Top PDF Pathways from and Crises after Communism: the Case of Central Eastern Europe

Pathways from and Crises after Communism: the Case of Central Eastern Europe

Pathways from and Crises after Communism: the Case of Central Eastern Europe

hus, it may be necessary to look deeper than policy errors committed by governments. he only question how “deep” we want to look? János Ladányi (2012) ofers an interesting long durée explanation for the unexpected failure of Hungary. While it is usually assumed that the reforms under the Kádár regime were an advantage for the transition epoch, Ladányi takes the opposite view. he Kádár reforms were dead-end streets, they only created what one would call a “homo Kadariensis”, which are even less able to adapt to the market conditions (having been socialized in the second economy in agriculture and in other sectors of the economy). Intriguing idea, but 1/ it does not it well the data from the irst decade of the transition, when Hungary beneitted from earlier reforms and Poland did so even more, but the absence of reforms punished Bulgaria and Romania (and to some extent the Czech Republic); 2/ Even the Socialist Party (MSZP) rejects the legacy of Kádár; the centre right party (FIDESZ) which formed government the second time in 2010 seeks political identity with the pre-communist Horthy regime (and arguably implements similar social and economic policies). Can these political forces be “objectively” kadarist, though they reject “subjectively” the Kádár regime as “dictatorship”? I do not ind this persuasive.
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Ethnic Minority Protection and Anti-discrimination in Central Europe Before and After EU Accession: the Case of Poland

Ethnic Minority Protection and Anti-discrimination in Central Europe Before and After EU Accession: the Case of Poland

Another group of activists who were ambivalent about the value of the Minorities Law were those representing the Roma. Although the Roma have been officially recognized as an ethnic minority and were therefore considered to be protected by the Minorities Law, Romani activists frequently expressed concern about needs other than those for increased protection of the language and culture of their group; they demanded, among other things, material support for housing, measures on poverty alleviation and anti-discrimination. The Polish government responded with a specific programme for the Roma. In August 2003, the Polish government officially adopted a long-term policy project aimed at ‘solving’ the problems facing the Romani community in Poland. This policy plan has since then been carried out by the Ministry of the Interior and has focused on a broad range of topics, including poverty, education, housing, health and employment. The idea behind this programme is to work on the development of Romani ‘culture’ as well as to single the Roma out as a specific target group for financial support in the areas of social policy mentioned above. One of the principles underpinning the programme has been the idea that financial support for Romani cultural expressions and the promotion of the category ‘Roma’ as a name to label an ‘ethnic’ community will challenge existing stereotypes and create more realistic and more positive images of who the Roma are. By formulating this idea, Polish policy makers have followed a trend that has become visible in recent years in other Central European countries. Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, to give three examples, have in the 1990s developed models of minority protection that allow them to subsidize Romani cultural expressions as well as to fund projects that relate to social issues. 15 The Roma in Poland were, thus, first recognized as a minority but policy makers as well as Romani activists clearly found that the case of the Roma was somewhat different from that of other minority groups and found it appropriate to design social policy measures for this specific group outside the regular
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Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

Urban activism in Central and Eastern Europe: A theoretical framework

The collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe roused high expecta- tions about a rapid revival of civil society that is recognised as a key factor in the processes of democratisation. A number of scholars made post-communist civil soci- ety the new object of their study. Early publications, however, brought a rather pes- simistic view of the development of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe (e. g. Rose 1993; Rose, Mishler, Haerpfer, 1997; Rose-Ackerman, 2001; Howard, 2003). They were based mainly on opinion polls and surveys; they used a limited number of indicators and did not take into account a multidimensional character of civil society. Marc Howard, for example, understood civil society as part of public space between the state and the family, and embodied in voluntary organisations (Howard, 2003: 1). Most statements on the weakness and underdevelopment of civil society in the coun- tries of post-communist Europe were built on indicators such as low civic member- ship and low employment in voluntary organisations, weak social and political insti- tutions and high level of mistrust of these institutions – factors being seen as obvious communist legacies. On the basis of these findings, some scholars even questioned prospects for democratic stability in the region. None of these early works mentioned an enormous and rapid growth of registered civil society organisations in Central and Eastern Europe. For instance, in Poland, the number of registered NGOs grew by 400 percent from 1989 to 1994 (Ekiert, 2012), in Slovakia by more than 500 percent (from 158 in 1990 to over 1000 in 1994; more than 40,000 in 2015). 1 These numbers
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Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

