Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) both are the mobilitymanagement solutions proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to support IP Mobility. It’s been an important issue, that upon certain condition, out of MIPv6 and HMIPv6 which one is better. In this paper an OptimumEfficientMobilityManagement (OEMM) scheme is described on the basis of analytical model which shows that OEMM Scheme is better in terms of performance and applicability of MIPv6 and HMIPv6. It shows that which one is better alternative between MIPv6 and HMIPv6 and if HMIPv6 is adopted it chooses the best Mobility Anchor Point (MAP). Finally it is illustrated that OEMM scheme is better than that of MIPv6 and HMIPv6.
An alternative to mesh-under approach is to use either currently available IP routing protocols or new IP routing protocols designed to be more efficient for low-power and limited bandwidth networks. In route-over approach, each radio hop is an IP hop. IP routing model works by separating the routing engine and forwarding engine into distinct functions. The routing function is responsible for maintaining the routing tables and the forwarding function examines the routing table to find the best next hop node to forward the packet. Sometimes, the routing table is as simple as a single ‘default route’ entry with the neighbor address (this is sufficient for an IEEE 802.15.4 RFD or edge node with a single parent). This design enables the use of tools like traceroute as valuable tools for mesh network diagnostics. Nevertheless, two issues need to be carefully addressed [25, 33]. One is the ability for the routing protocol to be able to query the radio device for various parameters and characteristics, node resources, link performance and other information in order to be able to properly advertise and utilize route information. Another is to understand how one device per subnet might impact the IP model since an IP route between nodes would require each node to be in its own subnet. Even though IPv6 offers a large number of subnets, investigation is necessary. The main drawback of route-over approach is that it requires 6LoWPAN fragmentation and reassembly at every radio hop. As a consequence, the transmission of fragments of a given datagram to its final destination through multiple paths cannot be done. Note that fragmentation and reassemble occur at the 6LoWPAN adaptation layer and, therefore, only the first fragment carries the IP header. In , mesh-under and route-over are compared and some interesting conclusions are drawn. First, the route-over scheme is more reliable to deliver fragments; second, if selective retransmission is used in both routing approaches, then the route-over scheme performs better in terms of the total number of transmissions and, finally, mesh-under scheme outperforms route-over scheme in the case of total delay.
Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a self- organizing, rapidly deployable network which consists of wireless nodes without infrastructure. All nodes in a MANET are capable of moving actively and can be connected dynamically. It is used in various applications like video conferencing, rescue operations, military applications, Disaster Management etc. So the data sharing in network play a vital role. In order to ensure the effective data sharing, the data replication is needed. The main aim of the work is to develop the efficient energy and node mobility based data replication algorithm to balance the Query delay, energy consumption and data availability in MANET. Due to the presence of the network partition, mobile nodes in one partition are not able to access the data hosted by nodes in the other partition. So the performance of data access is degraded. Existing methods aims at balancing trade-off between query delay and data availability. In proposed method we focus on balancing between the node’s energy consumption, data availability and delay. By simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than the existing methods. Keywords - MANET, Data replication, Query delay, Network partition data availability and energy consumption.
Cryptography is an important and powerful tool for security services, namely authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation. Key management is a basic part of any secure communication. Key management deals with key generation, storage, distribution, updating, and revocation and certificate services, in accordance with security policies. Absence of secure key management makes a network vulnerable to attack . Key management schemes usually focus on improving security and optimizing the key storage , . The limited resources and mobility of nodes are bottleneck of MANET security. An effective key management system can solve this problem. In mobile ad hoc network, a group can hasten message delivery and prevent bandwidth waste effectively. Group confidentiality is one of the issues in group key management used in assuring secure multicast group communication where limited broadcast is used. Group confidentiality requires that only valid group users could decrypt the multicast data even if the data is broadcast to the entire network.
A possible solution to charge the supercapacitor module for N>O is proposed in , where a supercapacitor charger is connected to each cell in the module, enabling parallel charging whilst avoiding that the charging currents pass directly through the switches and dissipate power. However, for this solution to work correctly, the chargers must be fed by individual differential output DC voltage sources, since they need to operate from distinct, varying voltage levels. To overcome this issue, this paper proposes the scheme shown in Fig. 8.
Six companies believe that making notes at this testing level will help them (1) have a clearer understanding of their own testing process, (2) solve problems in a more efficient way, (3) retrieve past cases and apply their solutions, (4) observe problem/defect/error patterns and use them to improve future development, (5) possess a reference base for finding out what has been tested, where and how, and (6) identify bottlenecks within testing.
