Kulmala, M., Asmi, A., Lappalainen, H. K., Baltensperger, U., Brenguier, J.-L., Facchini, M. C., Hansson, H.-C., Hov, Ø., O’Dowd, C. D., Pöschl, U., Wiedensohler, A., Boers, R., Boucher, O., de Leeuw, G., Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Fe- ichter, J., Krejci, R., Laj, P., Lihavainen, H., Lohmann, U., Mc- Figgans, G., Mentel, T., Pilinis, C., Riipinen, I., Schulz, M., Stohl, A., Swietlicki, E., Vignati, E., Alves, C., Amann, M., Ammann, M., Arabas, S., Artaxo, P., Baars, H., Beddows, D. C. S., Bergström, R., Beukes, J. P., Bilde, M., Burkhart, J. F., Canonaco, F., Clegg, S. L., Coe, H., Crumeyrolle, S., D’Anna, B., Decesari, S., Gilardoni, S., Fischer, M., Fjaeraa, A. M., Foun- toukis, C., George, C., Gomes, L., Halloran, P., Hamburger, T., Harrison, R. M., Herrmann, H., Hoffmann, T., Hoose, C., Hu, M., Hyvärinen, A., Hõrrak, U., Iinuma, Y., Iversen, T., Josipovic, M., Kanakidou, M., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Kirkevåg, A., Kiss, G., Klimont, Z., Kolmonen, P., Komppula, M., Kristjánsson, J.-E., Laakso, L., Laaksonen, A., Labonnote, L., Lanz, V. A., Lehtinen, K. E. J., Rizzo, L. V., Makkonen, R., Manninen, H. E., McMeek- ing, G., Merikanto, J., Minikin, A., Mirme, S., Morgan, W. T., Nemitz, E., O’Donnell, D., Panwar, T. S., Pawlowska, H., Pet- zold, A., Pienaar, J. J., Pio, C., Plass-Duelmer, C., Prévôt, A. S. H., Pryor, S., Reddington, C. L., Roberts, G., Rosenfeld, D., Schwarz, J., Seland, Ø., Sellegri, K., Shen, X. J., Shiraiwa, M., Siebert, H., Sierau, B., Simpson, D., Sun, J. Y., Topping, D., Tunved, P., Vaattovaara, P., Vakkari, V., Veefkind, J. P., Viss- chedijk, A., Vuollekoski, H., Vuolo, R., Wehner, B., Wildt, J., Woodward, S., Worsnop, D. R., van Zadelhoff, G.-J., Zardini, A. A., Zhang, K., van Zyl, P. G., Kerminen, V.-M., S Carslaw, K., and Pandis, S. N.: General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud ClimateandAirQuality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13061–13143, doi:10.5194/acp- 11-13061-2011, 2011.
five realizations of 1950–2050 climate change generated by Leibensperger et al. (2011b) with the GISS GCM III (Rind et al., 2007) applied to the IPCC A1B scenario (Nakicen- ovic and Swart, 2000) and including time-dependent aerosol radiative forcings. For each realization we examined the change in median cyclone frequency between the present- day (1996–2010) and the future (2036–2050), by applying the spectral-autoregressive method to the dominant cyclone PC for each 15-year time series, and using a Monte Carlo method to diagnose the probability distribution and signif- icance of the change based on variability of the AR2 pa- rameters. Three out of the five realizations indicated statis- tically significant decreases in cyclone frequencies between 1996–2010 and 2036–2050 of −3.2, −3.4 and −1.5 a −1 (p- value < 0.05). One realization showed a significant increase of 2.7 a −1 and another showed no significant change. Fig- ure 10 shows the combined probability distribution of cy- clone frequency change in the Midwest from all five real- izations and the corresponding responses of annual mean PM 2.5 based on the PM 2.5 -to-cyclone period sensitivity re-
lends some confidence in their ability to project future changes in these periods. Following the general IPCC strat- egy, we can expect the ensemble of 15 GCMs to provide a better projection than any single GCM. However, as Fig. 4 shows, some models perform better than others, and we should give less weight to poorly performing models. We use here the approach by Tebaldi et al. (2004, 2005), which combines Bayesian analysis with the reliability ensemble av- erage (REA) method (Giorgi and Mearns, 2002) to discount models with large biases (with respect to observations) and outliers (with respect to future projections). This produces weighted averages and confidence intervals for future pro- jections of synoptic periods.
