Modified atmosphere packaging consists in the replacement of air in the packaging with a mixture of gases with a composition specially selected, depending on the type of the packaged product. The primary gases used in the MAP system include carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a gas readily soluble in water and in fats. It is used as a protective gas typically at a concentration of 20 - 30%. It is neutral in terms of taste and aroma. It exhibits bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties [Czerniawski 1999, 2001, Kotsianis et al. 2002, Anonymous 2005, Gajewska-Szczerbal 2005b, Grzesińska 2005, Polak et al. 2005, McMillin 2008, Koutsoumanis et al. 2008]. Nitrogen in the MAP system serves the role of a filling gas. It protects the packaging against "caving in". It results from its poor solubility in water and fats. It does not have a direct effect on the stability of the packaged product. The application of nitrogen before the packaging is filled with other gases aims at the removal of remaining oxygen, undesirable in the packaging. It also delays rancidity processes and prevents the development of aerobic bacteria [Czerniawski 2001, Kotsianis et al. 2002, Gajewska- Szczerbal 2005b, Bilska et al. 2004, Polak et al. 2005, Grzesińska 2005, Zhou et al. 2010]. Oxygen is used in packaging of raw meat. Its addition is used to maintain the characteristic red colour, i.e. oxymyoglobin [Jeremiah 2001, Gajewska-Szczerbal 2005b, Zhou et al. 2010].
evisceration, and lymph nodes swabs n = 20 from the carcasses after evisceration) in Shandong province, located in eastern China, from October to December 2010. Each sample was collected from a different animal and inoculated onto a brain heart infusion (BHI) agar plate containing 8 m g/mL imipenem and incubated at 30 uC for 16–18 hours. All colonies on the culture plates were selected and identified using Gram staining and sequence analysis of the 16 s rDNA gene, using previously described primers . Gram- negative bacteria were further confirmed by both the ATB 32GN and 32E identification systems (bioMe´rieux, Craponne, France). All collected strains were stored at 270uC in BHI supplemented with 15% glycerol until testing.
minimum level of detection was 2.5 genome equivalents (GE) per reaction (positive amplification in all replicates) with the CT value of 36.6 ± 1.6. The real-time PCR assay we developed was approximately 1000-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR assays (gel electrophoresis after PCR) for detection of L. monocytogenes. At lower detection limit, CT values were 37.3, 38.5, and 39.3 for apple, watermelon, and grape juices, respectively (Hye- Jin et al., 2010). Berrada et al. (2006) performed a study on the presence or absence of L. monocytogenes, in 77 different types of salads served in restaurants in Valencia (Spain), by real-time PCR and conventional methods. Rantsiou et al., (2008) also used the technique of real-time PCR to quantify L. monocytogenes in 66 different samples of foods. They detected four positive samples without pre-enrichment and, nine positive samples after 24–37 hours enrichment. With careful target selection and construction of primers and probe with optimization of the assay it is possible to develop the real-time PCR assay that is conducted in the 5 μL volume. Developed assays for quantitative detection and identification of L. monocytogenes have the potential to meet all these criteria as reliable, fast, sensitive and specific method. The reduction of total reaction volume significantly reduces the cost of diagnosis and increases potential for automation allowing increased samples throughput for analytical laboratories (Rantsiou et al., 2008). Exogenous internal controls can also be designed to be co-amplified with the pathogen specific primers but have an altered nucleic acid sequence internal to the primers (i.e. a small deletion, insertion or mutation) allowing their differentiation from the pathogen amplicon (Stocher et al., 2003). Loss of sensitivity or inhibition can cause false negative PCR results, the reporting of which may lead to contaminated foods being made available for human consumption (Nogva et al., 2000). The increase of listeriosis cases in the European Union may not only be seen as the cause for needing and developing rapid and reliable methods for the food industry and official control bodies. This increase may also have several other reasons such as changes of surveillance systems, improved rates of reportings, changes of consumption behaviour and growing life expectancy (Warriner and Namvar, 2009).