Handover Management: Handover is a term used to represent a situation in which an ongoing voice call or data transmission is handed of over from one interface i.e. AP/BS in WLAN /Cellular network to another interface BS/AP without disrupting the ongoing communication .The term handover is also referred as handover in heterogeneous wireless networks. Handover management does the operation of maintaining the ongoing communication seamless without any discontinuity in service while the mobile user is on the move, changing its point of attachment. Different scenarios of handover are, i.When the mobile node moves from one point of attachment to another in the same radio access technology, which means homogeneous network, ii.When the mobile node moves from one point of attachment to another point of attachment of different radio access technology which means heterogeneous network, iii.When the current point of attachment of the mobile node is not capable of satisfying the user quality of service. Since the wireless networks are random in nature, continuous monitoring and controlling of handover process is necessary in handover management to provide an uninterrupted service. The handover can be performed either by the mobile or the network. Based on this handover strategies are classified as Mobile controlled handover (MCHO), mobile assisted handover (MAHO), network controlled handover NCHO) and network assisted handover (NAHO). These classifications are based on whether the mobile node initiates the handover or network initiates the handover8. The handover processes are also classified as proactive and reactive.
24. Reddy, Y.R., Kumari, N.N., Monika, T., Pavani, M. and Sridhar, K. (2015) Evaluation of sorghum stover based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio for efficient microbial biomass production by using in vitro gas production technique. J. Anim. Res., 5: 47-52. 25. Polyorach, S., Wanapat, M. and Cherdthong, A. (2014)
Abstract: The present work aims at finding an optimized explicit finite difference scheme for the solution of problems involving pure heat transfer from the surfaces of Pangasius Sutchi fish samples suddenly exposed to a cooling environment. Regular shaped packages in the form of an infinite slab were considered and a generalized mathematical model was written in dimensionless form. An accurate sample of the data set was chosen from the experimental work and was used to seek an optimized scheme of solutions. A fully explicit finite difference scheme has been thoroughly studied from the viewpoint of stability, the required time for execution and precision. The characteristic dimension (half thickness) was divided into a number of divisions; n = 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 respectively. All the possible options of dimensionless time (the Fourier number) increments were taken one by one to give the best convergence and truncation error criteria. The simplest explicit finite difference scheme with n = (10) and stability factor (∆X) 2 /∆τ = 2) was found to be reliable and
Calculations made by Amin et al. (2008) show that RSA is not well suited for WSNs. Comparing ECC-160 (Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem) and RSA-1024 indicates that the effort needed for RSA cryptography is rather too much. While the application of the even stronger ECC-224 still seems to be feasible, the time and power consumption for the equivalent RSA-2048 is far beyond the acceptable level. In addition to key management and secure communication, public-key cryptography can be the enabling technology for numerous other WSN applications, including securely connecting pervasive devices to the Internet and distributing signed software patches.
This paper addresses the problem of implementing watermarking in sequential circuits and puts forward a modification to classical Oliveira approach. The proposed approach is more efficient than the existing approach in terms of hardware requirement. This paper is organized in five sections. Section II briefly reviews the classical Oliveira approach followed by the detailed description of the proposed approach. An example of 6-bit sequence detector is taken for demonstration. The implementation scheme is given in Section III. The functional verification of proposed scheme is carried out through VHDL simulation. An analysis and comparison of the results for both the watermarked and non-watermarked state machines is detailed in Section IV followed by conclusion in section V.
The IPv6 protocol communication is the most important way to access the Internet nowadays. Based on still widely used and without predictions when to end (the IPv4), IPv6 permits more addressing and allows a greater safety. However, there is the issue of its use in Sensor Wireless Network. Due to its size of 1280 octets, complexity in some protocols, such as "TCP" and routing protocols used in wired networks.
This case for teaching aims to report the psychological distance present in the context of international business management. For this, a semi-structured interview was conducted with the manager of a refined rice oil industry. The narrative comes from the creation of a Brazilian agribusiness until its internationalization. The retraction of the case serves for educational purposes, with the intention of contributing in the teaching-learning process, observing how cultural and language differences can interfere negatively in the management of internationalized companies. The disciplines suggested for use of the case should address strategic management of international business, international human resources management, and internationalization of companies, and may be applied in courses in Administration, International Management and Human Resources Management. The agribusiness at hand has Luis as protagonist, which allowed the theme to be approached taking into account the lack of a common language between the foreign managers and the Brazilian unit in this analysis,
Estreada por um núcleo de 11 países, entre os quais Portugal, a rede Erasmus (European Community Action Scheme for Mobility of University Students) abarca hoje os 15 Estados-membros da União Europeia, a Islândia, o Liechtenstein e a Noruega (inseridos no Espaço Económico Europeu), o conjunto de países associados da Europa Central e Oriental (Bulgária, Eslovénia, Estónia, Hungria, Letónia, Lituânia, Polónia, República Checa, República Eslovaca, Roménia), bem como o Chipre, Malta e Turquia.
