Although the choice of roworientation is mainly based on the best sunlight interception by the vine canopies, in some vineyard locations the topography and erosion potential should be also taken into account to minimize the soil degradation. In these sites, the slope is more determining factor for vineyard design than sunlight interception. It is also important to highlight that most of studies about row orientations effectson vine growth and grape composition were carried out under Spring and Summer climatic conditions. Over the last fifteen years, the harvest of wine grape was changed from wet Summer to dry Winter by double pruning management in order to improve the wine quality in the Brazilian Southeast. Low rainfall and high thermal amplitude during the Autumn- Winter seasons are more favorable to synthesis and accumulation of sugar and phenolic compounds in berries from grapevines growing under warm temperate and tro- pical climate zones as already showed by Mota et al., (2010); Favero et al., (2011); Regina et al., (2011). Under this new vineyard management and in a high-altitude region, the roworientation studies have not been addressed. This study investigated the effects of north – south and east – west roworientationon vigor, vine status, yield and grape composition of Syrahgrowing under Autumn-Winterseason in South of Minas Gerais State.
The concept of winter wines is relatively new in Brazil. The first vineyard managed with the double pruning technique was introduced in the coffee region of Três Corações in 2001 (Amorim et al., 2005). Under this management, the grapevines are first spur pruned at the end of winter (August or September) to develop the vegetative cycle with the removal of all clusters. The reproductive cycle then commences after the second spur pruning, realized in January (or February), to allow for grape harvesting during the dry season of winter (July or August), which improves wine grape quality (Mota et al., 2011; Favero et al., 2011; Regina et al., 2011; Pedro et al., 2017).
Rootstock effectson vegetative and reproductive vigor The present study showed that some rootstocks were more suitable to improve vigor and yield of ‘Syrah’ grown during autumn-winter through double pruning management. In both growing seasons, the highest vege- tative vigor was induced by ‘Rup’ and ‘IAC766’ whereas the grapevines grafted onto ‘161-49C’, ‘R110’ and ‘R99’ had the lowest vegetative development as shown mainly by pruning weight. Pruning weight measurements were more efficient to detect differences between rootstocks than leaf area because it is a seasonally integrated mea- surement of vine vigor, and the pruning is carried on shoots developed during all growingseason (Smart and Robinson, 1991). Under traditional vineyard manage- ment, ‘Rup’ is classified as a high vigor rootstock accord- ing to the literature (Satisha et al., 2010). In Brazilian viticulture, ‘IAC 766’ is a high vigorous rootstock devel- oped for table grapes production. However, Souza et al. (2015) showed that this Brazilian rootstock could be also used to improve the yield of poor fruitset cultivar such as Cabernet Sauvignon under double pruning manage- ment in cool climate.
The best productivity rates in the winter were observed in the ﬁ rst sampling on this season; the remaining samplings presented high ﬂ uctuations levels in the productivity rates. These responses clearly demonstrated the relationship between the productivity rate and the type of substrate, which was also observed in the results from the summer season which directly inﬂ uences the Periphytic biomass production. Although ﬁ berglass did not demonstrate to be the best substrate for periphytic biomass production in the summer (Table 2; Table 3 and Figure 1), it presented faster responses compared to the other artiﬁ cial substrates. Its production was not sustained throughout the experimental period, while wood and ceramics presented the best results after 21 days of submersion. Regardless of the substrate used, it was observed a cumulative increase in the periphytic biomass production in all substrates in the summer period. The spatial sequence which is presented by the periphyton community (FRANÇA et al., 2011) and its relationship with the substrates available for
Although there are few literature reports relating long egg storage periods and egg inverted postition during storage, the study of Elibol & Brake (2008) showed positive effects of egg turning in the pre- incubation period. They reported a 6.6% increase in the hatchability of egg stored for 14 days that were turned 96 times per day, and reported that storing the eggs with the small end up improved hatchability, particularly when long storage periods were used.