cephalosporins in Salmonella isolates due to ESBL has been recently identified worldwide (Newell et al., 2010). Factors which have been linked to the recent emergence of ESBL include: (1) The use of third generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) in combination with Marek’s disease vaccine in young chicks in some sectors of the poultry industry; (2) the use of ceftiofur as a spray or by subcutaneous injection in hatcheries, particularly alongside in ovo vaccines (Liebana et al., 2012; MARAN, 2010); (3) importation of day-old grandparent chickens from UK and USA (EFSA, 2011); and (4) the rise in the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry, cattle and pigs, which selects for bacterial clones carrying ESBLs (Rodriguez-Bano et al. 2010; Wener et al. 2010; Cavaco et al. 2008). The origin of the two ESBL isolates in this study is unclear, but all the parent stock was imported from Europe, as day old chicks, so the resistance may have arisen before arrival in Portugal. In European countries, the occurrence of resistance to cefotaxime in Salmonella isolates was low (0.2 % to 3 %) for most countries, except for the Netherlands where it was moderate (12 %) (EFSA, 2012b). However, even low levels of resistance to critically important antimicrobials are of great concern because the spreading of MDR isolates producing ESBLs or AmpC, may also co-select for other resistance determinants through the use of other antimicrobials (Dierick et al., 2010). In our study, MDR phenotypes were found in both ESBL isolates, which may be linked to antimicrobials frequently used in poultry production (EFSA, 2012b). Indeed, the selective pressure exerted by the use of antimicrobials in both human and animal populations can contribute to the spreading of particularly resistant clones of Salmonella (Newell et al., 2010). The spread of clones of Salmonella can also be influenced by factors independent of antimicrobial usage, such as human foreign travel, the integrated structure of some animal production systems, animal movement and management and hygienic practices on farms (Levy, 2002; Hawkey & Jones, 2009; EFSA, 2012b). The need for the use of antimicrobials in animal production should be reduced through disease prevention, supported by good animal husbandry and management practices, animal welfare and vaccination (Newell et al., 2010; Barrow et al., 2012).
As can be seen from the preceding reviews of the applica- tions and technological developments that have an impact on the use of proteomics in animal science, there have been major developments over the last few years. This has coincided with a COST Action on FAP, which has nourished the development of the use of proteomics technology and a realization of the potential uses in animal research. Proteomics is closely linked, but it is a distinctly different analytical approach from other developing ‘omic’ sciences, such as genomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics, and together with the bioinformatics required to integrate the data output of analysis is integral to a systems biology approach. Each of these ‘omics’ requires development of a different skill set and, even though there is valuable inter- change between these disciplines, it is important that expertise is established in all so that applications and technical standards can develop. Although there have been tremendous strides in the applications of genomics and transcriptomics in farm animals, it is important that pro- teomics takes its rightful place alongside these technologies. A major stimulus has been delivered to the use of pro- teomics in animals by the recent activity of the COST Action on FAP (www.cost-faproteomics.org) in establishing an international forum for technology development. The accomplishments of this group have largely contributed to the above review, and by linking centres of proteomic excellence with active researchers in farm animal science many areas have been advanced. Current achievements include proteome maps established for plasma and tissue in a variety of production animal species, such as cattle and swine. Proteomic investigations have also been undertaken to assess meat maturation and to monitor post-catch chan- ges in the protein pro ﬁle of ﬁsh muscle. Proteins in milk have been closely examined by proteomics as it is important to determine changes that occur in its protein composition for the assessment of health status, quality and safety of dairy products. Proteomics has been used to characterize disease states in production animals and to determine the origin and source of feed products. Proteomic strategies have been used to measure the dynamics of muscle growth in poultry and advance farm animal reproduction. Proteomics has been used to monitor change in muscle protein as it matures to meat, with particular reference to the changes that take place in the meat proteome in the speciality smoke-dried meats of Southern Europe. Proteomic technologies have been adopted to monitor food composition, authenticity and safety – for instance, by identifying accurately the species of meat in processed food to enforce accurate food labelling and prevent false labelling of meat products as in recent cases where horse meat was sold as beef.
