Commercially available diesel oil is a combination of fossil dieseland several additives, which are added in different amounts to perform specific functions. Among them, there are additives to (1) reduce pernicious emissions; (2) improve fluid stability over a wider range of conditions; (3) improve the viscosity index, reducing the rate of viscosity change with temperature; (4) improve ignition by reducing its delay time, flash point, and so forth; and (5) reduce wear with agents that adsorb onto metal surfaces and sacrificially provide chemical-to-chemical contact rather than metal-to-metal contact under high-load conditions. There is also an increasing trend to use blendswith biomass products such as vegetable oil, ethanol, and biodiesel by increasing the use of alternative fuels. Blendsofdieseland biodiesel usually require additives to improve the lubricity, stability, and combustion efficiency by increasing the Cetane number. Blendsofdieseland ethanol (E-diesel) usually require additives to improve miscibility and reduce knock. Diesel additives can also be classified according to the purpose for which they are designed. Preflame additives are designed to rectify problems that occur prior to burning and include dispersants, pour point depressants, and emulsifiers, which act as cleaning agents. Flame additives are used to improve combustion efficiency in the combustion chamber, to increase cetane number, to reduce the formation of carbon deposits, to avoid oxidation reactions and contamination offueland filters clogging by rust, and to inhibit potential explosions caused by changes in static electricity . Postflame additives are designed to reduce carbon deposits in the engine, smoke and emissions .
Banapurmatha et al.  carried out trial on CI engine operated with methyl esters of Karanja oil, Jatropha oil and Sesame oil. Jindal et al.  studied effects of the engine design parameters viz. CR andfuel injection pressure. Buyukkaya  reported experimentally, performance, emissionand combustion characteristicsof a dieselengine using rapeseed oil biodiesel and its blendsof 5%, 20% and 70% anddieselfuel separately. Devan and Mahalakshmi  used methyl ester of paradise oil, Qi et al.  used methanol as additive to biodiesel–dieselblends, Anand et al.  used ferric chloride as a fuel borne catalyst for waste cooking palm oil based biodiesel. Hulwan and Joshi  used high percentage of ethanol in diesel–ethanol- biodiesel blends where biodiesel act as a co-solvent and properties enhancer. Yang et al.  investigated the performance, combustion andemissioncharacteristicsofdieselengine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions.
B.OMPRAKASH, working as a Assistant Professor in the department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUA College of engineering, Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. I completed my M.Tech in Heat Power(R &AC) from JNT University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. At present I am doing my P.hD work in the area of internal combustion engines under the guidance of Dr. B. Durga Prasad, Professor&Head of Mechanical Engineering dept., JNT University, Anantapuramu. I published 2 articles in various national and international conferences and 5 research papers in various national and international journals.
plant oils when compared with edible oils is very significant because of the tremendous demand for edible oils as food, and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present (Ashraful et al. 2014). Nearly 1.60 million diesel engines are operating in India and finding wide applications in agricultural, transport and commercial sectors (Balat and Balat 2010). India is the fourth largest net importer of crude oil and petroleum products after the United States, China and Japan ("UN States statistical" 2013). The gap between India’s oil demand and supply is widening, as demand reached nearly 3.9 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2013. U.S. Energy Information Administration projects India’s demand will more than double to 8.2 million bbl/d by 2040 (BP Statistica 2008, "UN States statistical" 2013). The consumption of liquid petroleum products, especially dieselfuel, has grown up significantly due to growth of major economic sectors viz., transport, agriculture and industry. The excessive dependency on import of fossil fuel becomes apprehension and need to find the alternatives (Mythili et al. 2014). To reduce the uncertainties associated with the petro- diesel, Government of India, like other nations of the world, have made plan to promote alternative sustainable fuels (“BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2014). Energy strategy of a country aims at efficiency and security and to provide access which being environment friendly and achievement of an optimum mix of primary resources for energy generation (National biofuel policy 2004). According to Greenpeace report release on March 24, 2009 in New Delhi, renewable energy can successfully meet over 35% of power demand in India by 2030, and half of forecasted energy needs can be met just by efficient and judicious production, distribution and use of energy (“BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2014). Green energy evolution will not only help in saving money and, but also facilitate to deal with the catastrophe of climate change (Iglesias et al. 2012). Biofuels are eco-friendly fuels and their utilisation would address global concerns about contamination of carbon emissions (Boro, Deka, and Thakur 2012). India has a ray of hope in providing energy security through development of biofuel. Indian approach towards the biofuels, in particular is somewhat different to the current international approaches which could lead to conflict with food security (Kumar and Msangi, 2002). It depends solely on non-food feedstock to be raised on degraded/ marginal or waste land that is not suited to agriculture, thus avoiding a possible conflict of security (Silitonga et al. 2013).