Abstract We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone andparticulatematter (PM), and what chang- ing concentrations could m ean for population health, as well as studies projecting the impacts of climate change on airqualityand the impacts of these changes on m orbidity/m ortality. Clim ate change could affect local to regional airquality through changes in chem ical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mix- ing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty are the degree of future clim ate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given the uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will in- crease concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-incom e countries when precursor emissions are held constant, increasing morbidi- ty/mortality. There are few projections for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM , because few studies have been conducted. More research is needed to better un- derstand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution–related health impacts. Key words Air pollution, Climate change, Health impacts, Ozone, Particulatematter
Hypothesis H2, which verified the impact of collaborative leadership on the processes of exploration and exploitation, was accepted only for the knowledge exploitation (β = 0.233), and, separately, hypothesis H3, which assessed the relationship between autonomy and the processes of knowledge exploration and exploitation, was accepted only for exploration (β = 0.321). These results ill gaps from previous studies that assess the impact of leadership and autonomy on innovation, KM or use of knowledge without distinguishing the isolated impact on the processes of knowledge exploration and exploitation. Von Krogh et al. (2011) state that leaders assume a key role in establishing policies and organizational infrastructure that enhance and facilitate the low of knowledge and KM. Leaders are also responsible for implementing practices of HRM focused on retention and dissemination of lessonslearnedand better practices (Bollinger & Smith, 2001). Davenport et al. (1998) also highlight the role of leadership in the development of a culture that encourages the sharing of knowledge among employees. The contributions of these three studies, geared towards the retention and dissemination of lessonslearned, the encouraging to the low of knowledge between employees and development of infrastructure for KM, show that collaborative leadership practices support effectively the process of knowledge exploitation, since these practices are focused on the reinement and improvement of the same primary knowledge base, while exploration requires actions geared towards research, discovery and development of new knowledge (March, 1991).
region and the Hudson Bay, and Eastern Siberia. Meanwhile, a cold bias is present over the coast of Antarctica and the Himalayas. These errors are generally associated with polar regions, where biases in the simulated sea-ice has large impacts on surface temperature, and near topography that is not realistically represented at the resolution of the model. Nonetheless, the IGSM-CAM reproduces reasonably well the end of 20th
The aetiological factors implicated in nocturia can be classiied as afecting urine storage, urine production, and unrelated conditions that impact upon sleep. Lower urinary tract dysfunctions that lead to a failure to store urine may result in nocturia. Most commonly this occurs in the context of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB), which is variably correlated to underlying detrusor overactivity (DOA). Urinary urgency, the pivotal symptom of OAB, is correlated with nocturia (OR=1.70), as is urinary incontinence. 8 OAB is
To achieve equity, fairness, and compliance under challenging international climateand environmental settings (FERREIRA COSTA, 2016), Brazil still must integrate smaller and less powerful actors in the decision-making process (NEPSTAD et al., 2014; MICOLLIS et al., 2014). The country, also, needs to maintain open space to add more prominent players who have not joined environmental initiatives so far –and those who have more influence on the drivers of deforestation (BARRETO and ARAÚJO, 2012; BOUCHER et al., 2013; WHA- TELY and CAMPANILI, 2014; DA COSTA and FLEURY, 2015; DONOFRIO et al., 2017). In this regard, the value of the above-mentioned multi-stakeholder partnerships and agricul- tural commodity moratoria (MPF-PA, 2009; MPF-MT, 2010; RUDORFF et al., 2011; CHAKRAVARTY et al., 2012; ABRANCHES, 2015; BANDEIRA, 2015; GIBBS et al., 2015; PIKETTY et al., 2015; ABIOVE, 2016; 2019; PMV, 2017; 2018; ABRAPALMA, 2018). Laid in promoting efficient and sustained coordination among the various international, national, and local policies, actions, and initiatives in Brazil between 2011-12 and 2017-18 (PMV, 2017; 2018). The PMV developed a framework that helped the involved actors maintain their cohe- siveness through public and private sustainable agricultural productive agreements, positively impacting deforestation rates despite intense political and economic pressures to maintain bu- siness-as-usual agricultural practices. The PMV also adequately supported the implementation of CAR, with a definite impact on land regularization, and reduction of environmental and land degradation in the participant municipalities in the Amazon basin (PMV, 2018). Mo- reover, different policies, technological innovation, and industry actions came into play, noting that the design and implementation of more sustainable value chains are possible. These agglu- tinations reinforce the value of local-level concerns, by bringing together stakeholders, re- establishing sustainable management of natural resource and land-use management pacts by the provision of technical assistance, financial support, land regulation and the adoption of more sustainable production techniques, securing land tenure, and guiding local, national and regional environmental legal frameworks.