O Protocolo de Internet versão 6 (IPv6) foi desenvolvido com o intuito de resolver alguns dos problemas não endereçados pelo seu antecessor, o Protocolo de Internet versão 4 (IPv4), nomeadamente questões relacionadas com segurança e com o espaço de endereçamento disponível. São muitos os que na última década têm desenvolvido estudos sobre os investimentos necessários à sua adoção e sobre qual o momento certo para que o mesmo seja adotado por todos os players no mercado. Recentemente, o problema da extinção de endereçamentos públicos a ser disponibilizado pelas diversas Region Internet registry – RIRs - despertou o conjunto de entidades envolvidas para que se agilizasse o processo de migração do IPv4 para o IPv6. Ao contrário do IPv4, esta nova versão considera a segurança como um objetivo fundamental na sua implementação, nesse sentido é recomendado o uso do protocolo IPsec ao nível da camada de rede. No entanto, e devido à imaturidade do protocolo e à complexidade que este período de transição comporta, existem inúmeras implicações de segurança que devem ser consideradas neste período de migração. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é definir um conjunto de boas práticas no âmbito da segurança na implementação do IPv6 que possa ser utilizado pelos administradores de redes de dados e pelas equipas de segurança dos diversos players no mercado. Nesta fase de transição, é de todo útil e conveniente contribuir de forma eficiente na interpretação dos pontos fortes deste novo protocolo assim como nas vulnerabilidades a ele associadas.
Abstract— Security is a demanding challenge in wireless systems due to the broadcast nature of the channel. One the other hand security at physical layer can increase overall system’s security since it can be combined with other security schemes from higher layers. High throughput required by modern wireless networks can be assured by MIMO (Multiple-input multiple-output), but when high spectral efficiencies are needed multilevel modulations with high peak-to-average power ratios should be used, which may affect efficiency of power amplification. This problem can be avoided by the MISO (Multi input Single Output) transmitter considered here, where transmitted multilevel constellations are the result of the combination of several uncorrelated BPSK (Bi-Phase Shift Keying) components, that are amplified and transmitted independently by an antenna. The constellation shaping done by this transmitter means directivity in the transmitted constellation that can be used to assure security at physical layer. Security as well complexity are assured since any eavesdropper must know the set of coefficients associated to each BPSK component as well as the antenna array configuration. It is shown that the inherent security assured by this transmitter allows secrecy at physical layer. Several examples are analyzed and the corresponding results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to implement a security scheme at physical layer level.
using transport matrices to GPUs (Siewertsen et al., 2013), GPU-accelerated long-wave radiation scheme of the rapid radiative transfer model for general circulation (RRTMG) models (Price et al., 2014), advances in multi-GPU smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations (Rustico et al., 2014), speeding up the computation of WRF double moment 6- class microphysics scheme with GPU (Mielikainen et al., 2013), real-time implementation of the pixel purity index al- gorithm for end-member identification on GPUs (Wu et al., 2014), fat vs. thin threading approach on GPUs: applica- tion to stochastic simulation of chemical reactions (Kling- beil et al., 2012), ASAMgpu V1.0 – a moist fully compress- ible atmospheric model using GPUs (Horn, 2012), GPU ac- celeration of predictive partitioned vector quantization for ultra-spectral sounder data compression (Wei, 2011), clusters vs. GPUs for parallel automatic target detection in remotely sensed hyperspectral images (Paz et al., 2010), and a GPU- accelerated wavelet decompression system with set partition- ing in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) and Reed–Solomon decod- ing for satellite images (Song et al., 2011), to name several.
, and copyright protection. Robustness, invisibility and security are the three most important properties that need to be satisfied for such applications .When watermarking is done by digital means we refer to digital watermarking .The digital watermarking is a new developed former technology of information security. There have been many applications for digital watermarking in many fields such as digital images, video, audio and so on. For vector geo-spatial data there were a few studies on the digital watermarking . Image watermarking, video watermarking and audio watermarking are enlisted as categories of Digital watermarking in accordance to the range of application . An important aspect of any Watermarking scheme is its robustness against attacks. The notion of robustness is intuitively clear. Robustness is the capacity of tolerance of attacks on the watermarked data. A watermark is robust if it cannot be impaired after rendering the attack on the data. Based on robustness, watermarking scheme can be divided into fragile, semi-fragile and robust . Some of the applications where digital watermarking can be effectively utilized are Digital copyright protection, Transaction tracing and fingerprinting, Digital content management, Digital content authentication and verification, Lyric sync services .
observed an increase in the inspiratory and expira- tory muscle force, as well as in the thoracic mobility, of young, sedentary women after a 4-week program using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Our results with GPR-guided respiratory muscle stretching corroborate those findings. Yoga also focuses on stretching and respiratory func- tion, and breath control is crucial in its practice, as was demonstrated in a study that demonstrated a modification in the MIP after 3 months of regular practice of the activity. (15)