Top PDF Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract Ad hoc networks are self configuring network and by a random and quickly changing network topology; thus the need for a robust dynamic routing protocol can accommodate such an environment. Different protocols govern the mobile ad hoc networks and to improve the packet delivery ratio of Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks with high mobility, a message exchange scheme for its invalid route reconstruction is being used. Three protocols AODV, DSDV and I-DSDV were simulated using NS-2 package and were compared in terms of packet delivery ratio, end to end delay routing overhead in different environment; varying number of nodes, speed and pause time. Simulation results show that I- DSDV compared with DSDV, it reduces the number of dropped data packets with little increased overhead at higher rates of node mobility but still compete with AODV in higher node speed and number of node.
Mostrar mais

9 Ler mais

An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

An Efficient Quality of Service Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

on. By considering QoS in terms of data rate and delay will help to ensure the quality of the transmission of real time media. For real time media transmission, if not enough data rate is obtained on the network, only part of the traffic will be transmitted on time. There would be no meaning to receiving the left part at a later time because real time media is sensitive to delay. Data that arrive late can be useless. As a result, it is essential for real time transmission to have a QoS aware routing protocol to ensure QoS of transmissions. In addition, network optimization can also be improved by setting requirements to transmissions. That is to say, prohibit the transmission of data which will be useless when it arrive the destination to the network. From the routing protocol point of view, it should be interpreted as that route which cannot satisfy the QoS requirement should not be considered as the suitable route in order to save the data rate on the network. In this paper, we describe a QoS-aware modification of the AODV reactive routing protocol called QoS Aware AODV (Q-AODV). This serves as our base QoS routing protocol.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

EFFECTIVE APPROACH FOR REDUCING THE FLOODING IN ROUTING MECHANISM FOR MULTIHOP MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure less network provides multi hop based communication services, where the nodes are connected via wireless medium. Wireless networks can be broadly divided into single-hop and ad-hoc multi-hop networks. In single-hop network, the communication between nodes accomplished based on a fixed structure. The second type is the Mobile Ad-hoc Network, where the communication between nodes is accomplished via other nodes, which are called intermediate or forwarded nodes. It is well-known that one of the inherent characteristics of the multi hop MANET is that large interference area, where the mobile nodes overlap with each other. Each node in a MANET acts as a router to receive and forward packets for seamless communications between people and devices. The MANETs are used in various application domains such as battlefield communications, emergency services, disaster recovery, environmental monitoring, personal entertainment and mobile conferencing [1] and [2]. Suitable routing protocol mechanism is used for routing the packet and there are varieties mechanisms proposed by the researchers. In a MANET, nodes moves randomly, leave the network, or the power is switched off and new nodes may join the network unexpectedly. Due to this fact and characteristics, MANET is considered as an unstable network, where links between nodes may break frequently. Therefore, all the nodes in a MANET generates control message periodically and distribute it to update their connection states. However, due to the limited bandwidth constraint of the wireless medium, the protocols which use the medium should try to minimize the unnecessary traffic. Thus, it is imperative that an effective message distributing mechanism is essential for transmitting packets throughout the network.
Mostrar mais

11 Ler mais

Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Securing the routing in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) has also been given much attention by the researchers; many approaches, therefore, have been proposed to deal with external attack. Sirios and Kent [23] proposed an approach to protect the packet sent to multi receivers by using keyed one-way hash function supported by windowed sequence number to ensure data integrity. The trust issue in communication systems as in mobile ad hoc network is a challenging task to achieve. The framework that we are proposing has some relations with secure routing protocols, as it determines the sharing of information, however we consider policies to operate at a higher level in the protocol stack where application specific trust decisions can be made. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and cryptography are achieving a kind of a quasi-trust before the communication is started. However, how the nodes act after that is a controversial issue as untrusted nodes cannot be predicted without establishing tracing techniques to ensure that they are not misbehaving whilst participating in the MANET.
Mostrar mais

12 Ler mais

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

Portable electronic devices like PDAs, mobile phones and notebooks are increasingly equipped with wireless commu- nication technologies, providing higher degrees of mobil- ity and ease of use. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a special type of wireless networks that do not require any infrastructure and whose topology can change sponta- neously by the movement of participating nodes. To eval- uate the performance and energy efficiency of new routing algorithms, especially including directional communication (Grünewald et al., 2005b) and transmission power control (Xu et al., 2005), we use the network simulator SAHNE (Volbert, 2002), see Fig. 1. This environment emulates the packet processing of each participating node. Simulations have shown that communicating in eigth directions can in- crease the total thoughput in a mobile ad hoc network by the factor of 2.5.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

