Top PDF Performance and selection of tomato cultivars for organic cultivation in greenhouse

Performance and selection of tomato cultivars for organic cultivation in greenhouse

Performance and selection of tomato cultivars for organic cultivation in greenhouse

The undetermined hybrids Predador and Serato showed better productivity than the determined hybrids Candieiro and Apolo (Figure 1). However, the plants of determined size allowed the production of fruits without the need of axillary shoot cutting and tutoring, minimizing labor costs, a current reality to be considered in the production of tomatoes. Rezende et al. (2004) observed that the cost of labor with tillage/cutting is equivalent to the cost of manu- al tomato harvesting, representing the two highest costs of tomato fruit production. Another point to be considered should be the reduction of human labor or even avoiding it, due to the shortage of human labor in the field. In this experiment, we observed that the use of determined-type cultivars, e.g., the hybrid Candieiro, may be an alternative for the tomato fruit production, especially under organic conditions, since these cultivars can be cultivated with lower human labor and with shorter cultural cycle, advantageous characteristics for the organic cultivation (Corrêa et al., 2012). The cultivar Candieiro, the third one in fruit productivity (2.1 kg/plant), showed a 366% increase in fruit productivity in the 2nd cultivation (Table 3).
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Tomato production in hydroponic system using different agrofilms as greenhouse cover

Tomato production in hydroponic system using different agrofilms as greenhouse cover

Protected cultivation has increased over the years. More studies on the benefits of using photoselective agrofilms are necessary. The choice of material to cover the greenhouse is a decisive factor for crop development and production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diffuser and blue-colored agrofilms on the production of different tomato cultivars of indeterminate growth habit under NFT hydroponic system. A completely randomized design in a 2x3 factorial scheme (two environments and three cultivars) was used: two agrofilm types (blue and diffuser) and 3 cultivars (Monterrey, Arendell and Totalle). Each plot consisted of 30 plants per treatment, with four replicates. Commercial tomato seedlings of indeterminate growth habit grafted on rootstock cultivar (Shincheonggang) were used. During the experiment, the electrical conductivity, intensity of radiation inside the greenhouse, gas exchange, soluble solids, lycopene content, pH and fruit production were evaluated. We concluded that the amount of radiation transmitted through the diffuser favors an increase of about 18% in gas exchange, 12% in lycopene content and 9.4% in tomato crop production.
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Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management

Production and quality of tomato fruits under organic management

The cultivar Chadwick Cherry presented the highest proportion of marketable fruits followed by the cultivar Pitanga Vermelha (Table 2). ‘Chadwick Cherry’ and ‘Pitanga Vermelha’ are known as “heirloom”, or traditional cultivars used in organic system in regions of the United States of America, for its rusticity and adaptability to climates ranging from extreme cold to hot. Through the evaluation of fifty “heirloom” tomato cultivars from Europe and the United States in greenhouse under organic management, Vargas et al. (2004) obtained fruits of good sanity and quality, with approximately 80% of marketable fruits. This proportion of marketable fruit Table 1. Supply of macronutrients in the experimental area in the form of compost (forneci-
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Costs, viability and risks of organic tomato production in a protected environment

Costs, viability and risks of organic tomato production in a protected environment

According to the values shown at the end of Table 2, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) for the organic production of table tomatoes under protected cultivation were favourable. Both cultivars had an IRR greater than zero, of the order of 4.21 and 0.66% p.m, for ‘Siluet’ and ‘Santa Clara’ respectively, and a positive NPV for almost all discount rates, except the rates of 10 and 12% p.a. in the ‘Santa Clara’. In this case, comparing the rate of return of the ‘Santa Clara’ crop with the yield of the savings account, which was between 0.56% and 0.79% p.m. in 2012, the proposed investment can be questioned, since investing the capital in a savings account would be a less-costly and less-risky decision. On the other hand, if the producer needed to carry out all initial investment using third-party capital, credit from Pronaf [The National Program to Strengthen Family Farming] for example (3% p.a.), the viability of both cultivars would be attractive, especially Siluet.
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Costs, viability and risks of organic tomato production in a protected environment

Costs, viability and risks of organic tomato production in a protected environment