goals, on an international, as well as national level, the topic has gained in popularity, exemplified by merging as essential component into various fields. Currently, the globe is being more and more affected by catastrophic events, on a planetary-, local- as well as regional scale. While climatic changes, ocean acidification, as well as stratospheric ozone depletion indicate systemic planetary processes, global P and N cycles, atmospheric aerosol loadings, freshwater use, land use changes, biodiversity losses and chemical pollution illustrate aggregated local and regional processes. The need for action is becoming fundamental, in line with nine outlined planetary boundaries, of which three are according to Rockström et al. (2009) already in transgression. The consequences when transgressing planetary boundaries are still uncertain, however the potential unacceptable environmental changes that might arise should be reason enough to urge humans into a sustainable transition. With foodsystems being mainly responsible for deforestation, agricultural damage, as well as intensified land- and water usage, the contribution to the global greenhouse gas emissions adds up to approximately one quarter. Aligned to fatal biodiversity losses, as well as contamination of water and land, in connection to essential micronutrient wastage due to inefficient systems, while simultaneously around 800 million people face undernourishment, two bil- lion lack necessary micronutrients, and additional two billions show signs of obesity and overweight; the current foodsystems do not deliver what they are supposed to (Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2018). Food, in line with foodsystems have been categorized as “low-involvement product” for a long period of time and thus had been subordinated in relation to other themes. However, the role of food has become more striking than ever, for planetary- as well as for human health. With its deep entanglement with the overall ecosystem, since basically every food is either of plant- or animalorigin, while simultaneously indicating a basic human need, nutrition and food carries great weight regarding human soundness and is decisive for the wellbeing of individuals. Food, in addition, accentuates culture and identity and is a major determinant of economic growth and livelihoods (World Health Organisation (WHO) Europe, 2018).
As we can observe from the results of applying binomial test, four variables of brand name and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products are confirmed when the level of significance if five percent but being green marketing planning did not have any impact on consumer to purchase the products. We have also examined the relationship between different components of the survey and Table 3 demonstrates the results of Pearson correlation test.
The aim of this work is to build new solutions so as to reduce the collection costs by optimizing the service areas, vehicle routes and vehicle schedules under alternative network management scenarios. The majority of the recyclable collection systems have more than one depot in the network and it is a current practice to manage each depot independently. Therefore, service areas are defined by depot, vehicles are fixed to a depot and only closed routes are allowed (routes starting and ending at the same depot). This work intends to assess and improve four management practices, commonly used by the packaging waste collection systems operating in Portugal, that involve the following assumptions: 1) respect the municipalities boundaries to define service areas; 2) the service areas are defined by depot; 3) the vehicles are fixed to a depot and can only perform routes starting and ending at that depot; and 4) only closed routes are allowed. To achieve this goal the next questions are raised and consequently analysed: if the systems responsible for the collection and sorting of packaging waste are multi-municipal, why should the geographic boundaries of the municipalities define the service area of each depot? If multiple materials are collected in independent routes, why not having service areas by recyclable material? If the system has multiple depots and all vehicles belong to the company, why not sharing the resources (vehicles) among depots? If the system has multiple depots, why not allow routes to start at a depot and to end at a different one? The main contribution of the current work is then on assessing the impact of breaking up with the current tactical/operational practices that consider that depots are managed independently and not in an integrated way. For that we proposed a unified solution methodology that is capable to plan the collection systems exploring more efficient practices. The solution methodology is applied to a real packaging waste collection system and the results are compared with the current solution where the four practices are used.