MANETS is a network consisting of mobile nodes such as Laptop, PDAs and wireless phones with the characteristics of self-organization and self-configuration [6]. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are also known as spontaneous networks. MANETS are collection of dynamic cooperating peers and which consist one of the most promising wireless technologies. In MANETS, the mobile devices create a wireless communication channel. The mobile devices contribute in the routing decisions of the network since there are no central stations. Mobile nodes communicate directly with nodes in their vicinity and they relay messages on behalf of others to enable communication with devices not in direct radio-range of each other [2].
Mostrar mais

4 Ler mais

Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Figure 1 demonstrates the effects of saved rebroadcast (SRB) with respect to the total number of nodes in the network. It shows that, for all rebroadcast schemes except flooding, SRB increases as number of nodes increase and Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting saves maximum rebroadcasts throughout the simulation period and the improvement is very significant. Reasons behind the efficiency of our proposed scheme is that it considers both the global characteristics of the network (like network density, radio-quotient and hop-count quotient) as well as local topological information (i.e. rebroadcast responsibility) around the node which is about to take rebroadcast decision. Figure 2 illustrates the degree of reachability (BSR) achieved by the schemes compared here. The results show that reachability improves as the number of nodes in the network increase. Flooding has the best performance in terms of reachability. ECS-formula and Fuzzy-controlled Rebroadcasting perform almost similarly as far as reachability is concerned. Both of them have low reachability than flooding in sparse network. On the other hand, in dense networks, all of them mentioned broadcast schemes are approximately equivalent.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

LINK STABILITY WITH ENERGY AWARE AD HOC ON DEMAND MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Like the RREQ, a RREP is only processed on first sighting and is discarded unless it has a greater destination sequence number than the previous RREP or the same destination sequence number but a smaller hop-count. The route expiration time is the time after which the route is considered to have expired and a new route discovery process must be undertaken. Source node sends packets via the first path it hears about. If it receives a later RREP which has either fresher information or a shorter hop-count, it swaps to that, discarding the original route information. When an active route link breaks, a Route Error (RERR) packet, with sequence number incremented from the corresponding RREP and hop-count of 1, is sent by the upstream node of the broken link to source node. Upon receipt of a RERR, source node initiates a new route discovery process if it still has packets to send to destination.
Mostrar mais

5 Ler mais

DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

DYNAMIC K-MEANS ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZED ROUTING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

The papers offering a complete clustering-based method for route optimization in MANETs are greatly abundant. The authors are aware of futurist research of [10, 11], where Mobility Based Metric for Clustering has been used to effectively find the optimized paths in MANETs with group mobility behavior, in which an colony of mobile nodes travels with similar speed and direction, as in highway traffic. In this method, by calculating the variance of a mobile node’s speed regarding each of its neighbors, the totality positional speed of mobile nodes is estimated. A low variance quantity demonstrates that this mobile node is relatively less mobile to its neighbors. Consequently, cluster heads are chosen from mobile nodes with low variance quantity in their neighborhoods.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

Professor Dr.M.L.Valarmathi received the B.E degree from Madurai Kamraj University and M.E degree from Bharathiar University, Tamilnadu, India in 1983 and 1990, respectively, and PhD degree from the Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India, in 2007. She is currently the Assistant Professor, in the Department of computer Science & Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. Before joining Government College of Technology, Professor Valarmathi has been a Lecturer in Allagappa Chettiyar College of Technology, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India. Her research interests include theory and practical issues of building distributed systems, Internet computing and security, mobile computing, performance evaluation, and fault tolerant computing, Image Processing, Optimization Techniques. She is a member of the ISTE. Professor Valarmathi has published more than 20 papers in refereed international journals and refereed international conferences proceedings.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

SAHR: Swarm Adaptive Hybrid Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

SAHR: Swarm Adaptive Hybrid Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

The nodes in the Ad hoc networks are independent and well structured. We know that a couple of nodes can interact with one another, if they have entered into the opponent transition region. For this purpose wireless means is being utilized by the nodes. The tiniest creature in the world visible to the eye is ant. It is also found that they have a special character called as swarm intelligence. This is because of their intricate and communicative character. Some of the characters of ant such as finding the path and moving in a queue depending on the neighboring atmosphere show the astuteness of them. Apart from that they have also the character of determining the nearest path, and perform together in a set. By considering these things, we have designed our approach from the organically stimulated feature and utilized in MANETs routing. Here our approach has been designed with an algorithm that has been motivated from the Swarm intelligence to attain these features. Considering the external collection of experiments, we have made a contrast of the proposed algorithm and the state-of- the-art algorithm and it has been illustrated that our proposed one gives the enhanced results in the entire variant situations for a variant calculations and parameters. The main feature that is to be presented is that this method balances all the nodes in the network. Keywords: MANET, Swarm intelligence, hybrid routing, unicast routing, ACO
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Combined Solution for Routing and Medium Access Control Layer Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