According to the values shown at the end of Table 2, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) for the organic production of table tomatoes under protected cultivation were favourable. Both cultivars had an IRR greater than zero, of the order of 4.21 and 0.66% p.m, for ‘Siluet’ and ‘Santa Clara’ respectively, and a positive NPV for almost all discount rates, except the rates of 10 and 12% p.a. in the ‘Santa Clara’. In this case, comparing the rate of return of the ‘Santa Clara’ crop with the yield of the savings account, which was between 0.56% and 0.79% p.m. in 2012, the proposed investment can be questioned, since investing the capital in a savings account would be a less-costly and less-risky decision. On the other hand, if the producer needed to carry out all initial investment using third-party capital, credit from Pronaf [The National Program to Strengthen Family Farming] for example (3% p.a.), the viability of both cultivars would be attractive, especially Siluet.
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Genetic progress, adaptability and stability of maize cultivars for value of cultivation and use trials

Genetic progress, adaptability and stability of maize cultivars for value of cultivation and use trials

performance of new cultivars in pre-releasing tests. The data are combined across sites and seasons to perform a joint analysis in order to obtain information that will help breeders to select the best cultivars for different environments. Beyond this, it is essential to understand the different factors that can hamper the selection and genetic progress (i.e., genetic variability, selection intensity and genotype-by- environment interactions). In this study, the genetic progress (GP) was estimated and the adaptability and stability of 81 maize genotypes were evaluated in a series of trials for the value of cultivation and use (VCU) between the 2010/11 and 2014/15 growing seasons. The genotypes were composed of open- pollinated varieties, topcross hybrids, intervarietal hybrids, and single, double and three-way cross hybrids and were assessed in 117 environments in the central region of Brazil, from which 22 presented environmental stresses. For grain yield, an annual GP of 331.5 kg ha -1 was observed, thus showing
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Mini tomato production in organic system under greenhouse with partial control of meteorological elements Haroldo F. de Araujo

Mini tomato production in organic system under greenhouse with partial control of meteorological elements Haroldo F. de Araujo

The objective of this research was to evaluate the meteorological elements of the environments and the production components of mini tomato crop in organic system in different forms of cultivation, biofertilizer doses and technological levels of protected environments. The research was conducted in completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to three greenhouses (A - climatized, B - mobile screen and C - fixed screen), two forms of cultivation (pots and beds) and five doses of a commercial biofertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of dose indicated), with five replicates. The treatments affected the analyzed variables, except for biofertilizer doses and interaction of treatments. Air temperature was unchanged among the environments and the mean and minimum relative humidity were within the control range in the climatized greenhouse. The greenhouse with mobile screen showed the best production results for the cultivation in beds and the biofertilizer doses were indifferent for all treatments.
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Value for cultivation and use of upland rice cultivars tested in multi- environments ARTICLE

Value for cultivation and use of upland rice cultivars tested in multi- environments ARTICLE

Considering the ranking of eight lines, corresponding to genotypic selection per location, in the 11 years of study, the genotypic effects (g+ge) and the predicted genotypic values for each location (u+g+ge), observed that for the five best lines and cultivars, at least four (BRSMG Caravera, Curinga-3, MG 1089 and MG 1097), coincided in at least 7 of the 11 environments with highest mean grain yields. Lines of specific and broad adaptation were also identifed, e.g., the broadly adapted BRSMG Caravera with good performance at eight sites (Lambari, Lavras, Patos de Minas, Patrocínio, Felixlândia, Viçosa, Piumhi, and São Sebastiao do Paraíso), ranking first or second in the ranking per location (Table 5). The three locations where BRSMG Caravera does not stand out are therefore Paracatu, Uberaba and Uberlândia. The reason is that this cultivar was not tested at these three locations, since it was only included in the testing network as of 2003/04, when those sites were no longer part of the test network. Another genotype of broad performance is Curinga-3, a line derived from BRSMG Curinga and included in the tests as of 2004/ 05 and standing out as the best at seven sites (at the same as BRSMG Caravera, except for Sao Sebastião do Paraíso). The absence of Curinga-3 among the most productive at the other four sites (Paracatu, Uberaba, Uberlândia, and São Sebastião do Paraíso) was probably due to the fact that it was not tested there. This line was discarded in view of the characteristics high gelatinization temperature and low amylose content that cause clogging of the cooked rice.
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Rootstock performance for cherry tomato production under organic, greenhouse production system

Rootstock performance for cherry tomato production under organic, greenhouse production system

