Brasseur et al., (1987) made a significant contribution on the **peristaltic** **transport** **of** two immiscible fluids **in** a **channel** **with** flexible walls and have proved the invalidity **of** the analysis mentioned above **in** the limit **of** infinite peripheral layer viscosity. This problem is solved for axisymmetric case by Ramachandra Rao and Usha et al., (1995). Usha and Ramachandra Rao (1997) discussed the **peristaltic** pumping **of** two layered power-law fluids **in** an axisymmetric tube. The interface between the two layers is determined from a transcendental equation **in** the core radius. Comparani and Mannucci (1998) analysed the flow **of** a **Bingham** **fluid** **in** **contact** **with** a **Newtonian** **fluid** **in** a **channel**. Existence and uniqueness theorems are proved for the solution **of** the problem. Vajravelu et al., (2005 a,b) studied **Peristaltic** **Transport** **of** a Herschel-Bulkley **fluid** **in** a **channel** and an inclined tube. Radhakrishnamacharya et al., (2007) studied Influence **of** wall properties on **peristaltic** **transport** **with** heat transfer. Srinivas et al., (2009) studied the influence **of** slip conditions, wall properties and heat transfer on MHD **peristaltic** **transport**. Hayat et al., (2010) analyzed the Series solution for MHD **channel** flow **of** Jeffrey **fluid**. The slip and induced magnetic field effects on the **Peristaltic** **transport** **with** heat and mass transfer is analysed by Hayat et al.,(2012).

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The theory **of** couple stress fluids proposed by Stokes (1966) shows all the important features and effects **of** couple stresses **in** **fluid** medium. The basic equations are similar to Navier Stokes equations. The importance **of** couple stress effects **in** flow between parallel porous plates have been analyzed by several researchers. Kabadi (1987) has studied the flow **of** couple stress **fluid** between two parallel horizontal stationary plates **with** **fluid** injection through the lower porous plate. Ariel (2002) has provided an exact solution for flow **of** second grade **fluid** through two parallel porous flat walls. Kamisili (2006) has analyzed the laminar flow **of** a non-**Newtonian** **fluid** **in** channels **with** the upper plate stationary, while the lower plate is uniformly porous and moving **in** x-direction **with** constant velocity. Srinivacharya et al. (2009) have analyzed the flow and heat transfer **of** couple stress **fluid** **in** a porous **channel** **with** expanding and contracting walls. Srinivacharya et al. (2010) have investigated the flow **of** couple stress **fluid** between two porous plates for suction at both plates **with** different permeabilities.

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What is clear from this review is the lack **of** proper validation and assessment **of** numerical accu- racy **in** works on steady and pulsatile flows **of** **Newtonian** as well as non-**Newtonian** fluids through T-junctions, and that constitutes the objective **of** the present investigation. **In** this first contribution, the emphasis is on quantitative results for the **Newtonian** two-dimensional case, **of** benchmark quality, before embarking upon more complicated three-dimensional and non-**Newtonian** calcula- tions. Nevertheless, some GNF simulations are also presented, enough to show how misleading the assumption **of** constant viscosity can be. **In** a second paper we shall deal **with** the GNF case **in** more depth. The remaining part **of** this paper is organized as follows: the governing equations and the numerical methods used are presented **in** Section 2. The results and discussion section is organized **in** four parts: the first part starts **with** the presentation **of** the flow geometry, computational domain and meshes used, then it discusses issues **of** mesh convergence and space discretization and finally it presents accurate predictions **of** steady T-junction laminar flow **of** **Newtonian** fluids as a function **of** the flow rate ratio and Reynolds number. The second part assesses the time accuracy **of** unsteady flow calculations by comparing predictions **of** unsteady laminar **channel** flow **of** **Newtonian** fluids **with** the corresponding analytical solution. Results are presented **in** part three for the unsteady flow **in** a diverging laminar 90 ◦ T-junction **with** a **Newtonian** **fluid** and finally, **in** part 4, for a Generalized **Newtonian** **fluid**. **In** all cases, the fluids selected have properties that closely follow those **of** blood. The paper ends **with** a summary **of** the main conclusions.