experimental unit were selected at representative sites of mean pasture height. In each sampling site, tillers were harvested at ground level every 28 days within the area delimited by a 0.40 m rebar frame. Each sample was conditioned in a plastic bag, identified and taken to the laboratory where it was weighed and subdivided into two parts. After, weighing, one sub-sample was conditioned in a paper bag and placed in a forced-air buffer during 72 hours, at 65°C, when it was weighed once more. The other sub-sample was manually separated into live leaf and stem and dead leaf and stem. Each component was weighed and dried in a forced-air buffer for 72h, at 65°C, when it was weighed once more. Available forage mass (in kg ha -1 DM) was
Comparison of the mean mortality rates observed in the batches produced in the four months before the PEDv reveals a rather stable trend with point estimates usually below 6%, and with 95% confidence intervals always including expected values for pigs of this age. Even though there was a certain degree of variation in the mortalities observed in that period, overall mean mortality for both nursery and WF pigs was below 5%, and in more than 95% of the batches the mortality was below 10%. The impact of PED on the mortality of the first posi- tive weaned batches was evident, since more than half of the 18 case batches having mortalities above 10% (Table 1). Use of mortality as an indicator of performance of growing pigs is im- paired by the limited number of studies focused on defining baseline levels in grow-finish pigs.  Indeed, the variation observed in the batches produced before the PEDv outbreak in the flows under study likely reflects the impact of other variables (such as coinfection with other pathogens, or certain stressors or management practices) not captured in the analysis. Still, the absence of a visible trend in the mortality in a four month period supports the suitability of the selection of the control pair among batches produced within those 120 days, as all were consid- ered to belong to the same population. Even with the limited sample size analyzed here, differ- ences in mortality evidenced by the comparison of the paired values were enough to reach
Abstract In this paper, we investigate extended row distances of Unit Memory (UM) convolutional codes. In particular, we derive upper and lower bounds for these dis- tances and moreover present a concrete construction of a UM convolutional code that almost achieves the derived upper bounds. The generator matrix of these codes is built by means of a particular class of matrices, called superregular matrices. We actually conjecture that the construction presented is optimal with respect to the extended row distances as it achieves the maximum extended row distances possi- ble. This in particular implies that the upper bound derived is not completely tight. The results presented in this paper further develop the line of research devoted to the distance properties of convolutional codes which has been mainly focused on the notions of free distance and column distance. Some open problems are left for further research.
and Dey and Singh (2002) using satellite data. The anthro- pogenic aerosols from fossil-fuel and bio-fuel combustion contribute to fine particles in winter, thus α >1 in the vast majority of the cases. During this season the marine atmo- spheric boundary layer (MABL) is found to be shallow and traps pollutants in a smaller volume leading to large fine- mode fraction near the surface (Raghavendra Kumar et al., 2011). Moorthy et al. (2010) observed high accumulation- mode mass concentrations within the MABL over the entire BoB with accumulation fraction ranging from 0.6 to 0.95, whereas very high fine-mode aerosol mass fractions (∼0.8) were observed over the northeastern and western coastal BoB. The lower temperatures along with the trapping of pol- lutants favor the formation of hazy and foggy conditions over IGP (Ganguly et al., 2006; Das et al., 2008; Badarinath et al., 2009a) that influence the head BoB during favorable wind conditions. Thus, large amount of mixed continental aerosols and Black Carbon (BC) over BoB was found to be asso- ciated with air masses originating from IGP (Kumar et al., 2010). The mean α over entire BoB is 1.14±0.23, which is in close agreement with the values (1.21±0.11, 1.1±0.1) found over BoB in pre-monsoon (Kalapureddy and Devara, 2008)
Specific heating power for every m 3 of the house volume dependent on heat energy addition to the house , temperature rise in the house and house volume. (Figure.5) showed the relation between specific heating power for every m 3 of the house volume during different period of age . Specific heating power increase from 6.6 W/m 3 . ºC at first week to 6.8 W/m 3 . ºC at the end of the second week of age because the brooding area was increased after 10 days of age and reduced to 2.88 W/m 3 . ºC at the end of third week because the heat energy addition reduce with increased birds in age. But, after that the brooded birds were translocated from a small partial area to the whole house brooding . In addition to, the heating system can not be delivered hot air to the end of the house leaved the third part of house volume cold. Therefore, the heating system was continuously operated to rise the indoor air temperature to the recommended level. This means that, more increased in supplementary heat energy addition and gas consumption rate occurred. As a result of that , the heated house volume increased so, the specific heating power increased again until reached to 3.8 W/m 3 . ºC.
As flowering time can affect shoot branching by influencing the length of vegetative devel- opment [28–30], we also compared flowering time and apex development between the different mutants and respective wild type genotypes. The row type mutants do not show major differ- ences in flowering time or apex development when compared to their respective wild type backgrounds (S4 Table, S9 Fig). In addition, plant height was measured at full maturity. The low tillering mutants lnt1.a, als1.a and int-b are significantly shorter compared to their respec- tive parents. No consistent height phenotype is observed for any of the other row type mutants (S4 Table). These results indicate that row type genes mainly affect seed parameters and tiller number, but neither flowering time nor plant height. Variation within these traits is not only dependent on the allelic variants but also on the genetic background of the parental lines. To compare the effects of mutant loci across different backgrounds, the relative phenotypic perfor- mance of each mutant was calculated for all traits compared to their respective parent. Hierar- chical clustering  of the relative performance shows that the row type mutants cluster into two main groups (Fig 4B). Mutants in group 1, which contain all alleles of vrs3, int-c, int-f, vrs4, and vrs1 (with exception of vrs1(int-d.11)) show a negative correlation between tillering and seed number per spike. Group 1 can be subdivided into two subgroups: (a) low tillering already before maturity (vrs3,int-c, int-f); and (b) low tillering only at maturity (vrs1,vrs4). Group 2 encompasses all alleles of als, lnt1, int-b, and vrs1(int-d.11). These mutants display reduced til- lering and seed number per spike. Within group 2 vrs1(int-d.11) and int-b.75 form a separate cluster, as they are characterized by a less severe tillering phenotype when compared to the other mutants in group 2. The int-m.85 mutant, which forms an outgroup, is the only row type mutant with an increased tiller number at full maturity and reduced number of seeds under outdoor conditions.