Yerlikaya et al. (2005) studied alterations in the quality of anchovy patties in conventional packaging stored at 4 ºC for 6 days, observing higher TBARS values (10.61 to 27.21 mg of malonaldehyde/kg) when compared with this study. Bilgin et al. (2008) detected signiﬁcant differences in TBARS values of smoked, vacuum-packaged sea bream ﬁllets during 60 days of storage, with an initial value of 1.02 mg and ﬁnal value of 2.5 mg malonaldehyde/kg, with oscillations over the period. Silva et al. (2008) also observed a wide ﬂuctuation of TBARS values during the six weeks of storage of smoked Blue catﬁsh ﬁllets (Ictalurus furcatus).
Abstract The study analyzed the initiatives of prevention and control of childhood obesity, espe- cially those of Adequate and Healthy Food Promo- tion (PAAS) which have been part of the policies of the Brazilian federal government for the last 15 years. All documents that feature PAAS initiatives in the food and nutrition security, as well as pub- lic health policy fields, were evaluated according to the following criteria: (1) the approach to PAAS initiatives; (2) the aspects of obesitythat they in- tend to affect and (3) potential interest disputes. The main PAAS initiatives identified are intend- ed to encourage: food and nutrition education; agroecological production systems; family agri- culture; food accessibility; healthy environments and regulatory measures. These initiatives alter different aspects of childhood obesityand high- light different conceptions about the problem and affect different interests. We highlight the disputes between the interests of the processed foods and agribusiness corporations, and the governmental and corporate sectors guided by PAAS objectives. Measures aimed at regulating purchases and pub- licizing unhealthy products for children, are those that best express the interests involved.
This company operates ﬁve depots where the collection vehicles are based. One of the depots operates also as a sorting station (depot 235, see Fig. 1). The remaining four are only transfer stations where the packaging waste is consolidated and afterwards transferred to the sorting station. Given such logistics network conﬁguration, two types of transportation ﬂows need to be considered, namely, the inbound ﬂow from the collection sites to the depots and the out- bound ﬂow from the depots to the sorting station. The collection is performed by a vehicle ﬂeet with no compartments, so each pack- aging material has to be collected in separated routes. There are 651 Glass bins, 513 Paper bins and 458 Plastic/Metal bins spread over 230 localities (see Fig. 1). It is assumed that a collection site corresponds to a locality instead of an individual container in order to reduce the problem size. Due to the proximity of the contain- ers within a locality (an average distance of 650 m is observed) it is practicable to treat the containers to collect within a locality as a single node. Therefore, a collection site aggregates one or more containers of one or more recyclable materials, meaning that the distance travelled and the time spent within a collection site have to be considered.
This paper presents the outcomes of an exploratory research carried out in companies, which are located in Brazil. They are FSSC-22000-certified food plastic packaging manufacturers. In order to identify the key aspects of the implementation process and certification, a questionnaire was developed and sent to twenty certified organizations. Out of them, eleven of which participating companies responded in a collaborative way. Based on the data obtained, improving competitiveness and customer retention were the reasons, which led the companies to seek the certification. However, the greatest difficulties were related to personnel, which presented technical and behavioral issues. In addition, it was noted that an overall satisfaction, derived from after-certification benefits, has been arisen in the companies. For instance, enhanced employee awareness, improved company’s image and winning new customers, significantly contributing to their competitiveness, are some of the benefits found in this process.