These efforts must take into account relation- ships among pricing, financing, trade policy, and health care systems. A country’s strategic plan for care must address the issue of equity and the use of public resources. The effective use of such trade policy provisions as compulsory licensing or paral- lel importation can increase access to care. The availability of low-cost generic drugs needs to be expanded, in accordance with national laws and in- ternational trade agreements and with guarantees of their quality. Other approaches also need to be explored, including tiered pricing, improved global and regional procurement policies, and new fund- ing mechanisms.
The worldwide abundance fungi e.g., Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Penicillium were found in low incidence. Hot weather and barren region are not suitable environments for fungal growth (Cventić and Pepeljnjak, 1997). Penicillium and Cladosporium are sensitive to temperature (Pyrri and Kapsanaki-Gotsi, 2007). A negative trend was found between increase air temperature and Cladosporium counts in Greece (Damialis et al., 2015). Alternaria proliferates in the presence of suitable humidity (80 - 90%) and temperature, and presence of vegetation debris (Humpherson-Jones and Phelps, 1989), these conditions are less present in Makkah city. The results in the present study agree with those have been reported in Makkah city (Abdel Hameed and Habeeballah, 2013) and Jeddah city (Alghamdi et al., 2014) who found fungi in low biodiversity with Aspergillus was the common genus.
A disciplina que estuda a qualidade do ar de interiores, chama- da “Indoor AirQuality”, é nova, com cerca de 25 anos no mundo e com apenas 5 anos no Brasil. É uma nova área de estudo que reúne profissionais de diferentes disciplinas, principalmente quí- micos, microbiologistas, engenheiros, arquitetos e toxicologistas. Nessas últimas décadas, houve um grande aumento de quei- xas relacionadas à qualidade de ar em locais fechados nos países desenvolvidos, principalmente em edifícios de microcli- ma artificial. Essas queixas geraram estudos que foram condu- zidos em diferentes países e períodos, indicando que o ar den- tro de casa e outros locais fechados pode estar mais poluído do que o ar externo nas grandes cidades industrializadas 2a-f .
J., Donahue, N. M., George, C., Goldstein, A. H., Hamilton, J. F., Herrmann, H., Hoffmann, T., Iinuma, Y., Jang, M., Jenkin, M. E., Jimenez, J. L., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Maenhaut, W., McFiggans, G., Mentel, Th. F., Monod, A., Pr ´ev ˆot, A. S. H., Seinfeld, J. H., Surratt, J. D., Szmigielski, R., and Wildt, J.: The formation, properties and impact of secondary organic aerosol: current and emerging issues, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 5155–5236, doi:10.5194/acp-
CPOM in the GZPR. The FPOM fraction is derived from fine soil particle-associated terrestrial OM, sewage POM, bacterial POM (living bacterial cells and cellular debris), and phytoplankton POM (e.g., in situ plankton remains). However, it has been recently suggested that bacteria-derived bio-macro-polymers can represent dominant compo- nents of high molecular weight DOM in ocean waters (Nagata and Kirchman, 2000).
All of this encouraged financial institutions to rely on short short-term finance. Typically, financial institutions were financing positions in assets by issuing IOUs with a maturity of mere hours. But the assets were increasingly esoteric positions in mark-to-myth structured assets with indeterminate market values —indeed, often with no real markets into which they could be sold. Further, many of these assets had no clearly defined income flows —virtually by definition, a NINJA loan (no income, no job, no assets) has no plausible source of income to service the debt. That is just the most outlandish example —but much of the asset a ked o e ial pape (ABCP) had no reliable source of income to service liabilities issued. US debt-to-GDP ratios reached 500% –there was a dollar of income to service $5 of debt. Inevitably, the short-term liabilities of financial institutions could not be serviced —and they could be rolled over only so long as the myths were maintained.