Studies have indicated that grafting increases yield and prevents plant diseases. An experiment was installed to evaluate the influence of rootstock on the physicochemical and phytotechnical characteristics of a cherry tomato cultivar (Sweet Grape) under organic, greenhouse production system, from July to December 2014. The experiment consisted of a randomized complete block design, with eight replications. Treatments were composed of four rootstocks (Emperador, Muralha, Enforce, and Enpower) and the ungrafted cultivar Sweet Grape (control). The following variables were analyzed: plant height, yield, firmness, discard, yield/discard ratio, total titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), ratio, pH, number of clusters, and number of leaves. Data were subject to analysis of variance by the F test, at 5% significance level, and means were compared by the Tukey’s test. Plant height was significantly different among treatments. Rootstocks presented no significant differences on yield, number of clusters, and TTA. The rootstocks Emperador, Enforce, and Muralha presented significant difference when compared to the control. For number of leaves, all rootstocks were significant when compared to the control, but not in relation to each other. The rootstocks presented the following yields: Emperador = 66.57 t ha -1 ; Muralha = 59.79 t ha -1 ; Enpower = 58.44 t ha -1 ; Enforce
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Mechanical resistance, biometric and physicochemical characteristics of tomato cultivars for industrial processing

Mechanical resistance, biometric and physicochemical characteristics of tomato cultivars for industrial processing

The curve of compression force (N) versus deformation (mm) presented a linear and positive pattern before skin breaking point (Fm) in all cultivars evaluated in this work, and then irregular, negative and with slight return to positive before pulp breaking point (Lm). The maximum force to break skin (Fm), represented the maximum elastic deformation of epidermal tissue region and Lm maximum force to break mesocarp tissues (pulp). On compression test, the application of growing perpendicular force to the cross-sectional and longitudinal tomato axes (in standing or lying positions, respectively) caused an increase of fruit internal pressure and deformation until the moment of epicarp or skin rupture. The values obtained for maximum force (Fm) for breaking tomato skin, as well as the force required to break the pulp (Lm) were used to calculatethe firmness of fruit skin and pulp under compression in both standing and lying positions (Table 3) and firmness by puncturing skin and pulp on fruit equatorial region in lying position (Table 4).
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Univariate and multivariate procedures for agronomic evaluation of organically grown tomato cultivars

Univariate and multivariate procedures for agronomic evaluation of organically grown tomato cultivars

The result of the analysis based on the canonical variables (VC) shows that two VC explain 83.7% of the total variance, VC1 being responsible for 50.85% and VC2 for 32.85% (Figure 2). Agreement between UPGMA grouping analysis and canonical variables is noticed when the distribution of genotypes in each group is observed. The five cultivars of Group 2 of the UPGMA grouping are placed at the right side of the graph. Number of marketable fruits per plant was the trait with the most relative importance for genetic divergence, with 67.30% according to Singh (1981), followed by marketable yield, non-marketable yield and total yield traits, with 14.47; 12.93 and 5.30%, respectively.
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Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

Overall, nearly all reference genes had a suitable performance and showed very high stability measurements in all experimental conditions tested. To decide the best genes to be used in our forthcoming qPCR gene expression analysis, we proceeded a comprehensive ranking by order- ing the ten candidate genes according to their stability classification given in each program and then classified them by a simple ranking average. This strategy to evaluate individual gene sta- bility taking into account the outputs from the three algorithms proved to be effective, as previ- ously suggested [28]. Therefore, the combined analysis of the ranking order was able to deliver a common single list of stable genes, which will be effectively used in our experimental condi- tions. TIP41 gene was identified as the most stable gene considering the both entire datasets here analyzed. Likewise, TIP41 gene, coding for a TIP41-like family protein, was also recom- mended as internal reference gene in a consensus ranking of reference genes during tomato development [11] and also in Arabidopsis [39] and Brassica napus vegetative tissues [40].
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Selection of tomato breeding lines with resistance to Tomato yellow vein

Selection of tomato breeding lines with resistance to Tomato yellow vein

The study aimed to assess the reaction to Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV) of determinate-growth tomato breeding lines of the Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (Campinas Agronomic Institute) germplasm collection and to select resistant plants. The experiment was carried out from August 2008 to February 2009 in greenhouse conditions. The geminivirus isolate used was collected in a tomato commercial field, in Sumaré, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was completely ramdomized blocks, with 25 treatments, four replications, and 30-plant plots. Virus transmission was carried out in cages containing viruliferous whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci B biotype). Plant reaction to the pathogen was evaluated by means of the percentage of symptomless plants 40, 50, 57 and 64 days after transplanting. Virus detection in each genotype was carried out using PCR. Although all genotypes showed plants with and without ToYVSV symptoms, lines IAC-TG 17 and LA 462 (Solanum peruvianum) stood out due to the highest percentage of symptomless plants in the four evaluation dates. Therefore, considering the genotypes evaluated and the edaphoclimatic conditions in which this work was carried out, lines IAC-TG 17 and LA 462 can be used as sources of resistance to ToYVSV.
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Organic cabbage growth using green manure in pre-cultivation and organic top dressing fertilization