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One **of** the main issues related to this observational re- sults, is the nature **of** this negative pressure **fluid**. The position **of** the first acoustic peak **in** the spectrum **of** the anisotropy **of** cosmic microwave background radiation is re- lated to the total density **of** the Universe. **In** spite **of** the fact that there is not until now doubtless observational results indicating where precisely this first acoustic peak is located, the recent data coming from BOOMERANG and MAXIMA projects indicate that the density **of** the Universe is near the critical density [6, 7]. Hence, it can be assumed that the Uni- verse is spatially or nearly spatially flat. On the other hand, the clustered mass is responsable for 0.3 ∼ 0.4 **of** the crit- ical density. Consequently, from this data it is possible to conclude that 0.7 ∼ 0.6 **of** the total matter **of** the Universe is a smooth component which is generally called dark energy.

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The premise **of** the corporate social responsibility movement is that ‗corporations, because they are the dominant institution **of** the planet, must squarely face and address the social and environmental problems that afflict humankind. However, companies have a choice **with** regard to the causes they support and how they convey this information. These choices may, or may not, reflect a sincere interest **in** the cause (**in** addition to image-promotional motives). Previous research suggests that consumers assess sincerity **in** the context **of** consumer–salesperson interaction (DeCarlo, 2005). Campbell and Kirmani (2000) found that when ulterior motives were accessible, consumers inferred an underlying persuasion attempt and the target salesperson were perceived as less sincere. As noted earlier, **in** the context **of** CSR, the type **of** cause that the company supports may increase the salience **of** firm-serving benefits (Forehand & Grier, 2003). Causes that are related **with** the company‘s business should increase the salience **of** firm-serving benefits. Today, corporations know that CSR is inextricably linked to how customers make purchase decision **of** the organizations products and service (Ahearne, Bhattacharya and Gruen, 2010). **In** Ghana, specifically **with** the telecommunication industry, the business environment is typically competitive, characterized by a legal environment aimed at ethical behaviors on the part **of** businesses, and societal expectations that businesses should be more ethical and socially responsible. Thus, **in** decision making processes, companies try to avoid actions that may breach any regulation or negatively impact their reputation **in** order to avoid consumer dissatisfaction. **In** Ghana there is an organization that monitors the activities **of** the telecommunication companies **in** the country, which is the National Communication Authority (NCA). The telecommunication companies **in** Ghana are MTN Ghana, Tigo Ghana, Airtel, GLO, Vodafone Ghana Ltd, Airport-Accra, and Expresso Ghana. Previous studies on consumers‘ attitudes on CSR and CSR‘s impact on consumer behavior and consumption decisions are quite general (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore & Hill, 2006; Öberseder, Schlegelmilch & Gruber, ______________________

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Kuru et al. (1995) presented a theoretical and experimental study **of** the initial instabilities on a granular bed on a horizontal pipe flow, which is a case without free-surface effects. Their experimental test section was a 31.1 mm diameter pipe, 7 m long, and they employed a mixture **of** water and glycerin as the **fluid** media and glass beads as the granular media. More details can be found **in** Kuru et al. (1995). **In** each experimental test, an initially plane granular bed was submitted to a specific flow **of** liquid and, when the ripples were visible, the tests were stopped. The wavelength **of** these ripples was then measured and associated to the initial instabilities. However, they reported that the amplitudes **of** the ripples were 2-3 mm (10 to 20 times the grain diameters), so that they correspond **in** fact to the early stages **of** the nonlinear phase. The fact that they didn’t notice any length-scale variation from the time when the ripples were first visualized to the complete stop **of** the experiment (this time interval is not negligible compared to the time-scale for ripples formation, **of** only a few seconds) means that these forms saturate after their initial growth, agreeing **with** the nonlinear analysis developed **in** this paper.