fuel for SI engine. Because of high octane quality. But it is not high quality CI enginefuel ethanol can be easily converted through a dehydration process to produce di ethyl ether (DEE). It is an excellent com- pression ignition fueland higher energy density than ethanol. It is also called as cold start aid additive for engineand having very high cetane number com- pared to diesel . N. K. Miller Jothi, G. Nagaraja in their experimental study with homogeneous charge CI engine fueled with LPG using DEE as an ignition enhancer and it was found that the maximum reduc- tion in smoke and particulate emissions is observed to be about 85% and 89%, respectively, when com- pared to that ofdiesel operation, however an increase in CO and HC emissions was observed . Similarly can cinar, H. Serdar Yecesu  investigated the use of premixed diethyl ether in a HCCI-DI dieselengineand it was observed that increase in in-cylinder pres- sure and higher heat release in the premixed stage of combustion. Masoud Iranmanesh,  in their study it was concluded that 8% DEE add to the D-E10 (di- esel-ethanol) blend is the optimum combination based on the performanceandemission analysis with the exception of smoke opacity in which 15% DEE addition made the lowest smoke opacity. At this op- timum ratio the minimum peak heat release rate, the lowest NOx emissions and the maximum BTE were occurred at full load condition. similarly Saravanan D., Vijayakumar T.  found that 10% DEE anddiesel blend was optimum combination in term of BTE and BSFC. Obed M. Ali, Rizalman Mamat  in their study an oxygenated additive diethyl ether (DEE) was blended with palm oil biodiesel (POME) in the ratios of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% and tested for their properties improvement. These blends were tested for energy content and various fuel properties Blendsof DEE in POME resulted in an improvement in acid value, viscosity, density and pour point with increasing content of DEE. Vara Prasad U. SATYA  concluded that Brake specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions values are lower with 20% blend of JOME with 5% DEE whereas B20 with DEE15 yielded lower NOx emissions. Similarly B40 of JOME with DEE10 performed better in terms of brake specific energy consumption. The higher ce- tane rating of DEE is advantageous for obtaining lower smoke opacity and also lower NOx emission . 15% Mahuva methyl ester blend with 80% di- esel and 5% diethyl ether shows slightly lower BSFC and Drastic reduction in smoke is observed at higher engine load . Whereas the BTE of B40 NOME with 15% DEE was higher than B100 at injection pressure of 210 bar .
The present research is aimed at exploring technical feasibility of jatropha oil in direct injection compression ignition engine without any substantial hardware modifications. In this work the methyl ester of jatropha oil was investigated for its performance as a dieselengine fuel.Fuel properties of mineral diesel, jatropha biodiesel and jatropha oil were evaluated. Three blends were obtained by mixing dieseland esterified jatropha in the following proportions by volume : 90% diesel +10% esterified jatropha, 80% diesel + 20% esterified jatropha, and 70% diesel + 30% esterified jatropha. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and brake power were determined. Exhaust emissions like CO2, CO, NOx and smoke have been evaluated.
The only limitation of this crop is that the seeds are toxic and the press cake cannot be used as animal folder. The press cake can only be used as organic manure. The fact that Jatropha oil cannot be used for nutritional purposes without detoxification makes its use as energy/fuel source very attractive. In Madagascar, Cape Verde and Benin, Jatropha oil was used as mineral diesel substitute during the Second World War. Forson et alii (2004) used Jatropha oil anddieselblends in CI engines and found its performanceand emissions characteristics similar to that of mineral diesel at low concentration of Jatropha oil in blends. Pramanik (2003) tried to reduce viscosity of Jatropha oil by heating it and also blending it with mineral diesel. The present research is aimed at exploring technical feasibility of Jatropha oil in direct injection compression ignition engine without any substantial hardware modifications.
The emissions from the transportation vehicles are the main source of environmental pollutions in urban areas, especially the emissionof particulate matter. Moreover, a near tripling of the number of cars on the planet by 2050 is expected with the fast economic development of developing countries . The emission law and regulation must be more stringent. Particulate matter (PM), as one of the six common air pollutions, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. And these particles threaten the health of humans to a certain extent depending on the size. Environmental Protection Agency pointed out that the particles smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter, generally passing through the throat and nose and entering the lungs, are more harmful to human health than the larger particles . Thus the small particle emission has become the main concern of particle emission. Actually, the Euro 5 and 6 legislations, have already proposed a PM number emission limit in addition to the mass-based limits . It suggests that the PM number and size distributions should be considered as well as the other regulated emissions to evaluate the performanceof alternative fuel utilization. Up to now, many investigations on PM number and size distributions have focused on diesel engines [4, 20]. Little work has been reported on gasoline engines, especially on the gasoline engine fu- eled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends . For the future utilization of propanol as an alterna- tive in the engine, one of the objectives of this study is to investigate the extensive emissions, in- cluding NO x, CO, CO 2 , and PM emissions, in a spark-ignition engine fueled with various iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Additionally, the effects of the parameters such as load, blending ratio, EGR rate and spark timing on the engine emissions are studied.