Organic cabbage growth using green manure in pre-cultivation and organic top dressing fertilization

productivities of maize shoots. In the lowest population density, productivity was similar to the value found, in similar weather conditions, by Corrêa et al. (2014) with the same cultivar. The lowest productivity reached in the highest population density allowed to verify a possible occurrence of intraspecific competition (Table 2), which did not influence in baby corn productivity, since the ears were early-harvested. For Andrade et al. (1999), this crop show low plasticity of growth when compared to other species of Poaceae family, due to its limited capacity of leaf expansion and prolificity. This botanical family produces a mass with high quality and volume (Andreola et al., 2000) and usually presents a decomposition rate inversely proportional to its C/N ratio (Doneda, 2010), favoring the establishment of mulching.
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Microalgae Cultivation In Sugarcane Vinasse: Selection, Growth And Biochemical Characterization

Microalgae Cultivation In Sugarcane Vinasse: Selection, Growth And Biochemical Characterization

After cultivation in crude vinasse, the concentrations of glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, lactic acid and acetic acid present in Micractinium sp. Embrapa|LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 cultures supernatants were evaluated ( Fig. 2 ). When cultivation was performed in the absence of light, no statistically significant change in the concentration of the organic compounds evaluated could be observed ( Fig. 2 A). This finding is congruent with impaired algal growth under this condition ( Fig. 1 ). When light/- dark cycling is applied to axenic cultures, the culture supernatants of both strains presented a significant reduction in glycerol, but not in Total Reducing Sugars (TRS: glucose + fructose + sucrose), lactic acid or acetic acid concentrations ( Fig. 2 B). On the other hand, when the microalgae strains were cultured under non-axenic con- ditions, reductions on TRS, lactic acid and glycerol concentrations were detected ( Fig. 2 C). Furthermore, a reduction in acetic acid concentration was also observed in C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 cultures supernatants ( Fig. 2 C). The uptake of organic compounds observed in non-axenic cultures ( Fig. 2 C) is probably associated with the presence of heterotrophic contaminants, such as airborne bacteria and yeasts. Taken together, the results shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 indicate that cultivation of both Micractinium sp. Embrapa| LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 leads to a decrease in glyc- erol levels in a light-dependent manner during growth in crude vinasse. This is indicative that strains Micractinium sp. Embrapa| LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40 perform photo- heterotrophic metabolism. The main difference between mixotro- phy and photo-heterotrophy is that photo-heterotrophic cultiva- tion requires both organic carbon and light at the same time, while mixotrophy uses either one alternatively ( Wang et al., 2014 ). Accordingly, studies have reported that some microalgae strains can metabolize glycerol as a primary carbon source ( Ceron Garcia et al., 2006; Ethier et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, strains from the genera Micractinium and Chlamydomonas are able to grow in wastewater by metabolizing both organic and inorganic carbon sources ( Bouarab et al., 2004; Wang and Park, 2015 ).
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Economic analysis of the intercropping of lettuce and tomato in different seasons under protected cultivation

Economic analysis of the intercropping of lettuce and tomato in different seasons under protected cultivation

Vegetables have variations in commercial characteristics, prices, and production costs throughout the year (Rao et al., 2005a,b). The analysis of the seasonal variation of tomato prices in the wholesale market of São Paulo (CEAGESP) in the period 1995-99 showed that the prices paid for the 24 kg tomato container were higher from February to April and lower from April to June (Camargo Filho & Mazzei, 2000). In the same years, Camargo Filho & Mazzei (2001) found that the prices for the three lettuce groups, namely crisp, butter, and head lettuce, were higher in January and February and lower from June to September, due to the usually larger supply in the latter period. Because of the seasonality of prices, highest yields not always result in higher proitability, either in single or intercropping. For the second, this is especially true when yield reduces signiicantly in one of the intercropped species. Rao et al. (2005c) found that in the intercropping of lettuce and tomato, although the indexes for area use efficiency showed a large superiority (up to 79%) of intercropping over monoculture, the figures were not that comfortable when it comes to proitability. The authors attributed the lack of proportionality between the two parameters to the low values paid for lettuce, which contributed with merely 7% to the intercropping gross revenue. On the other hand, if the intercropping did not show high profitability in relation to the tomato single cropping, it exceeded by far the monoculture of lettuce, which was not economically viable (negative operating proit).
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Response of root explants to in vitro cultivation of marketable garlic cultivars