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Understanding and modeling the flows **of** non- **Newtonian** fluids are **of** both fundamental and practical significance **in** the industrial and engineering applications. **With** the growing importance **of** non- **Newtonian** fluids **in** modern technology and industries, the investigations on such fluids are desirable. The theory **of** polar fluids and related theories are models for fluids whose microstructure is mechanically significant. The micro-continuum theory **of** couple stress **fluid** proposed by Stokes (1966), defines the rotational field **in** terms **of** the velocity field for setting up the constitutive relationship between the stress and strain rate. Also, the study **of** a couple stress fluids is very useful **in** understanding various physical problems because it possesses the mechanism to describe rheological complex fluids such as liquid crystals and human blood. The rheological characteristics **of** such fluids are important **in** the flows **of** nuclear fuel slurries, lubrication **with** heavy oils and greases, paper coating, plasma and mercury, fossil fuels, polymers etc. **In** view **of** applications, Sunil and Devi (2012) described the global stability for thermal convection **in** a couple stress **fluid** saturating **in** a porous medium **with** temperature-pressure dependent viscosity using Galerkin method. Srinivasacharya and Kaladhar (2011, 2012) discussed the convection flow **of** couple stress **fluid** **with** Hall and Ion-slip effects **in** different geometries. Recently, Muthuraj et al. (2013) have studied the heat and mass transfer effects on MHD flow **of** a couple-stress **fluid** **in** a horizontal wavy **channel** **with** viscous dissipation and porous medium. Most recently Hayat et al. (2013) analyzed the stagnation point flow **of** couple stress **fluid** **with** melting heat transfer and the analytical study **of** Hall and Ion-slip effects on mixed convection flow **of** couple stress **fluid** between parallel disks have been presented by Srinivasacharya and Kaladhar (2013).

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Solidification **with** natural convection for a non- **Newtonian** Al-Si 1.7% alloy **of** the Otswald de Waele type **in** the annular space between two horizontal concentric cylinders exhibits highest velocities at the beginning **in** materials **with** pseudo plastic behavior (n=0.5). The solidification process is faster when n= 0.5 than when it is **Newtonian** (n=1) or when a dilatant **fluid** model is used (n=1.5). Multicellular flow is enhanced as the Rayleigh number increased. Prediction **with** the finite volume method can be made using non-uniform grids **with** 100 x 60 nodes and dynamic time paths **in** the range 1x10 -5 s ≤ ∆t ≤ 0.005s. CPU times increased ten times for the pseudo plastic **fluid** or for the highest Ra.

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boundary layer flow along a heated vertical flat plate embedded **in** a **fluid**-saturated porous medium, which was investigated by Cheng and Minkowycz (1977). They obtained similarity solutions for the case when wall temperature varies as a power function **of** the distance from the leading edge. Nakayama and Koyama (1987) analyzed combined free and forced convection flow **in** Darcian and non- Darcian porous medium. Lai and Kulacki (1991) studied non-Darcy mixed convection flow along a vertical wall **in** a **fluid** saturated porous medium. Hsieh et al. (1993) obtained non-similar solution for free and forced convection flow from a vertical surface **in** a porous medium. Rees (1999) analyzed free convection boundary layer flow from an isothermal vertical flat plate embedded **in** a **fluid** saturated layered porous medium. Jana et al. (2012) studied natural convection boundary layer flow from an inclined flat plate **with** finite dimensions embedded **in** a porous medium **in** a rotating environment. Khan and Pop (2013) investigated the Cheng and Minkowycz problem for triple diffusive natural convection boundary layer flow past a vertical plate **in** a porous medium. Reddy et al. (2013) studied unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow past a moving vertical plate **in** a porous medium **in** the presence **of** radiation and chemical reaction. Comprehensive reviews **of** convective flow **in** porous media are candidly presented **in** the form **of** books and monographs by Ingham and Pop (2002), Ingham et al. (2004), Vafai (2005) and Nield and Bejan (2006).