Regional European Specialization and Concentration in Central and Eastern Europe

Enlargement has become a fundamental priority of the European Union after the ’s. Up to now seven rounds have been held for enlarging the Community which initially was made up of six Member States Belgium, Germany, France, )taly, Luxembourg, Netherlands . Among all EU enlargements, the eastward enlargement from was the biggest challenge, both due to the number of new Member States which joined - the number of EU inhabitants increasing to approximately from to million, but also due to the difference of Gross Domestic Product between the old and new EU members. This paper aims to provide insights in European integration and absorption of European funds into the newest that joined the European Union. The paper proposes an analysis of integration and specialization in Eastern Europe by means of data and statistics provided by European and national statistics institutions.
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The Penetration of Foreign Capital into the Banking Sector in Central and Eastern Europe’s Countries

The Penetration of Foreign Capital into the Banking Sector in Central and Eastern Europe’s Countries

Over the past two decades, banking activity has experienced an unprecedented trend towards globalization. The countries analyzed the presence of international bank capital is at a high level. Banks in the rest of Europe have expanded on markets in former communist countries during large-scale privatization programs of domestic banks by the state, and the results were significant. )f in the number of foreign banks in total banks' share was below %, predominantly local banks, in exceeded % of foreign banks and domestic banks were below the percentage of %. )n this way the assets held by them increased from % at the start of the period to over % in . During , in countries such as Slovakia and Romania the number of foreign banks exceeded the % and in (ungary had a share of %. Regarding the share of foreign bank assets in total bank assets in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, it is noteworthy that in , countries such as Croatia, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, the Czech Republic and Slovakia recorded a rate of over % in Estonia even reaching % of total bank assets. Restructuring and especially privatization and Romania's accession to the European Union had a major impact on the banking system. There is a expansion of foreign claims from B)S reporting banks since and continuing their strong amplification in the period - , mainly as a result of the wave of privatizations after . The global character of the activity of foreign banks in Romania has become more prominent than the international character.
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A new approach in the analysis of european countries convergence: Lessons for the economies of central and eastern europe

A new approach in the analysis of european countries convergence: Lessons for the economies of central and eastern europe

The data consist of annual observations of per capita GDP for a total of 23 EU member states. The source is the Maddison’s output series, expressed in 1990 Geary-Ghamis dollars, which are available on a year-by-year regular basis after 1921 for the majority of the EU countries, from 1950 for a subset of eastern economies and from 1990 for another subset. Therefore, we decided to use all the available statistical information and consider three periods in the analysis. For the period 1921-2008, we consider data for Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), France (FR), Germany (DE), Italy (IT), Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE), United Kingdom (UK), Ireland (IE), Greece (EL), Portugal (PT) and Spain (ES) to accomplish the objective of analysis convergence persistence between WE economies. For the period 1950-2008, we consider data for Bulgaria (BG), Hungary (HU), Poland (PL) and Romania (RO) to analyze convergence persistence between EE and WE economies and between EE economies themselves. Finally, for the period 1990-2008, we consider data of Slovakia (SK), Czech Republic (CZ), Estonia (EE), Latvia (LV) and Lithuania (LT) in order to draw conclusions about convergence persistence between these economies and all the other economies. Accordingly, our analysis will be focused on three time horizons, matching our research goals: (i) analysis of real convergence of 14 WE economies in the period 1921-2008; (ii) analysis of real convergence of 4 EE economies (EE) in the period 1950-2008; and, (iii) analysis of real convergence of 5 EE economies over the period 1990-2008.
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THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN  EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

THE INDEPENDENCE OF CENTRAL BANKS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE-A MONETARY POLICY STRATEGY BASED APPROACH

The present paper aims to examine the trends of the last decade and a half of central banks independence (CBI) in Central and Eastern European countries on the road to the euro adoption and to compare the results with those identified in the case of the European Central Bank (ECB). We approached CBI from the perspective of monetary policy strategies central banks (CBs) use. The main results show increasing independence during the selected time frame for all monetary authorities subject to analysis, regardless of the applied monetary policy strategy; superior average levels of CBI in CEE countries oriented to inflation targeting compared to those using the exchange rate as nominal anchor; higher degree of independence of ECB in relation to monetary authorities that use an inflation targeting strategy; the simultaneous presence of a significant level of independence, low inflation and stronger economic development in CEE members where CB is geared towards inflation targeting compared to CBs that implement a strategy of exchange rate targeting.
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Pathways from and Crises after Communism Part 2. The Case of Former USSR and China

Pathways from and Crises after Communism Part 2. The Case of Former USSR and China

