Top PDF Parasites and their heterophagic appetite for disease.

Parasites and their heterophagic appetite for disease.

Parasites and their heterophagic appetite for disease.

Heterophagy (literally meaning “other eat”) is the process of a cell consuming material from its environment. Heterophagy involves vesicular uptake and thus is distinct from cellular acquisi- tion of small metabolites by solute transport, which typically occurs via membrane channels or transporters in a way that is akin to sipping or siphoning from the environment. Endocytosis, macropinocytosis, trogocytosis, and phagocytosis are forms of heterophagy that contribute dis- tinctly to ingestion of substances ranging from soluble macromolecules to insoluble substances, including other cells. Ingestion is typically coupled with digestion by hydrolytic enzymes in the endolysosomal system of the cell. Although less commonly used than its counterpart autop- hagy (“self eat”), the term heterophagy describes a distinct process that is rarely discussed in a cohesive manner and yet is often crucial for cell survival. Because heterophagy encompasses ve- sicular transport, this process is largely confined to eukaryotes. Consistent with the scope of PLOS Pathogens, this article will focus principally on eukaryotic pathogens, especially protozo- an parasites.
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Lineage analysis of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and their association with clinical forms of Chagas disease in Bolivia.

Lineage analysis of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and their association with clinical forms of Chagas disease in Bolivia.

Methods and Findings: Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro- intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japone´s were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon). DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%), of which 104 (53.3%) were Tc IId, 4 (2.0%) Tc I, 7 (3.6%) Tc IIb, 1 (0.5%) Tc IIe, 26 (13.3%) Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5%) Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0%) Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9%) were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%), TPK like (48.9%) and Bug-like (1.5%). There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease.
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Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Eosinophilia in an Human Immunedeficiency Virus Positive Population in Honduras

Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Eosinophilia in an Human Immunedeficiency Virus Positive Population in Honduras

The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examina- tion, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immuno- deficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non in- fected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001), 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001), 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05), and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05). Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.
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Repositório Institucional da UFPA: Protozoan parasites of Xiphophorus spp. (Poeciliidae) and their relation with water characteristics

Repositório Institucional da UFPA: Protozoan parasites of Xiphophorus spp. (Poeciliidae) and their relation with water characteristics

decomposition. Such as observed by Rottman at al. (1992), high levels of organic matter in water can cause stress in fish and reduce disease resistance. These results concur with Madsen et al. (2000), who reported a positive correlation between organic matter concentration and trichodinids in eels. The organic manure should be used with care since it can reduce dissolved oxygen levels and increase the parasite number. Table 2. Values of the mean intensity (MI) and prevalence (P%) of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp. found in Xiphophorus helleri and Xiphophorus maculatus from stocking tanks and raising ponds in a fish farm in São Paulo State, Brazil, during one year
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Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815) in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil

Gastrointestinal parasites of maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger 1815) in a suburban area in southeastern Brazil

We examined 42 maned wolf scats in an unprotected and disturbed area of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. We identified six helminth endoparasite taxa, being Phylum Acantocephala and Family Trichuridae the most prevalent. The high prevalence of the Family Ancylostomatidae indicates a possible transmission via domestic dogs, which are abundant in the study area. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the endoparasite species found are not different from those observed in protected or least disturbed areas, suggesting a high resilience of maned wolf and their parasites to human impacts, or a common scenario of disease transmission from domestic dogs to wild canid whether in protected or unprotected areas of southeastern Brazil.
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Congenital Chagas disease: an update