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However, not much attention has been paid to the effects **of** Hall currents. When the magnetic field is strong and the density **of** electrons is small, the Hall effect cannot be ignored as it has a significant effect on the flow pattern **of** an ionized gas. However, for ionized gases, the conventional MHD is not valid. **In** an ionized **conducting** **fluid** where the density is low and/or magnetic field is very strong, the conductivity normal to the magnetic field is reduced due to the free spiraling **of** electrons and a current is induced **in** a direction normal to both electric and magnetic fields. This phenomenon is called Hall effect. The effect **of** Hall current cannot be neglected when the medium is rarefied or **in** a strong magnetic field. The study **of** MHD flows **with** Hall current has important industrial applications **in** many geophysical and astrophysical situations and **in** several engineering problems such as Hall accelerators, Hall effect sensors, constrictions **of** turbines, centrifugal machines, and flight magneto-hydrodynamics. **In** view **of** these applications, it is essential to analyze the influence **of** Hall current on the **fluid** flow. Gupta [16] considered a strong magnetic field which permeated the **fluid** and investigated the effect **of** Hall current on the **fluid** past an infinite porous flat plate and Jana et al. [17] continued the work **of** Ref. [16] for different physical situations. Hossain and Rashid [18] extended the work **of** Gupta [16] to unsteady free convection flow. Further, Rana et al. [19] analyzed the effect **of** Hall current on Hartmann flow between two parallel electrically insulated infinite planes. Chaudhary and Jha [20] studied the effect **of** heat and mass transfer on the flow **of** elastico-viscous **fluid** past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate **with** mass transfer and Hall effect taken into account. Recently, Hayat et al

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`The aim **of** this analysis is to investigate the existence **of** the dual solutions for magnetohy- drodynamic (MHD) flow **of** an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) **fluid** over a porous shrinking wall. We have employed the Lie group analysis for the simplification **of** the nonlinear differ- ential system and computed the absolute invariants explicitly. An efficient numerical tech- nique namely the shooting method has been employed for the constructions **of** solutions. Dual solutions are computed for velocity profile **of** an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) **fluid** flow. Plots reflecting the impact **of** dual solutions for the variations **of** Deborah number, Hart- man number, wall mass transfer are presented and analyzed. Streamlines are also plotted for the wall mass transfer effects when suction and blowing situations are considered.

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Sposito and Ciafalo (2006) studied fully developed flow **of** an electrically **conducting** **fluid** between parallel walls under the simultaneous influence **of** a driving pressure head, buoyancy and MHD forces, where the **fluid** was assumed to be internally heated and the flow was modeled as one-dimensional and incompressible. Al-Khawaja et al. (1994) solved numerically the problem **of** fully developed, laminar, steady, forced convection heat transfer **in** an electrically **conducting** **fluid** flowing **in** an electrically insulated, horizontal circular pipe **in** a vertical uniform transverse magnetic. Al-Khawaja et al. (1999) also studied the same problem for free- and-forced convection flow numerically using finite difference schemes for Grashof numbers 0 to 106 and Hartmaan numbers 0 to 500. Umavathi and Malashetty (2005) solved the problem **of** combined free and forced convective MHD flow **in** a vertical **channel** by taking into account the effect **of** viscous and ohmic dissipations, analytically by perturbation series method and numerically by finite difference technique. Umavathi and Chamkha (2011) analyzed the effect **of** heat and mass transfer on mixed convective flow **of** a viscous incompressible **fluid** past a vertical infinite plate **in** the presence **of** heat source or sink. Garandet and Alboussiere (1992) proposed analytical solutions to the equations **of** MHD that was used to model the effect **of** a transverse magnetic field on buoyancy driven convection **in** a two-dimensional cavity, **in** the case **of** high Hartmaan number limit. Blosseville et al. (2007) investigated analytically a fully developed buoyant flow **in** a straight, horizontal rectangular duct **with** an axial temperature gradient **in** an arbitrary oriented, transverse magnetic field **with** insulated walls. Aruna et al. (2011) studied the developed MHD mixed convection flow **in** a vertical **channel**, where the problem was described by means **of** partial differential equations and the solutions were obtained by an implicit finite difference technique coupled **with** a marching

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— Penicillin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid after benzathine penicillin and probenecid in the treatment of syphilis.. — Penicillin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid after[r]