In this study, we have developed a combined solution for both routing and MAC layer attacks in MANET. In our technique, we simultaneously use the three techniques of cumulative frequency detection, Data forwarding behavior detection and MAC authentication. The cumulative frequency technique detects malicious node by using Channel Busy (CB) bit with the use RTS/CTS conditions. The data forwarding behavior technique uses an incentive based scheme to determine the malicious nodes. In the incentive based scheme, less the node attains the incentive more the malicious it will be. In the technique of MAC based authentication, the error bit determines the misbehaving nodes or the inactive nodes. By simulation results, we have shown that our combined solution achieves increased packet delivery ratio and reduced packet drop with less delay and overhead, compared to the existing technique.
Mostrar mais

8 Ler mais

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

The proposed protocol uses Fuzzy based decision making technique to verify the status of a node. As an outcome of fuzzy decision rules, the node status can be considered as Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong, Lower Medium, Medium, Higher Medium, Little Weak, Weak, and Very Weak. Before a node transmits the data to the next node, it checks the status of that node. This estimated decision is stored in a routing table and is exchanged among all neighbors using a status flag with RREQ message. Data packets are transmitted through intermediate nodes that are in the routing table, whenever the source node sends data to the destination. If the status of a node is Little Weak, Weak or Very Weak then the sending does not transmit the packet to that node, if the status of a node is Lower Medium, Medium or Higher then that node is considerable for receiving the packet from sender node but if the status of a node is Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong then the sending node will choose this node for efficient data packet transmission. The process of node selection consists of two input functions that transform the system inputs into fuzzy sets such as Noise Factor and Signal Strength of paths between any two nodes. Fuzzy set for Noise Factor and Signal Strength in the protocol can be defined as,
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

Exploring the Behavior of Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols with Reference to Speed and Terrain Range

reactive protocols AODV and DSR than proactive protocol DSDV but comparatively DSR showing best performance. Dropped packet problem is much more complicated in mobile ad hoc networks, because wireless links are subject to transmission errors and the network topology changes dynamically. It may be due to transmission errors, no route to the destination, broken links, congestions, etc. The effects of these causes are tightly associated with the network context (e.g., host mobility, number of connections, traffic load, etc.). A packet may be dropped at the source if a route to the destination is not available, or the buffer that stores pending packets is full. It may also be dropped at an intermediate host if the link to the next hop has broken. Dropped Packet is highest in DSDV because all of the dropped packets are lost as stale routing table entry directed them to be forwarded over broken link. In contrast, on-demand protocols, AODV and DSR build routing information as and when they are created make them more adaptive and result in better performance. When speed increases, the number of dropped packet increases. The main reason for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it think is valid and that packet in the buffer are dropped because of congestion and timeouts.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

An Efficient Routing Protocol under Noisy Environment for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Fuzzy Logic

The proposed protocol uses Fuzzy based decision making technique to verify the status of a node. As an outcome of fuzzy decision rules, the node status can be considered as Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong, Lower Medium, Medium, Higher Medium, Little Weak, Weak, and Very Weak. Before a node transmits the data to the next node, it checks the status of that node. This estimated decision is stored in a routing table and is exchanged among all neighbors using a status flag with RREQ message. Data packets are transmitted through intermediate nodes that are in the routing table, whenever the source node sends data to the destination. If the status of a node is Little Weak, Weak or Very Weak then the sending does not transmit the packet to that node, if the status of a node is Lower Medium, Medium or Higher then that node is considerable for receiving the packet from sender node but if the status of a node is Little Strong, Strong, Very Strong then the sending node will choose this node for efficient data packet transmission. The process of node selection consists of two input functions that transform the system inputs into fuzzy sets such as Noise Factor and Signal Strength of paths between any two nodes. Fuzzy set for Noise Factor and Signal Strength in the protocol can be defined as,
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Cache Based Distributed Query Processing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Cache Based Distributed Query Processing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Abstract: Problem statement: In the last few years, the evolution of the mobile networks leads to the query processing in mobile computing an impressive research area. The mobile computing technology needs to offer more and different innovative services as the number of users of the mobiles were increasing. In this regard, this study proposed a new algorithm which increased the performance of the query processing system in mobile computing. Approach: We employed different servers for different job processing. The buffer was maintained in the mobile node and the cache is maintained in the query server as well as mobile server. Prioritization was given to the queries based on different parameters like priority given by the user, required bandwidth. Results and Conclusion: The parameters considered for performance measure are query efficiency, delivery ratio and average power consumption and the results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the existing systems. The query efficiency is increased by 13%, delivery ratio is increased by 26% and average power consumption is reduced by 35% on an average.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Models for pheromone evaluation in Ant Systems for Mobile Ad-hoc networks