Congenital Chagas disease: an update

This raises the question of the capacity of foetuses/ neonates to control infection despite their alleged immu- nological immaturity. Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been observed in foetuses/neonates. In- flammatory responses are induced in uninfected neo- nates born to T. cruzi-infected mothers (Vekemans et al. 2000, García et al. 2008, Cuna et al. 2009) and neona- tal dendritic cells (Rodriguez et al. 2012), natural killer cells (Guilmot et al. 2014) and monocytes (Guilmot et al. 2013) can be activated by T. cruzi. The capacity of activated monocytes to eliminate parasites opsonised by transferred maternal antibodies might protect offspring of infected mothers against the development of congeni- tal infection (capacity of self-cure?) (Truyens & Carlier 2010). Moreover, infected foetuses/neonates display ac- tivated and cytotoxic CD8 T cells that produce IFN-g in response to parasites (Hermann et al. 2002). However, such specific capacity to produce IFN-g is drastically reduced in neonates displaying high parasitaemias, i.e., in severe and lethal forms of congenital Chagas disease (Torrico et al. 2005), indicating that immune defences are either lacking, insufficient or initiated too late in congenitally infected neonates and become unable to control multiplication of parasites transferred from their mother. Altogether these data strongly suggest that most current congenital infections with T. cruzi result from: (i) weak maternal innate and adaptive type 1 immune responses enhancing parasite multiplication and high parasitic loads in retroplacental blood, (ii) an haematog- enous route of parasite transmission through placental areas deprived of trophoblast and (iii) insufficient foe- tal/neonatal innate defences and parasite-specific type-1 immune response to control multiplication of transmit- ted parasites. Therefore, whether parasites in maternal blood can be either not transmitted (there is no congeni- tal infection in case of sufficient maternal immune re- sponses) or transmitted to the foetus with the subsequent development of a congenital Chagas disease (in case of weak foetal/neonatal immune response), the possibility of transmission followed by a rapid elimination of para- sites by the foetal immune responses cannot be excluded (in this case of self-cure, there would be a brief congeni- tal infection without development of congenital Chagas disease). More investigations are needed to specify the role of parasite genotypes in such mechanisms and of host genetic factors governing the intensity of immune responses towards parasites.
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Protozoan parasites of Xiphophorus spp. (Poeciliidae) and their relation with water characteristics

Protozoan parasites of Xiphophorus spp. (Poeciliidae) and their relation with water characteristics

decomposition. Such as observed by Rottman at al. (1992), high levels of organic matter in water can cause stress in fish and reduce disease resistance. These results concur with Madsen et al. (2000), who reported a positive correlation between organic matter concentration and trichodinids in eels. The organic manure should be used with care since it can reduce dissolved oxygen levels and increase the parasite number. Table 2. Values of the mean intensity (MI) and prevalence (P%) of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp. found in Xiphophorus helleri and Xiphophorus maculatus from stocking tanks and raising ponds in a fish farm in São Paulo State, Brazil, during one year
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Rev. bras. epidemiol.  vol.10 número4

Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.10 número4

Similar results were found elsewhere. In the city of Tacaratu, state of Pernambuco, ex- tremely high rates of parasite infestations were found, as well as the occurrence of multiparasitism. The most common species was Entamoeba histolytica, which infected on average 82.4% of family members in ev- ery household. This parasite infection oc- curred in almost all adults (95.3%) and 40.7% of the children from 0 to 4 years old. The Ascaris lumbricoides parasite was the second most frequent, affecting on average 51.2% of the population, especially children under 15 years of age. In this age range, (62.0%) the number of individuals infected by Giardia duodenalis, was also high, with at least three different species for each fam- ily 37 . At the city of Gerbi Estiva (state of São
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Diatomite and re-use coal waste as promising alternative for fertilizer to environmental improvement

Diatomite and re-use coal waste as promising alternative for fertilizer to environmental improvement

Application of conventional fertilizers has been contributing much pollutant to the environment. This study aimed to assess the potential of diatomite and re-use coal waste as a non chemical fertilizer to environmental improvement. The experiments were evaluated in 2kg pots under greenhouse conditions at 4 levels of diatomite powder including 0, 10, 20, 40 g/kg soil as well as 5 levels of coal waste powder including 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/kg soil based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments of diatomite and coal waste were mixed well and kept under field capacity moisture for 4 months. The results showed that the effects of diatomite and coal were significant on EC, K and P concentrations in soil while the coal waste showed more influenced on decreasing of soil pH. Adding diatomite up to 40 g/kg in soil increased EC, K and P viz. 2.92, 1.19 and 1.54 times respectively compared to control sample. Using of 160g/kg of coal in soil increased EC (2.89 times) and decrease pH (1.06 times) which had led to increased availability of trace elements that enhance plant growth. The highest bio-available concentrations of K and P in soil obtained at 80 and 40 g/kg of diatomite and coal waste respectively. This study demonstrates that a good fertilizer can be produced by using diatomite and coal waste; however, further research is required.
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Leprosy: meanings and experiences among adolescents with the disease and their family members