This study clearly shows that the pre-monsoon season dust storm can potentially af- fect the regional tropospheric chemistry in northern India. However, the implications of the heterogeneous uptake of trace gases on aerosol size distributions and their feed- backs on radiation budget and cloudiness are not examined here. Dust particles coated with nitrate/sulfate may interact differently with radiation as compared to uncoated dust
The phenolic content was not affected by the pruning method (Table 2). Total anthocyanin contents were also similar between treatments. These results corroborate the findings in the literature. In a comparison of four training systems (simple Guyot, double Guyot, horizontal spurred cordon, and vertical spurred cordon), little or no impact occurred on grape or wine composition, and the sensory analysis showed no differences among systems (Peterlunger et al., 2002). In a five-year study with 'Barbera' grown under four different training systems, must composition at harvest was similar among spur-pruned low-cordon, single high-wire cordon, and single Guyot systems, while split double Guyot produced grapes of overall Table 2. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, total
out that the boundaries between industries arise at those points where a market’s advantage of production efficiencies outweigh the transaction cost superiority of internal organization. Simply put, separate and specialized industries exist because at some points it is cheaper to buy a product or service in the market than to make it. IT has the potential to radically alter cost structures and transform the structure of industry boundaries. In some cases, functions that were once integrated into the firm may be eliminated and alternatives may be purchased in a market. In other cases, products and services that were once purchased now may be created within the firm. IT can have this impact on industry structure by altering the relative production efficiencies and transaction costs of market and organization mechanisms, and the specificity of assets that create products.
Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. An isolate of T. harzianum (LQC 88) successfully selected in vitro and in greenhouse for S. sclerotiorum control at 18- 22 ºC (11) and four Trichoderma isolates from commercial products were tested (Table 1). In the case of the isolate LQC 88, two 5 mm diameter mycelial-agar disks of the growing fungus on Petri dishes with PDA were transferred to 200 mL-Erlenmeyers flasks containing rice grains. After incubation for 15 days at 25 °C for conidia production, the inoculum was ground on trays. All Trichoderma isolates were applied (1 x 10 9 conidia g -1 ) over the plants and soil through sprinkler irrigation water at 20 and 46 days after emergence (DAE). Another treatment was carried out with applications of the fungicide fluazinam (0.5 L ha -1 ) at 46 (pre-flowering stage) and 56 DAE by a backpack spray equipped with one cone nozzle delivering 667 L ha -1 of fungicide solution. These treatments were compared with water (untreated control).
Maintaining poultry production in thermal comfort zone (TCZ) should be a constant concern, and it is observed that during the rainy season, when milder temperatures are registered at the location, averages were found in the hottest day, above TCZ, subjecting birds to heat stress, and this temperature at all analyzed hours and months, did not reach the upper critical temperature for this animal rank, which according BAETA & SOUZA (2010) is 34 ºC. FURTADO et al. (2011) performing experiment in same region, but in summer period, describe a more intense thermal discomfort situation for an egg-laying facility, emphasizing that from 10 am to 3 pm, ET was above 32 ºC influencing fowl performance.
When the inter-group comparison was carried out, the total improvement in SL@V4 was higher for the Int swimmers (2.15 ± 4.45%). Additionally, Int swimmers presented a higher SL@V4 and reduced SF@V4 than Nat ones at all time periods. Once again there is a lack of evidence about such topic in a longitudinal point of view, although it is consensual in cross-sectional design studies that high-level swimmers have an increased SL (Craig et al. 1985; Seifert et al. 2007). During the 100- and 400-m front crawl events faster swimmers tend to show a smaller decrease in SL than slower ones (Chollet et al. 1997; Laffite et al. 2004). Moreover, elite swimmers have the ability to maintain high SL values while increasing v through SF increases during incremental exercises (Barbosa et al. 2008). This fact may be related to an increased capacity to deliver power output presented by the more skilled swimmers (Toussaint and Beck 1992). The literature also suggests that anthropometric characteristics (Zamparo et al. 1996), higher skill level (Barbosa et al. 2008) or genetic background (Costa et al. 2009) are determinant in the swimmers competitive level, and may facilitate skill acquisition related to specific tasks.