The present energy scenario has stimulated active research interest in non- petroleum, renewable and non-polluting fuels. The world reserves of primary energy and raw materials are obviously limited. The enormous growth of the global population, increased technical development and standards of living in industrial nations has led to this intricate situation in the field of energy supply and demand. The prices of crude oil keep rising and fluctuating on a daily basis. This necessitates developing and commercialising bio-origin fossil fuel alternatives. This may well be the main reason behind the growing awareness ofand interest in unconventional bio-energy sources and fuels in various developing countries which are striving to offset the oil monopoly. There have been many attempts to use vegetable oils in diesel engines. Many researchers have reported encouraging engineperformancewith short-term usage, but have faced degraded engineperformance after prolonged operation with vegetable oils. The reported problems include fuel filter clogging, deposit build-up in the combustion chamber, injector coking, piston ring sticking and lubrication oil thickening, all of which necessitate overhauling the engineand changing some parts (Lin et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2006; Altan et al., 2001; Kumar Reddy, 2000). The cumulative operation hours before overhaul is needed are shorter for vegetable oils than for diesel. One major obstacle in using vegetable oils is their high viscosity, which causes clogging offuel lines, filters and injectors. In order to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oils, three methods have been found to be effective: transesterification, mixing with a lighter oil (blending) and pre-heating.
To evaluate the influence of the additive on the performanceof a dieselengine, an Agrale M90 motorized generator driven by a diesel air-cooled monocylinder enginewith an output of 12.2 cv was used. This generator does not allow changes in the rotation of the engine (angular speed of 1800 rpm). However, the load could be varied through a bank containing 9 lamps operating from 160 to 500 W. In these tests, the emissions from a dieselengine fueled with commercial diesel oil (D100), palm oil biodiesel (B100) from Agropalma, blendsofdieseland/or biodiesel with proportions 5 and 10% oftriacetin by volume were also analyzed, which were known as D5 (diesel + 5% triacetin), D10 (diesel + 10% triacetin), B5 (biodiesel + 5% triacetin) and B10 (biodiesel + 10% triacetin). The density and viscosity of the fuels withand without triacetin were measured. The density was evaluated based on NBR 14065 using an automatic density meter (Rudolph research analytical, DDM 2911). The viscosity was measured according to NBR 10441 with a Herzog HVM 472 multiviscosimeter. A MODAL 2010-AO gas analyzer was used for emission gas analysis. Smoke opacity was measured using a NA-9000 opacimeter, providing an indirect measure ofdiesel particulate emissions.
The 1-octanol was volume wise substituted by 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in the mineral dieseland named as OC5, OC10, OC15 and OC20 respectively. Neat diesel was named as D100. The experimental engine trial results showed an increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and reduction in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and increased exhaust temperature.
Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demands increase and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. The main advantages of using this alternative fuel are its renewability, biodegradability and better quality of exhaust gases. It is technically competitive and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional petro-dieselfuel for use in Compression Ignition (CI) engines. The use of biodiesel reduces the dependence on imported fossil fuels which continue to decrease in availability and affordability. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the combustion, performanceandemissioncharacteristicsof a dieselenginewith the effect of using neem oil methyl ester and its dieselblends at different loads. The results showed that maximum cylinder pressure and maximum rate of heat release increased with the increase in bio dieselblends. The carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke emissions were found significantly lower when operating on biodiesel- dieselblends, but Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions are found to be higher at full load.
he biodiesel has emerged as alternative for dieselfuel [1,5], due to renewable nature, better ignition quality, comparable energy content, higher density, better safety due to higher flash point [2,6,7,8]. It is sulphur free, non aromatics, non toxic, and oxygenated. These characteristics reduce the emissionof carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon (HC) in the exhaust gas as compared with petroleum diesel. It is essential to evaluate engine wear characteristics, especially when the engine is to be operated on alternative biodiesel. Karanja oil biodiesel is having properties nearer to diesel (Table 1). Karanja plant can be grown in the wasteland and does not require too much care. It can be cultivated in all available wasteland to meet the total fuel requirement in future [10,11,12].