Foi investigada a relação entre as variações ontogenéticas do comprimento do intestino e os hábitos alimentares de cinco espécies de peixes do rio Ubatiba, RJ. Os dados analisados foram baseados em duas categorias de tamanho (jovens e adultos) de cada espécie e duas categorias de alimento (animal e vegetal). A composição da dieta de cada categoria de tamanho revelou que Astyanax janeiroensis e Geophagus brasiliensis mudaram a preferência alimentar ao longo do desenvolvimento ontogenético e alternaram entre onívoros / carnívoros para onívoros / herbívoros e entre onívoros / carnívoros para onívoros, respectivamente; essas alterações foram acompanhadas por alterações ontogenéticas do Coeficiente Intestinal (CI). Não foram registradas diferenças relacionadas à ontogenia tanto para o CI como para as categorias de alimento consumidas por Hoplias malabaricus mas, dentro da categoria animal, foram observadas diferenças significativas para o tamanho das presas consumidas, bem como correlação positiva entre o tamanho do peixe (predador) e o tamanho da presa. Foi ainda observado que os itens alimentares (dentro da categoria animal) consumidos pelos adultos de Pimelodella lateristriga foram principalmente baseados em artrópodes alóctones, enquanto os jovens consumiram na mesma intensidade artrópodes alóctones e autóctones; tanto os jovens como os adultos de Mimagoniates microlepis se alimentaram principalmente de artrópodes
The public perception of sustainability of the current animal welfare practices is highly complex. As already shown, we often find a lack of consensus on what qualifies as animal welfare and a high level of disconnect between people’s opinions and intentions and their actions. Beyond this, people are widely ignorant about the current and potential production systems, making it difficult for customers to analyze the potential changes in animal welfare across systems ( Norwood & Lusk, 2011; Souza, Casotti, & Lemme, 2013; Tawse, 2010. However, despite peoples’ claims, these preferences or actions oftentimes do not translate into measurable purchasing habits. People have a tendency to proclaim support for high standards of animal welfare while, at the same time, buying animal products with little regard for the system of production employed (Schröder & McEachern, 2004). One study estimates the potential market size for differentiated animal welfare products as 36.1% of the consumer market (Vanhonacker, Verbeke, Van Poucke, Buijs, & Tuyttens, 2009), while another estimates it at around 50% (Jonge & van Trijp, 2014). Most of these customers face an unmet demand for “compromise products” with animal welfare levels somewhere between those of industrially produced (very low) and organically produced (very high) products (Jonge & van Trijp, 2014). Another potential risk for the food products industry is the risk of prohibitive legislation. Currently, the EU is considered the leader in FAW legislation with relevant and adequately stringent legislation covering the four main farm animal species (cattle, pigs, laying hens, and broilers) and the various phases of production (housing, transport, and slaughter) (Schmid & Kilchsperger, 2010).
Acompanhando esta lógica, o teor de microrganismos específicos da deterioração devem-se correlacionar bem com o grau de frescura dos produtos da pesca, pelo que foram desenvolvidos meios para Sherwanella putrefaciens, produtora de sulfureto de hidrogénio, Photobacterium phosphereum e Pseudomonas spp., importante para peixes marinhos, em climas temperados, refrigerados e armazenados à temperatura de refrigeração e em aeróbiose (Erkan & Özden, 2008; Pantazi, Papavergou, Pournis, Kontominas, & Savvaidis, 2008). No entanto, as metodologias que os utilizam exigem períodos de incubação de até alguns dias, o que levou ao desenvolvimento de novas técnicas analíticas mais rápidas (não-moleculares e moleculares), com a duração de um dia de trabalho ou menos que têm sido utilizadas com sucesso na indústria de produtos da pesca (Himelbloom, Oliveira, & Shetty, 2011). Algumas das técnicas não-moleculares incluem kits de testes API (Analytical Profile Index), microplacas para bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positivas, MIDI (Microbial Identification Inc.), FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters), (Nedoluha, Owens, Russek-Cohen, & Westhoff, 2001; Al-Harbi & Naim Uddin, 2004; Piñeiro-Vidal, Pazos, & Santos, 2008; Microbial Identification Inc., 2010). São também utilizadas técnicas moleculares de reacção de polimerização em cadeia (Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR), PCR quantitativo (qPCR), sondas de oligonucleotidos, etc. (Dalgaard, 2000; Fung, 1997). É intuitivo considerar que a frescura dos produtos da pesca está correlacionada com o seu perfil microbiológico, e que por isso, o desenvolvimento de modelos matemáticos poderia permitir prever os valores das contagens, e a validade como o Predictive Food Micromodel (PFM) (Alasalvar, 1997). No
Although no significant coliform bacteria growth was observed in the stored Brazil nuts, there was mold growth, which indicates inadequate hygienic conditions (ICMSF 2005). The lower presence of fungi in the vacuum packaging was likely owed to that fungi are aerobic organisms, therefore the absence of oxygen in the plastic packaging under vacuum was more effective in controlling the multiplication of these microorganisms (Jay 2005) in comparison to the aluminized packaging, which allowed oxygen diffusion. The growth of fungi after three to six months of storage was possibly related by the high relative humidity during the study period, since the packages were not totally impermeable to water vapor (Kim et al. 2014). The infiltration of water vapor was more noticeable in the plastic packaging under vacuum in comparison with the aluminized packaging, as evident by the moisture content determinations (see Figure 2). Other studies have also described a reduced permeability to water vapor due to an aluminized layer on PE films, PET, or biaxially oriented polypropylene (Bouquerel et al. 2012; Mueller et al. 2012). The increase in ADF and NDF contents was probably related to the retention of the brown pelicule adhered to the seeds after unshelling, since the pelicule is the component of the seed richest in fiber (Souza and Menezes 2004).