Leprosy: meanings and experiences among adolescents with the disease and their family members

Thirteen adolescents with a confirmed diagnosis of leprosy participated in the study, being 11 females and 8 males. As for the age group, 9 participants were aged between 12 and 15 years old and 10 were between 16 and 18 years old. Regarding their marital status, all were single. Regarding the education level, 6 were in high school and 12 were in elementary school. Only one adolescent claimed to have discontinued his studies in seventh grade. According to the occupation, 17 adolescents did not work and 2 worked with their parents (one worked with recycling and the other in a car wash). The study also included 18 family members, 14 female and 4 male, 13 mothers, 4 fathers, and 1 grandmother, aged between 28 and 65 years old. As for marital status, 12 were married, 1 was single, 4 were separated and 1 was widow. Regarding to education level, 10 had incomplete Elementary School, 4 had complete Elementary School, 3 had completed High School and only 1 had Higher Education. Everyone lived in the same house as the adolescent.
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Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

Microcontroller based living room control system using Bluetooth technology will provide effective and modernized living standard.Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Living room control system from mobile is one of the most popular forms of wireless control technology. Researchers around the world are continuously improving our life by creating innovative applications of computing for our daily activities. Today, mobile phones come out of work place and are effectively used to communicate and to make our life easier and better than ever. In this living room control system, they are used to control the living room appliances via Bluetooth technology. Being inspired by the widespread use of wireless communication technology, we are proposing a concept of Smart Living Room System that will make our home convenient and smart. In this research,the door of the living room opens and closes by using keypad lock system. It is controlled by arduino controller and the status of the door is displayed on serial LCD. The control of light bulbs, fan speed, dim light and window angle based on wireless Bluetooth technology and microcontrollerare implemented. Users of the living room can interact with the devices by wireless mobile interface via Bluetooth. This system also requires a specialized android apk to control the living room appliances from mobile. Implementation of Smart Living Room system has several advantages. Door security system was built with a keypad that was controlled by arduino. To open the door, user must enter the correct password and if the wrong password was entered, the door will be still locked. It can save the home from entering thieves and strangers.Old and disable persons can manage the living room without using too much effort. As fan speed can be adjusted, users can maintain the room temperature as the desire. User can also vary the lighting of the room by using dim light. There isalso a window system that can be opened and closed between 0 and 180 degree as user desire.Furthermore, four light bulbs are also presented and user can switch on and offthem. All the appliances in the living room can be controlled without using too much energy. It can be controlled easily by mobile from any place of the room. While user can’t go to open or close the
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Some methods for sensitivity analysis of systems / networks

Some methods for sensitivity analysis of systems / networks

A network may considerably change with certain nodes, links, flows, or parameters. To find the most important nodes, links, or other parameters to determine network structure or performance is of significant. Sensitivity analysis is originated from systems science. It explores the relationship between parametric change and systematic output, and is used to find important parameters in the system model. In principle, the sensitivity analysis used in systems science can also be extended to network analysis in which the model output means network output, network stability, network flow, network structure, or other indices, and model input means network nodes, network links, network parameters, etc. In present article, some methods for sensitivity analysis of systems / networks are described in detail.
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Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

Samples were collected between September 2006 and October 2007 at two fixed collecting stations in Camamu Bay. Station (St) 1 was farther from (13° 59’ 92” S and 38° 58’ 17” W), and St2 nearer the entrance to the estuary (13° 56’ 05” S and 38° 58’ 58” W). Twenty individuals of M. guyanensis were collected monthly from each sampling station. Water temperature and salinity were recorded while sampling, using a standard mercury thermometer and a handheld refractometer (Atago S/ Mill). In the laboratory, the specimens were measured for length (antero-posterior axis) with a digital caliper, and then shucked and examined for macroscopic anomalies. A 5-mm cross section (including gills, foot, and visceral mass) was made and fixed in Davidson’s solution (Shaw and Battle, 1957) for 24 hours, dehydrated in an ethanol series, embedded in paraffin, sectioned (7 µm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Sections were examined under light microscopy. We used 460 mussels, which measured between 3.5 and 6.2 cm. An additional collection of 100 mussels was made in
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Cad. Saúde Pública  vol.29 número8