Despite the spectacular growth of neo-patrimonial regimes during the second decade of the transition, it is unlikely the success can be attributed to neo-patrimonial nature of the regime. h ese regimes were turning rentier states with highly and probably increasingly authoritarian systems. On balance neo-liberalism performed slightly better, but the only unqualii ed success story is Poland and it is hard to tell whether Poland was so successful, since it was pursuing the neo-liberal prescription more closely, or to the contrary, because it was somewhat less dependent of international capital. h ere is little doubt that both neo-liberal and neo-patrimonial regimes did better than they would have done would have stayed on the state socialist trajectory, but the road from socialism was and remained rocky. h e nostalgia for the communist past which is still haunting the region is on the whole silly – people are freer and most of them live better than they or their parents used to live twenty years ago, so the nostalgia is either romanticizing the past when people were younger or a reasonable expression of anxiety in a new world where there is less security and more risk taking – nevertheless, the hopes of the late 80s or early 90s were hardly met and disappointment is widespread – ot en expressed by shit to the far right – is a major fact of post-communist social life in the former communist countries of Europe. Ivan T.
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KEEPING TRACK OF SUSTAINABILITY PROGRESS - BENCHMARKING INSIGHTS FROM INTERNATIONAL INDEXES

KEEPING TRACK OF SUSTAINABILITY PROGRESS - BENCHMARKING INSIGHTS FROM INTERNATIONAL INDEXES

Later on, the General Assembly has adopted (on 6 July 2017) the Resolution con- taining “the global indicator framework for the SDGs and targets of the 2030 Agen- da for Sustainable Development”, which will be refined annually when necessary (UN, 2017); at this point, the official list “includes 232 indicators on which general agreement has been reached”. In the same time, a “dissemination platform of the Global SDG Indicators Database” has been developed – in order to provide “access to data compiled through the UN System in preparation for the Secretary-Gener- al’s annual report on <<Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals>>” (https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/). Moreover, Sustainable Devel- opment Goals Reports are annually released (UN, 2018a), as well as Reports of the Secretary-General on the Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (UN, 2018b), accompanied by Statistical Annexes (UN, 2018c).
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THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

Also, the major strategic importance of south-eastern Europe can be superposed on the following geopolitical and geostrategic characteristics: south-eastern Europe is placed at the active confl uence of three regions – the Balkan peninsula, Caucasus and Asia, which are all very close to the hot spot of Middle East. This region has a great strategic potential as it borders the south of NATO area, where the great nuclear states’ interests collide. Then, the Black Sea is the access gate to the planetary ocean of Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine and the small trans-Caucasian states. South-eastern Europe is the center of the foreseen routes for the transport of the Caspian oil from central Asia to the strategic consumers from the west, as well as the illegal weapon traffi cking and immigration from central and Middle East to the west. The Black Sea also has important amounts of natural resources. The Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea are Russia’s shortest ways to the south and to Africa via the Suez Channel. Last but not least, south-eastern Europe has a large number of civilian and military harbors.
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The role of pneumococcal carbon metabolism in colonisation and invasive disease

The role of pneumococcal carbon metabolism in colonisation and invasive disease

The pneumococcal capsule is recognized as a major virulence factor. The polysaccharide capsule produced by S. pneumoniae is protective against host defences. This structure is covalently linked to the outer surface of the cell wall peptidoglycan and is, in general, negatively charged [30]. At first, capsule prevents the entrapment in the airway mucus to allow subsequence access to epithelial surfaces [57]. However, once in this surface, capsule seems to be disadvantageous because it masks pneumococcal molecules that recognize host receptors. Therefore, the pneumococcus spontaneously undergoes a phase variation phenotype between two forms distinguishable by different colony morphologies: opaque and transparent [58]. In the initial stages of colonisation transparent variants express a thinner capsule promoting adherence to host tissues by expressing higher amounts of surface- exposed proteins. In contrast to opaque variants which display increased amounts of capsule that mask pneumococcal molecules recognizing host receptors. These variants are usually isolated from the blood, indicating that are selected to cross the epithelial barriers [56,59–62]. Part of this peculiarity is due to enhanced opsonophagocytic resistance [63]. Indeed, the capsule is highly anti-phagocytic [64], preventing antibodies (e.g. Fc of IgG) and complement (e.g. iC3b component) associated with bacterial cell surfaces, from interacting with the correspondent receptors on the phagocytic cells [65,66]. Moreover, capsule diminishes the spontaneous or antibiotic-induced autolysis contributing to antibiotic tolerance and has been associated with reduction of natural competence [30,67–69].
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Determinants and Consequences of   the Website Perceived Value