A TL 75E tractor (New Holland, Curitiba, Brazil) equipped with a four-stroke diesel cycle enginewith 12 hours of operation, from the same manufacturer, was used in the experiment. The engine model consisted of an FPT (Fiat Power Train), series F5, with four cylinders and conveyed the volume of 3,908 cm³ induced by natural aspiration. According to the manufacturer, the engine maximum power is of 57.4 kW (78 hp) at 2400 rpm. Fuel supply system has rotary type mechanical injection pump (Delphi, DP150). Diesel oil was purchased from a local automobile supply network, with a specific mass of 0.875 kg L -1 at 18.3 °C. This tractor features both standard and 540E PTO.
fuel, both in the anhydrous form, (mixed with gasoline, which enhances the octane number and acts as anti- knocking agent), or in the hydrated form (94 % ethanol). The contamination of the ethanol fuelwith metal ions such as copper, iron, and sodium and inorganic anions such as chloride and sulfate can affect engineperformance, since salts and sediments that are formed can block the nozzles and induce corrosion in the vehicle components in contact with the fuel. 2
operating conditions. Decrease was observed in fuel consumption of 3.7% for B5, 5.9% for B10, 1.6% for B20 and there was a small increase in consumption in the other mixes. Corrêa et al. (2008) evaluated the use of sunflower biodiesel blends (B5, B10, B20 and B100) and fossil diesel in a IC engine, direct injection. Was analyzed the performanceofengine through power take-off (PTO) for each fuel. The lubricating oil was analyzed before and after period of 96 hours with B100. The results showed that the use ofblends B5, B10, B20 and B100 decreased the power of PTO maximum 2,2% and increased the fuel consumption maximum 7,3%. The analyze of lubricating oil showed that the viscosity, water content and level of iron were the parameters more affected, although it had been acceptable. Barbosa et al. (2008) evaluating the performanceof an engine fueled withdiesel oil and mineral mixtures with the proportion of biodiesel equivalent B2 (98% mineral dieseland 2% biodiesel), B5 (95% mineral dieseland 5% biodiesel), B20 (80% diesel mineral and 20% biodiesel) and B100 (100% biodiesel), concluded that the increased engine power respoectivamente the B100 to mineral diesel, however, in reverse order, the thermal efficiency of the diesel diminished mineral mixtures for growing biodiesel, and 4% lower for B100.
In [1,2] hybrid system studies proportional plus integral (PI) controller is used to regulate the output powers from distributed generation system to achieve power balance condition due to sudden variations in generation and load. The gain values of PI controller are chosen by trial and error method. In  the conventional PI controller has traditionally been tuned by the method described in Ziegler and Nichols. The controller gains once tuned for a given operating point are only suitable for limited operating point changes. Therefore, the use of the conventional PI controller does not meet the requirements of the robust performance . Moreover, when the number of parameters to be optimized is large, conventional technique for optimization is certainly not preferred one. In this article, the genetic PI controller is designed based on a conventional controller’s concept except that their gains are tuned on-line as operating point changes. The GA is finding widespread applications in systems optimizations. As an intelligent control technology the GA can give robust adaptive response with nonlinearity, parameter variation and load disturbance effect [3–5]. Basics of Genetic Algorithm are illustrated in . The results of applying the genetic PI controller to the hybrid-power system are compared to those obtained by the application of a conventional PI controller. Simulated results show that the genetic PI controller provides improved dynamic performance than fixed gain conventional controller. The genetic controller also shows better transient performance for load disturbances.
performance parameters are geometrical properties, the term of efficiency and other related engineperformance parameters. The engine efficiencies are indicated thermal efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency and relative efficiency  . The other related engineperformance parameters are mean effective pressure, mean piston speed, specific power output, specific fuel consumption, intake valve mach index, fuel-air or air- fuel ratio and calorific value of the fuel [1, 10, 12] . According to Heywood  , in the dieselengine geometries design written that dieselengine compression ratio is maximum cylinder volume or the displaced volume or swept and clearance volume divided by minimum cylinder volume. The power delivered by the dieselengineand absorbed by the dynamometer is the product of torque and angular speed.
This linear combination was compared with the experimental values of the blends during the days of the experiments. Figure 7 shows the results for the soil con- tamination with the blend B20. This case exemplifies what was observed for all the other blends considering both soil and water contaminations. According to the methodology of analysis adopted, the curves of the experimental data and that of the linear combination are coincident, it indicates that, the biodiesel did not improve the biodegradation of the diesel by means of co-metabo- lism. It is important to comment that this methodology of analysis has limitations since it is not based on chromatographic analysis, which could indicate that only the biodegradation of certain compounds present in the diesel could be favoured by the co-metabolism as observed by Fernández-Álvarez et al. (2007).