In addition, a difference-from-control test was carried out to determine whether there was any difference between samples stored in glass jars (control) and in tinplate cans (as proposed packaging) during the storage time, and to estimate the magnitude of any such difference. A panel of 50 individuals was asked to rate the magnitude of the difference between the sample and the control by assigning a score on a 5-point structured scale (0 = no difference between sample and control; 2 = moderate difference; 4 = very large difference) (MEILGAARD; CIVILLE; CARR, 1999, STONE; SIDEL, 1993). All the samples were served to the sensory panel under the same abovementioned conditions as those used in the test with the hedonic scale.
Thus, GRAIN (2011) was the irst to report the scheme of the acquisition of land by foreigners around the world: the current food and inancial crises combined, triggering a new global land grab cycle. Governments that face food insecurity and which rely on imports to feed their populations are rapidly taking over agricultural land around the world, where they produce their own food out- side of their country of origin. Global corporations that sell food and private investors, hungry for proits amid the deepening inancial crisis, see investment in foreign farmland as an important new source of proit. As a result, fertile agricultural lands are privatized and increasingly concentrated.
The results allow concluding that the anthocyanins of the agroindustrial residue of cv. Isabel grape have limited stability to luminosity exposure and high temperature, with the longer half-life time and lower degradation speed of these pigments evidenced at 50ºC and protected from light. In this sense, these anthocyanins are an option for the reuse of grape by-products when associated with the control of these variables, and therefore, they consist of a use alternative for the food industry, as a natural dye, with potential application in food products with acidic pH, which are packaged in opaque packaging and which do not undergo severe heat treatments during processing.
For the food web of the cephalopods caught in the coastal subtidal of eastern Algarve, a dinoflagellate based food web was established, as well as the reduced contribution of terrestrial organic matter in the recent diet of this cephalopod, according to the typical fatty acid trophic markers from vascular plants. So, for this cephalopod at the pre-adult stage, the land-coastal trophic coupling was unclear. The inter tissue analysis for diet variability in time is debatable due to tissue specific metabolic reactions. Nevertheless, one behavioral aspect of this cephalopod was supported by the analysis of trophic markers: the strong opportunistic feeding that includes unusual prey. Within and among tissues analyses and the feeding behavior of the generalist predator, O. vulgaris, towards allochthonous food ensured solid basis for the conclusions on the quickness of diet shift with the changing conditions of the surrounding environment to avoid competition with conspecifics, minimize energetic costs and predation risks (Camprasse et al. 2017). The diet of this cephalopod is invertebrate-based only but the reaction to the variability in food sources demonstrated clearly the opportunistic feeding behavior - this cephalopod readily consumed prey species not available naturally in the benthic habitat, a pelagic fish. It would be interesting to verify if the introduced prey had a higher trophic position than that of the cephalopod and the role in the structure of the trophic web of this type of pelagic prey.