Cad. Saúde Pública vol.29 número8

945) reported that most TB cases were diagnosed in hospital and concluded that “Specialized services were associated with the best diagnostic performance, as opposed to emergency departments, with the worst performance”. The great concern related to the rea- son why the diagnosis of TB in primary care, (which should be the earliest setting for TB diagnosis), is not presently effective and why the quality of diagno- sis is not high. In fact, TB is the disease that can be found around the world and it still a global public health threat. Because TB is a chronic disease and the patients can live within their communities with few symptoms and spread the disease to others, the early detection of disease within the community, through primary care and family health teams, seems to be the key for disease control 2 . There are several diag-
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Autonomic functions and their relations with disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis

Autonomic functions and their relations with disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis

Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS for Windows 15.0 package program. Shapiro- -Wilk test was used to analyze the normal distribution of the continuous variables. Descriptive statistics were presented as mean ± and standard deviation or me dian (minimum – maximum) whereas categorical variables were presented as number of the patients and (%). The difference of the means between the groups was ana- lyzed with Student’s t test while the analysis of the me- dians of the groups was performed with Mann Whit- ney U test. The significance of an intergroup difference of one variable was investigated using Kruskal Wallis test. Categorical variables were analyzed with Pearson’s Chi square test and Fisher’s exact Chi square test. Any significant correlation among the continuous variables was analyzed by using Spearman’s correlation test.
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Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras.  vol.56 número4

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. vol.56 número4

The mean age of patients in this study was consistent with the average age at which genital and breast cancer appears, i.e., young women during their most productive years. The level of education may also inluence the late diagnosis of the disease, since the lack of knowledge exposes women to risk factors. This situation, coupled with non-care, causes cellular changes with oncogenic potential which, added to the delay in seeking health care and lack of access to specialized healthcare services, increase even further the possibility of the patient developing cancer. For never having attended school, 10% of respondents were considered illiterate; however, 38.4% of all participants had not inished elementary school and could have been classiied as functionally illiterate.
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Characterization of the subtilisin-like protease 3 in malaria parasites

Characterization of the subtilisin-like protease 3 in malaria parasites

Ingestion of gametocytes by a mosquito during a blood meal initiates the cycle in the invertebrate host where both asexual and sexual reproduction take place. Ingestion of gametocytes activates the formation of gametes – gametogenesis - in the mosquito midgut lumen (Bilker et al., 1997, 1998). This process generates the female and male gametes that will fuse to form the zygote, the only diploid form in the life cycle of Plasmodium. Soon after zygote formation, meiose takes place and genetic recombination occurs. The spherical zygote transforms into an ookinete, an elongated motile cell that uses motility to penetrate and later traverse the mosquito midgut epithelium. The migration through epithelial cells activates the ookinete to switch to a sessile mode and initiate its transformation into an oocyst, a process that takes approximately 10-12 days. In the oocyst, sporoblasts are formed within which, mitotic divisions take place and, consequently, sporozoite formation begins. The budding of sporozoites from the sporoblasts is asynchronous and happens prior to sporozoite egress from the oocyst, culminating in release of parasites into the mosquito circulatory system – the hemolymph. Parasite ligands recognize specific host receptors that allow the sporozoite to adhere to the basal lamina of the salivary gland but not to any other mosquito tissue (reviewed in Aly et al., 2009). Parasites will then invade the salivary glands and complete their development into sporozoites that are fully capable of starting a new cycle when injected in the mammalian host upon a mosquito blood meal.
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Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