Determinants and Consequences of the Website Perceived Value

Customer value begins to emerge in the 1990s as an issue of growing interest to business, in particular to marketing at both academic and practitioner levels. This concept is considered to be one of the most significant factors in the success of an organisation and an important element of online shopping (Burke 1999; Pulliam 1999; Klein 1998; Hoffman and Novak 1996). It has been envisioned as a critical strategic weapon in attracting and retaining customers (Lee and Overby, 2004). In this sense, the study in hand focuses on three consequences of the perceived value of the site which are site preference, future patronage intent and e-loyalty. Besides, previous researches (Parasuraman, 1997; Holbrook, 1999) have demonstrated the multi-dimensional and highly context-dependent nature of the perceived value. In the online retailing setting, not only the product itself, but also the web site contributes value to customer. Two fundamental variables are taken in consideration to describe the site quality namely telepresence and flow state.
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Bank Privatization and Market Structure of the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Model

Bank Privatization and Market Structure of the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Dynamic Structural Model

Table 6 reports the structural parameters estimates. Structural parameters are estimated in units of the scale factor in the EV distribution and do not have a level interpretation. Only relative magnitudes matter. To facilitate the interpretation of the coefficients, in the second column of the table we show the coefficient divided by the absolute value of the entry costs estimate. Standard errors of the parameters are calculated by block bootstraping CCPs, logits for the activity decisions of public players and state transitions 50 times. We estimate the structural model 50 times, one for each block bootstrap draw of beliefs and state transitions. We estimate the standard errors for our parameters from the bootstrap sample. A similar procedure has been applied in Ryan (2012) and Collard-Wexler (2013).
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SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

SOCIAL ECONOMY – A FORM OF INCLUSION AND OF ''REACTIVATING'' OF LABOR IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS

than they produce, which means over the real incomes obtained through social work. Văduva, . We are talking about New Zeeland. Most countries present important sovereign debts , an increasing deficit between incomes and expenses, practical risks of making new loans that bring them close to the insolvency area or to bankruptcy The European Commission, . Such a process is explained by the confusion between the exigencies of social economy – based on work – and the passive social protection policies, which ignore or place labor between brackets . )nstead of the minimum guaranteed salary, some irrational social policies have promoted the minimum guaranteed income, independent from the work resources of the beneficiaries, poverty is perceived as a state characterizing the majority Vîrjan , p. . Successes, but also limits recorded in the labor market today are similar to those defining the reform of the Romanian economy as a whole Aceleanu and Cretu , p. , marked by a public‐private partnership are organizationally weak and frail, the tensions between labor market structures and mechanisms that interfere with legislative‐institutional tensions.
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ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF MOLDOVA COMPARED TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE

ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF MOLDOVA COMPARED TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN COUNTRIES OF EUROPE

and Food, which performs the administration and management of the funds for farmers. Agricultural income in Central and Eastern Europe experienced recently both positive and negative changes. The latest changes between 2011 and 2012 show that the index of agricultural income per unit of output rose by more than a quarter (27.8%) in Belgium, but decreased a lot in Romania (-27.1%), Croatia, Slovenia and Poland (from -10% to - 14%). Agriculture's contribution to value creation and GDP respectively, a function of two important factors: the number of workers and labor productivity.
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NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

Species native to North America (United States and Canada) [BRITTON & BROWN, 1970], from where it was introduced in Europe, as an ornamental plant, in 1758 (London) [JAKOBS & al. 2004; WITTENBERG, 2005; WEBER & JAKOBS, 2005]. Although the first naturalized populations in Europe were recorded shortly after its introduction, the plant has been spread throughout the continent mainly after the year of 1850 [WEBER & JAKOBS, 2005]. Nowadays, it is widespread in almost all european countries, between 42ºN and 63°N [MCNEILL, in TUTIN & al. 1976; WEBER & JAKOBS, 2005]. In Romania, according to MORARIU & NYÁRÁDY, in S VULESCU (1964), S. gigantea was firstly published by SCHUR (1866), on the river meadows between Avrig and Bradu (Transylvania). This is, however, an erroneous information, because the species indicated by SCHUR (1866) is S. canadensis, and not S. gigantea. Therefore, probably, the first indication of this species in Romania remains that made by BORBAS (1886), cited by MORARIU & NYÁRÁDY, in S VULESCU (1964), which mentioned S. gigantea from Lipova (Arad county). In the last century the species has also been mentioned on the Danube river meadows and Danube Delta [PRODAN, 1935-1939, 1939], as well as from Transylvania, Maramure ş, Banat and Oltenia [BORZA, 1947; MORARIU & NYÁRÁDY, in S VULESCU, 1964; ŞTEFUREAC & al. 1971; ROMAN, 1974; DIHORU & al. 1968-1970]. In Moldavia, it has been previously known only from gardens. As a sub-spontaneous plant, it was recently found in the following localities: Fundu Moldovei (on the left bank of the Moldova river; leg. Sîrbu C., 2006 July 25), between Pojorâta and Sadova (the left bank of the Moldavia river; 47º32′01.79′′N; 25º29′32.36′′E; leg. Sîrbu C., 2011 September 01) (Suceava county), as well as in R duc neni (the left bank of the Bohotin river; 46º57′37.32′′N; 27º56′34.69′′E; leg. Sîrbu C., Oprea A., 2011 September 11) (Ia şi county). Currently, we can state that in Romania, this species is quite common (invasive) on the river meadows in Transylvania, Crişana, Maramureş, and Banat, but it is still rather rare in the other provinces of the country.
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Analysis of linear long-term trend of aerosol optical thickness derived from SeaWiFS using BAER over Europe and South China