Response of root explants to in vitro cultivation of marketable garlic cultivars

Cultivares de alho são sexualmente estéreis sob condições padrão de cultivo, com implicações diretas nos custos de produção comercial, bem como em programas de melhoramento. O alho é comercialmente propagado por meio de bulbilhos, o que facilita a transmissão de doenças e leva ao acúmulo de cargas virais ao longo das gerações. A cultura de tecidos produz clones livres de vírus que são mais produtivos, mantendo as características desejadas da cultivar. Consequentemente, esta técnica permite estudar a genética do alho, bem como garantir a conservação genética das variedades. Nosso objetivo foi analisar a regeneração in vitro de oito cultivares comerciais de alho usando segmentos de raiz como explante. Para cada genótipo, explantes derivados de bulbilho foram isolados e introduzidos em meio MS suplementado com 2,4-D e 2-iP. Calos foram transferidos para meio MS suplementado com 8,8 mM BAP e 0,1 mM NAA (meio de regeneração A), ou com 4,6 mM cinetina somente (meio de regeneração B). Os calos foram avaliados quanto à frequência de regeneração após sessenta dias de cultivo in vitro. A cultivar nobre ‘Jonas’ apresentou as maiores taxas de regeneração entre as cultivares testadas. O meio de cultura A, o qual continha auxina e citocinina, induziu as maiores taxas de regeneração em todas as cultivares. O processo aqui descrito é simples, reprodutível e pode ser usado potencialmente como uma ferramenta em estratégias de melhoramento para outras cultivares comerciais e genótipos de alho.
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PERFORMANCE OF BLACKBERRY CULTIVARS IN CERRO AZUL - PR

PERFORMANCE OF BLACKBERRY CULTIVARS IN CERRO AZUL - PR

accumulated rainfall data over the months in Cerro azul-PR show that there was great variation among months and years on the site, with total rainfall ranging from 0 to 270.2 mm (Figure 1). For having a shallow root system, blackberry trees need regular water availability, which was not met in the region of Cerro azul-PR. Moreover, in the 2012/2013 cycle, there was a rainfall concentration in the month of December, which may have contributed to the reduction in fruit quality, as plants were in the harvest phase. too much rain concentrated at the end of the year can damage fruits and crops (CuRI et al., 2015).
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Selection of corn cultivars for yield, stability, and adaptability in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

Selection of corn cultivars for yield, stability, and adaptability in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

Several methods for adaptability and stability analyses have been proposed (Cruz et al., 2014). Therefore, measures that incorporate, in a single statistics, adaptability and stability and average grain yield have been used, as in the works of Lin & Binns (1988) and Annicchiarico (1992). These procedures, however, presuppose the fixed effects of genotypes, which is limiting for the analysis of unbalanced experiments (Resende, 2007). In contrast, in mixed models, for which the effects of genetic treatments are considered as random, these effects can be predicted without being affected by the effects of the fixed model, using the best linear unbiased predictor (Henderson, 1975).
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Performance of juice and wine grape cultivars in different training systems

Performance of juice and wine grape cultivars in different training systems

the CD training system, no statistical difference was observed between Isabel Precoce and Isabel cultivars, which presented the highest soluble solids content, respectively 17.7 and 17.6 °Brix, while for BRS Violeta and Concord cultivars, which did not show averages differing statistically, values were 16.5 and 16.7 °Brix. For training systems with higher number of bunches, Borges et al. (2014) observed soluble solids content of 12.4 °Brix for Concord cultivar in pergola; Ribeiro et al. (2012) of 21.0 °Brix for Isabel Precoce cultivar in trellis system and Sato et al., (2009) 16.7 °Brix for Isabel cultivar in the Geneva Double Curtain system. Values obtained by Ribeiro et al. (2012) were higher because vines were cultivated in Petrolina-PE, where water and thermal conditions, favor the accumulation of sugars in grapes. However, the differences found by the various authors are probably due to the climatic differences among production sites and harvest year, because when grape maturation and harvest coincides with a less rainy period, the process is favored, allowing greater accumulation of sugars in grapes (SANTOS et al., 2011; REGINA et al., 2011).
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