endangered or protected species. Using aerial sweep nets, we collected individuals from ten Coenagrionidae species, Argia moesta (Hagen), Argia violaceae (Burmeister), Enallagma bor- eale (Selys), Enallagma ebrium (Hagen), Enallagma signatum (Hagen), Enallagma vesperum (Calvert), Ischnura posita (Hagen), Ischnura verticalis (Say), Nehalennia gracilis (Morse), and Nehalennia irene (Hagen), placed in five species pairs, Argia, Enallagma (Enallagma) subgenus, Enallagma (Chromatallagma) subgenus, Ischnura, and Nehalennia around the Queens Univer- sity Biological Station. The four Enallagma species are considered in two different species pairs, because the most current phylogeny for this species-rich genus places these four species into two distinct subgenera [26]. Past studies have used these species to discern interspecific variation in parasitism with internal and external parasites [2,19]. Both species within a species pair were collected at the same site and same time to exclude potential site or seasonal effects on parasitism. The Nehalennia species pair was collected at Hebert Bog (44°29’54.69”N, 76°24’ 53.66”W) on 7 and 30 June 2011, and 24 June 2012; E. (Chromatallagma) and Argia species pairs were collected at the edge of Lake Opinicon (44°33’56.32”N, 76°19’26.46”W) on 30 June to 3 July, 2010 and from 3 to 10 July, 2010, respectively, and 17 July 2012; the species of the E. (Enallagma) clade were collected at Barb Marsh (44°31’27.54”N, 76°22’25.89”W) on 25 May 2010, from 7 to 10 June 2010 and on 20 June 2012; Ischnura species pair was collected at Stony Swamp (44°30’43.74”N, 76°23’39.32”W) on 4 and 10 July 2011, and on 1 July 1012. There has been little variation in mite prevalence and resistance in consecutive years in these damselfly populations for given species [27]. Collections made in 2010 or 2011 were used to assess host species differences in resistance and levels of parasitism by the same or similar mite species, whereas the samples of 2012 were used to assess species similarities or differences in PO activi- ty, within species pairs.
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Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

To provide a more general view of our model’s predictions, we performed sensitivity analysis to determine how variation in each individual model input would influence the projected ICER measured between double-dose and single-dose strategies. Figure 6 shows a tornado diagram indicating the model parameters that were most influential in determining the double-dose/single-dose ICER for cost per egg year averted. Here, the six most influential model inputs were found to be the cost of drug delivery, the cost of drug, the yearly chance of moving from light to heavy infection (a measure of local transmission intensity) after either single-dose or double- dose treatment, the number of eggs excreted with heavy intensity infection, and the level of program adherence. Figure 7 shows a similar display of input factors most strongly influencing the ICER in terms of costs per QALY gained. Here, the six most influential factors were quite comparable: The cost of drug delivery, the cost of drug, the estimated QALY value associated with the heavy infection state, the probability of moving from light to heavy infection after either type of therapy, and the program adherence.
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Characterization of immune-modulatory MIRNAS and their role in inflammatory skin disease

Characterization of immune-modulatory MIRNAS and their role in inflammatory skin disease

Moreover, we generated two antagomir-expressing lentiviral constructs (antagomiR-neg and antagomiR-203). Based on functional evaluations, we identified a solid upregulation of Renilla luciferase gene fused to a full miR-203 complementary sequence when co-expressed with either antagomiR-203-encoding plasmid or lentiviral vector. miR-203 knockdown was confirmed when the antagomiR-203 was expressed from very few lentiviral integrations (MOI of 5) and after extrachromosomal non-integrated lentiviral vectors have been lost. The mechanism of oligonucleotide-mediated miRNA silencing is still unknown, although previous data from other groups suggests that this process involves degradation of the miRNA in vitro and in vivo 47; 89 . Our collected data is partially in agreement with the mentioned hypothesis, as we identified a clearly reduction of miR-203 expression levels in HaCaT naїve cells follow- ing transduction of antagomiR-203-expressing lentiviral vector. Nonetheless, the same ex- periment was developed in a HaCaT cell line stably overexpressing miR-203, and no reduc- tion of miR-203 expressing levels was detected, despite the fact that a release of miR-203 repression on IL24 mRNA target was detected in this particular cell line. In this study, it is important to take into account that antagomiR-203 sequence did not present any chemical modifications, such as phosphorothioate modification or 2‟-O-methyl sugar modification which protect oligonucleotides against exonuclease or endonuclease activity, respectively. This may indicate that, when expressed endogenously, antagomirs and miRNAs may share similar degradation pathways. Therefore, our results suggest that miRNA-target cell expres- sion levels and antagomir chemical modifications are relevant parameters to take into ac- count when designing and evaluating antagomir potency.
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