Analysis of linear long-term trend of aerosol optical thickness derived from SeaWiFS using BAER over Europe and South China

climate change and improving air quality (Smith et al., 2001; Streets et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2008). In comparison, no similarly significant trends could be found over East- ern Mediterranean and Eastern Europe regions, which are affected by various kinds of aerosols (e.g. sea salt, dust, industrial, and biomass burning). On the other hand, rapid urbanization and industrialization in the Pearl River Delta region led to rapidly

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Methods of Talmud Study and Teaching at the Central Schools of Learning in 19th Century Eastern Europe and Germany

Methods of Talmud Study and Teaching at the Central Schools of Learning in 19th Century Eastern Europe and Germany

In contrast, in the traditional teaching methods that preceded the research method, teaching in schools of learning accorded much significance to the talmudic text, with implications for the present and future. The talmudic text is venerated and in time it has even become sacred, canonical, and unchangeable. Instruction of the Talmud is performed with respect and awe and the contents of the talmudic text cannot be questioned. The core of the traditional teaching methods customary in schools of learning is to strive to determine the halakha, and the teaching method is harmonious, aimed at stressing the basic unity of all the sources. These teaching methods are clear- cut and certain because they are based on creative skill and visionary thinking with the purpose of solving all the problems that arise in the text studied, eventually leading to an absolute and certain result that must be accepted and cannot be questioned. 74
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ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. WHAT CHALLENGES DO TEACHERS OF ENGLISH FACE?

ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE. WHAT CHALLENGES DO TEACHERS OF ENGLISH FACE?

The purpose people learn a foreign language for will influence the choice of variety they will be taught. Since the boost of the ESP English for Specific Purposes approach, the learners can get the teaching materials, including textbooks, that help both learners and teachers focus not only on the kind of English the learners need but also on the professional issues that characterize the field in question. For example, English for Tourism materials provided by a wealth of publishing houses and written by several excellent authors are tailored to meet the professional and linguistic needs of those who undertake to work in the tourism industry. The materials, and here reference is made mainly to textbooks, can be successfully used by tourism employees, tourists and learners who wish to become acquainted with tourism issues and the appropriate, specialized language. Besides, almost all published English for Tourism books prepare the tourism learners for international English language examinations or professional work environments. (owever, the same question arises: to what extent do they teach the professionals or other interested target groups the issues and the language used in professional interactions that are likely to occur in real, every day conversations, and what can teachers do to alleviate this gap?
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Migration in CIS in the context of European integration and changing socio-political borders

Migration in CIS in the context of European integration and changing socio-political borders

Labor migration from Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to Western countries became an important socio-economic issue due to the large number of migrants. Since political systems and the nature of border management in these regions change, migration flows turned out to be a very complex and unpredictable issue. The purpose of this study is to analyze possible scenarios and demographic consequences of migration flows, paying particular attention to region specific factors and migration policies implemented in recent years. The paper attempts to bridge a gap in literature on this important topic, linking traditional labor market factors with uncertainty issues and policies implemented in migrant receiving countries within the CIS. Our findings suggest that economic and migration situation in the destination CIS members became a very important determinant of migration flows. In this respect, we employ a gravity model on the sample of 12 CIS members and estimate the potential size of migration flows under three migratory scenarios. Based on these scenarios, we further evaluate the demographic consequences of migration in the largest members, including Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan which differ largely in terms demographic as well as economic and geographic conditions. The study reveals that further demographic ageing is inevitable over the next decades even if these three countries are not similarly affected. Indeed, the dependency ratio, or the ratio of retirees to the working population, should double. We conclude that reasonable migratory flows - economically motivated - will have no significant impact on these trends unless if they become substantial.
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