The initiative aims to organize knowledge and shed light to lessonslearned, for public policies as well as business practices, that can help stablish a new rela- tionship between large-scale projects and the territo- ries hosting them, within the Brazilian Amazon region. Lead by a partnership between the Center for Sustain- ability Studies of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (gvces) and the International Finance Corporation (ifc) of the World Bank Group, this path was made possible through the engagement of over 300 people, representing around 130 institutions of varied back- grounds. Over the course of 15 months, it was formu- lated a set of diagnosis, practical tools and guidelines in six areas: Territorial Development and Land-use Plan- ning; Financial Instruments; Institutional Capacities; Indigenous Peoples, Traditional Communities and Qui- lombolas; Children, Adolescents and Women; and Legal Supression of Vegetation (lsv).
countryside). This forms the key input to the remaining com- ponents of the study, and will also, through an understanding of the sensitivity of emissions of different compounds and from different sectors, form the basis for sensible approaches to mitigation strategies. This task is used as a starting point with the corresponding emission inventories developed by local administrations for major urban areas. These will be improved when necessary, adjusted to the appropriate model scale and integrated into larger scale datasets for their use in regional and global scale atmospheric composition mod- elling. This approach allows the exploitation of former in- vestments and available information, and builds connections between local airquality management authorities and the airqualityandclimate research community. The first version of the MEGAPOLI European gridded emission inventory for the base year 2005 has the resolution of 6×6 km with nesting up to 1 × 1 km inventories for the 1st level megacities (Paris, London, Rhine-Ruhr area, Po Valley) (van der Gon et al., 2009). Additionally to the pollutant emission inventory an anthropogenic heat flux (AHF) model (0 . 25×0 . 25 arc-minute resolution) was developed and used to compute the AHF in- ventories for Europe and London (Allen et al., 2010). Emis- sions are the focus of WP1, which links to the other aspects of the project as shown in Fig. 3.
Some previous studies have indicated the importance of N on C dynamics in forest systems (Cusack et al., 2011; Jones et al., 2011) and tropical regions (Cusack et al., 2011; Huang et al., 2011), as well as on microorganism activities (Keeler et al., 2009; Janssens et al., 2010). If, on the one hand, N addition has been related to an increase in the formation of microbial products with longer soil residence time (Cotrufo et al., 2013), on the other hand, it has been related to higher SOM mineralization rates (Khan et al., 2007). Here, two distinct situations were observed in response to increasing N rates (Figure 2). In the South, the highest N fertilization rate resulted in higher C-residue recovery in the POM fraction (Figure 3), greater N-POM stock (Figure 2), and C-POM amount accretion (compared to the CTR) (Figure 1). Grandy et al. (2008) reported that the increased N availability in lignin-rich litter could lead to a higher soil C content, mainly due to the accumulation of lignin-derived compounds in the POM fraction. The greater C accrual in this fraction may have further implications for SOM stabilization. First, because there is an increase in C mineralization of particulate fractions with increased rainfall (Muñoz et al., 2016), and second, because transfer of organic compounds between SOM fractions may occur (Six et al., 2002; Oliveira, 2015). Although the addition of 25 kg ha -1 of N resulted in C-POM accretion in the
The main types of ecosystems identified in the studied area are: forests, pastures, hayfields, cultivated land, water bodies (rivers and lakes) and urbanized areas (they include infrastructural land, production spaces for industry and residential areas). In the first phase of the study we established a wide range of services associated with these ecosystems, but after consultations with stakeholders (focus group discussions and surveys), the research area was narrowed to several services (see Table I), which are directly used by the local people  and are seen as the most important for the main livelihood categories: flood control; erosion control; fresh water supply; food production; raw material provisioning; ecotourism and educational and scientific values of ecosystems. The changes occurred in these ecosystem services have an impact on human communities after a relatively short period of time. Thus, given the time horizon chosen for the study of changes in ecosystem services, we consider their selection as adequate.
After a traumatic injury, the oxygen levels of the muscle tissue reduce, and the lactic acid concentration increases anaerobically during glycolysis (conversion of pyruvate to lactate), leading to the germination of spores, multiplication of bacteria, and consequent toxin production (MINETT, 1948a; UZAL et al., 2003). However, these hypotheses are not enough to explain why only young animals are affected or why the diaphragm or heart is the only affected area at times. In addition, it is not known whether the conditions allow the germination of latent spores in cases where there is no muscular injury, possibly because of the higher concentration of muscle glycogen caused by the high degree of muscle synthesis, which can serve as a substrate for C. chauvoei (VAN VLEET & VALENTINE, 2007). Latent spores of C. chauvoei can be found in healthy cattle carcass, in organs such as the liver and spleen (MINETT, 1948b; KERRY, 1964; SATHISH & SWAMINATHAN, 2009). In a surveillance study involving two slaughter houses of Sao Paulo, Brazil, C. chauvoei was identified by microbiological culture in 7.5% of muscle samples and 1.7% of liver samples (SCHOCKEN-ITURRINO et al., 2000).