Models for pheromone evaluation in Ant Systems for Mobile Ad-hoc networks

However, in mobile network, the convergence of virtual ants to one best route, could not be a desir- able situation. In mobile networks, the bandwidth is scarce and an overload of traffic can cause con- gestion problems. Because of this, the routing pro- cedures must have information based not only the pheromone value, but also how this value is eval- uated. This decisions will influence the reinforce / evaporation of the pheromones. Another problems that actually it is necessary to solve, is an early best route identification. This problem will restrict the search for paths in the network.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

A Cross-Layer Delay-Aware Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Cross-Layer Delay-Aware Node Disjoint Multipath Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

In proposed CLDM-AODV destination node D can collect up to RREQcounter times RREQ packets within time duration RREQ_WAIT_TIME, which is assumed to 20 ms. Node D generates a route reply RREP packets in response to every RREQ copy that arrives from the source S via loop-free and node disjoint paths to the destination. RREP packet is an extension of AODV RREP packet with additional field Max_PPD, which will hold the maximum packet processing time at intermediate nodes along the reverse path. Before destination node forwards the RREP, it computes the PPD and updates it in the Max_PPD field as shown in Figure 4. On reaching the next node, the intermediate node computes its PPD and compares it with the value in the Max_PPD field of RREP packet if current PPD computed is more than value in the Max_PPD. On receiving the RREP from all the disjoint routes, the source selects the primary route with minimum Max_PPD value. This signifies that the packet travelled through the less congested network, and possibility of packet incurring extra delay or getting dropped on the path is very low. Figure 5 shows an example of node disjoint route reply procedure. Destination node D calculates its PPD which is 25 ms and initializes Max_PPD with that PPD. Node D then sends RREP packets to all QoS qualified RREQ routes. Intermediate nodes 4 and 6, on receiving the RREP compute their own PPD i.e. 45 ms and 15 ms respectively. This value is compared with Max_PPD field of RREP packet. If PPD value is less or equal to Max_PPD, it ignores else it replaces the Max_PPD value in RREP packet. Node 6 does not modify Max_PPD as its computed PPD value is less than Max_PPD whereas node 4 replaces Max_PPD with 45 ms as its computed PPD value is greater than Max_PPD. Source node S on receiving the multiple RREP, it buffers them in the route table. Source S chooses the path with minimum value of Max_PPD as primary path i.e. path which source receives from node 1 as its Max_PPD value is 25 ms. If source does not receive RREP in RREP WAIT_TIME from destination, then it restart route discovery with new session Id.
Mostrar mais

14 Ler mais

Bio-Inspired Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Bio-Inspired Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network is a technology that uses moving vehicles as nodes in a network to create a random node movement network. VANET converts every participating vehicle into a node, allowing nodes approximately 100 to 300 meters of each other to connect and in turn create a network with a wide range. As vehicles moves out of the signal range and drop out of the network, other nodes can join in connecting vehicles to one another so that a mobile Internet is created. The primary goal of VANET is to provide road safety measures where information about vehicle’s present speed, location coordinates are passed with or without the deployment of infrastructure communication. Types of VANET are Vehicle to Vehicle communication approach is most suited for short range vehicular networks. It is reliable and provides real time security. It does not required any roadside infrastructure. Vehicle to Vehicle does not have the problem of Vehicle Shadowing in which a smaller vehicle is shadowed by a larger vehicle preventing it to communicate with the Roadside infrastructure. Vehicle to Infrastructure gives solution to longer-range vehicular networks. It makes use of previous existing network infrastructure such as wireless access points. Communications between vehicles and RSUs(road side unit) are supported by Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) protocol and Vehicle-to-Roadside (V2R) protocol.
Mostrar mais

7 Ler mais

Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc  Networks

Implementing Smart Antenna System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Location-aware routing schemes in MANETs assume that the individual nodes are aware of the locations of all the nodes within the network. These are also called as Position-Based Routing. The best and easiest technique is the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine exact coordinates of these nodes in any geographical location. This location information is then utilized by the routing protocol to determine the routes. There are two methods of forwarding data packets in position based routing: greedy forwarding and directional flooding. In greedy forwarding, the next hop node is the closest in distance to destination. Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol (GPSR) uses the greedy forwarding. In the directional flooding, the source node floods data packets in a geographical area towards the direction of the destination node. Location Aided Routing (LAR) uses directional forwarding flooding.
Mostrar mais

6 Ler mais

Show all 10000 documents...