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2006). They compared the bearing operating under micropolar lubricant **with** similar bearing operating under **Newtonian** lubricant. Later on, **in** 2011, they investigated finite journal bearing lubricated under micropolar fluids (Wang et al., 2011). Krasowski (Krasowski, 2008) presented hydrodynamic pressure distribution and force capacity **of** slide journal bearing under micropolar lubricant. **In** his study hydrodynamic pressure has been presented **in** dimensionless form which depends on micropolar parameters **of** lubricant. Recently, Lin and co-workers (Lin et al., 2012) reported the effects **of** micropolar lubricant on stiffness and damping coefficients **of** parabolic-film slider bearings using closed-form solution. Later on, other studies (Ram and Sharma, 2012; Sharma and Ram, 2011; Ram and Sharma, 2015; Ram et al., 2015) presented the effect **of** micropolar lubricants on orifice compensated hole-entry and symmetric/asymmetric slot- entry journal bearings. They found that the proper selection **of** orifice restrictor design parameter and micropolar parameters **of** lubricant enhance the minimum **fluid** film thickness and stiffness **of** the bearing. Further, it was found that the **fluid** film stiffness and threshold speed increase for constant slot-entry restrictor parameter when bearing is lubricated **with** micropolar **fluid**. Ram (Ram, 2016) found that when the bearing operates under higher value **of** Reynolds number (20000), the **fluid** thickness and stiffness coefficients at constant restrictor design parameters is superior as compared to the bearing operates under laminar regime.

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Abstract: Analysis **of** vertical (greenery) landscape, an alternative to our historical horizontal landscape which lost its control due to urbanization and deforestation. Urban cites are increasingly expanding upwards and spreading horizontal which is now a direct negative impact on landscape and health. As Population increase there is demand **of** land for shelter and health also. This paper seeks to analysis if vertical landscape helps to link this gap which is increasingly expanding – (shortages **of** clean air, natural environment, exposed to direct light etc.).The paper sorely use three case studies which are **in** three different climates so as to give wider decision when applying vertical landscaping. The selection **of** case studies is based on their role as pioneers **of** vertical landscape and the benefit which is now at stake. This is achieved through research and literature reviews on those case studies. This paper seeks to provide better alternative when design building **with** vertical landscape, and tries to lay out some **of** the critical principles to consider when design a green façade (vertical landscape). Finally the writer define the benefit **of** using vertical landscape to natural environment, manmade environment and users as well.

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Here p (x, t) is the pressure field, and is the source **of** non-locality **of** the problem. Indeed, the continuity equa- tion for incompressible flows reads as a solenoidality prop- erty, ∇ ⋅ u = 0, and pressure is required to satisfy a Pois- son equation. Therefore, even if (2) is **in** principle evalu- ated locally at one single point, actually it contains a term which represents a contribution coming from a spatial inte- gral on the whole domain, as the propagation velocity **of** any disturbance is infinite. Despite this difficulty, incompress- ibity is a scheme widely used for the simplifications it brings about, and is usually abandoned only when compressibility effects cannot be neglected, most notably because the veloc- ities into play are not negligible **with** respect to the sound speed [13]. **In** this latter case, the mass density varies. Also thermal effects can come into play and modify the param- eters, **in** which case also the evolution **of** the temperature field must be taken into account, along **with** a suitable equa- tion **of** state. Even more problematically, also viscosity can be different from a constant, and then the **fluid** under con- sideration is dubbed as non-**Newtonian** and described by a different equation.

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Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic granulomatous disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermal di- morphic fungus. PCM is widespread **in** Latin America, mainly **in** Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela, affecting mainly rural workers. According to McEwen et al. (22), ap- proximately 10 million people may be infected **with** this fungus, and up to 2% **of** them may develop the disseminated forms **of** the disease. The incidence may increase due to forest destruc- tion and a rise **in** iatrogenic immunosuppression procedures (39). The acute or subacute form **of** PCM affects both sexes and chiefly involves the reticuloendothelial system. The chronic form affects adult males **with** predominantly pulmo- nary and/or mucocutaneous involvement (12). A definitive di- agnosis is usually made by visualization or isolation **of** the fungus from the lesions, which is time-consuming and lacks sensitivity. Detection **of** specific antibodies **in** serum has also been one **of** the main tools for the diagnosis **of** PCM and may be useful to monitor the evolution **of** the disease and its re- sponse to treatment (24). The most common serological tests used for diagnosis are immunodiffusion (4, 31), immunoenzy- matic assays (3, 5, 25), and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (7). Unfortunately, there is extensive antigenic cross-reactivity be-

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