of textbooks), and improvements in the selection and training of teachers. Competition-based reforms in higher education tend to adopt a vocational orientation and to reflect the point of view that colleges and universities exist largely to serve the economic well-being of a society. Privatization is the final major reform effort linked to neoliberal globalization and perhaps the most dominant. As an alternative, the article provides insights into the possibilities of employing the concept of marginality as a central construct for a model of transformative social justice learning. Following the inspiration of Paulo Freire, I argue that transformative social justice learning is a social, political and pedagogical practice which will take place when people reach a deeper, richer, more textured and nuanced understanding of themselves and their world.
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Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

culate socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and reproductive health care. Additionally, we used relative and absolute measures of the concentration index to quantify socioeconomic in- equalities in ANC, FBD and MC. The relative concentration index (RC) was measured with reference to the relative concentration curve. The relative concentration curve requires the plotting of the cumulative population of individuals, ranked in ascending order of socioeco- nomic status (such as household wealth) on its x-axis, against the cumulative percentage of the health variable of interest on its y-axis. The concentration curve enables us to make statements such as “10% of ANC was used by the poorest 20% of the population”. The RC is defined as twice the area between the relative concentration curve and the diagonal line representing “the line of perfect equality”. If the relative concentration curve lies below (above) the line of perfect equality, the RC takes a negative (positive) value and means that the health variable is concen- trated among wealthier individuals [17]. The value of RC ranges from -1 to 1, with a score of zero indicating “no disparity”. We can also generalize the concentration curve in such a way that it becomes sensitive to changes in the population mean of the health variable (μ), and therefore reflects absolute differences in health outcomes across socioeconomic groups. The generalized concentration curve is the relative concentration curve multiplied by the health variable μ. The absolute concentration index (AC) is twice the area between the line of perfect equality and the generalized concentration curve. AC is calculated as μ×RC and ranges from -μ to μ, with zero indicating “perfect equality” [18]. The RC and AC indices were calculated using the “convenient regression” approach suggested by Kakwani et al. (1997). Moreover, as the out- come variables of interest in our study (i.e. ANC, FBD and MC) are binary, we applied Wag- staff’s correction [19] to the measurement of RC and AC (i.e. multiplying the RC by 1/1-μ). We used a method suggested by Altman and Bland [20] to examine the significance of differences in the values of RR ur , RD ur , RR hl, RD hl , RC and AC between the first and last surveys at the
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