Several factors are responsible for the success of culture techniques in-vitro. Plant growth regulators, mainly the ones belonging to the auxin and cytokinin groups (Caldas et al., 1998), are essential to develop some species based on tissue culture. Among the aforementioned growth regulators, auxins are associated with cell growth and stretching, as well as with callus formation (Nogueira et al., 2007). Cytokinins promote cytokinesis, induce organ formation and mobilize nutrients (Oliveira et al., 2007). Chaves et al. (2005) conducted a study with plant species P. peruviana L, which belongs to the same genus investigated in the present research. The best shoot emission was recorded after 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) addition to the culture medium.
and in Brazil is popularly known as camapú, balãozinho, juá- de-capote, bucho-de-rã, camambu, mata-fome, bate-testa and balão-rajado (Muniz et al. 2011) . Even being a species with wide ecological adaptation, information about their cultivation still is scarce (Muniz et al. 2011, Guimarães et al. 2010, Lima et al. 2006, Briguenti & Madeira 2007). This characteristic is contrasting, mainly because P. angulata is a species widely used in popular medicine as anti-coagulant, anti-leukemic, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, analgesic and treatment of diabetes, among others (Lin et al. 1992, Chiang et al. 1992) thus, was expected that more information about their cultivation were available.
The digestion was performed using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, according to the methodology described by Helal et al. (2014). In the gastric phase, pepsin solubilized in 0.1 M HCl was used and in the intestinal phase, bile salts and pancreatin solubilized in 0.1 M NaHCO 3 . The extracts (2 g), separately, were added to 100 mL of 0.01 M HCl and adjusted with a 0.1 M HCl solution to pH 2. Then, 3.2 mL of pepsin were added, followed by incubation in a water bath at 37 °C for 2 hours under agitation, simulating gastric digestion. The intestinal simulation was performed after titration with 0.5 M NaOH up to pH 7.5 (intestinal pH) and the samples were added to the dialysis membranes (33 × 21 mm, molecular weight: 12,000-16,000, porosity: 25 angstroms - INLAB , Brazil) containing 0.1 M NaHCO 3 aliquots equivalent to titratable acidity. After incubation in a water bath at 37 °C for 30 minutes, 5.0 mL of a bile and pancreatin solution were added and incubated again under the same conditions. After this stage, the membrane content (dialysate) was collected and the quantification analyses of TPCs and the antioxidant potential after simulated gastrointestinal digestion were carried out through the assays using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the DPPH and ABTS free radicals, respectively.
The acidity in fruits is attributed to the presence of organic acids, more often citric and malic acids. According to Chitarra & Chitarra (2005), organic acids are dissolved in the vacuoles of the cells, both in free and combined forms, forming salts, esters and glycosides, and can be synthesized from sugars, oxidations, decarboxylation and carboxylation of other organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid pathway. During maturation, a decrease in the content of organic acids occurs in most fruits, since they are being widely used as substrates in the respiratory process. Thus, it was expected that the yellowest fruits (Table 1), characteristic color of maturation in P. angulata, presented lower titratable acidity. This was observed in the cultivation with 50:50 of NO 3 - : NH
the Farmacopéia Brasileira (1988) and USP XXIII Pharma- copoeia (1995) procedures using disks impregnated with the following amounts applied in methanol of the physalin pool: 1600 µg, 800 µg, 400 µg, 200 µg, 100 µg, and 50 µg. Based on the linearity range determination and values of MIC obtained from the physalins pool, the physalin B concentrations assayed were 400 µg, 200 µg, and 100 µg. The plates were incubated at 35°C for 18 h in an ambient air incubator. The zone diameters were measured with the Fisher Lilly apparatus. The tests were performed nine times.
auxina (ANA) como com citocinina (BAP) isoladamente (LIMA et al., 2002). No presente ensaio, com a adição de citocinina, ocorreu redução na formação de raízes, sendo nula nas concentrações mais elevadas de BAP. A rizogênese observada nos segmentos A e C reforça a possibilidade de utilização desses explantes para o estabelecimento e propagação invitro dessa cultura. A resposta negativa do segmento B à citocinina e auxina, indica que este explante deve ser descartado como fonte para regeneração invitro. A resposta das brotações ao enraizamento utilizando 0,5mg L -1 de IBA
ABSTRACT: “Comparative pharmacobotanical study on Nicandra physalodes and Physalisangulata (Solanaceae)”. In this work a morphoanatomical comparative characterization was carried out between the leaves of Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. and PhysalisangulataL. (Solanaceae) species used in folk medicine, whose leaves are indicated as diuretic and febrifuge. The botanical identiﬁ cation and macroscopical morphodiagnosis were made after morphological studies. The microscopical morphodiagnosis were carried out by paradermic and transversal cuts of the leaves (blade and petiole), clariﬁ ed and coloured with safranin and astrablue. Moreover the morphological characters of the ﬂ ower and fruit, of the two species can be distinguished by the following characters: N. physalodes has the bundle vascular of the middle vein in arc format; P. angulata has the vascular bundle of the middle vein in a semi-circle format; druses in the mesophyll of P. angulata; and the presence of trichomes glandular-estipitate with bisseriate head in N. physalodes. The morphology of ﬂ ower and fruit and the anatomy of mesophyll, the vascular bundles of middle vein are the principal distinctive characters between them.
Hartmann et al. (2002) consideram a propagação vegetativa e invitro como sendo de fundamental importância para a conservação de espécies cujas propriedades medicinais são forte alvo de pesquisa, como a PhysalisangulataL. A cultura de tecidos é o cultivo asséptico invitro de células, tecidos, órgãos ou plantas inteiras sob controle nutricional e condições ambientais, que envolvem pH, temperatura, trocas gasosas entre outros fatores.
interactions on post-harvest quality and physical-chemical composition of in natura fruits. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with six fertilization treatments with organic and chemical sources. The treatments were as follows: T1- control 0% of fertilization; T2 - 100% NPK; T3 - tanned chicken manure; T4 - tanned chicken manure + NPK; T5 - bovine manure; T6 - bovine manure + NPK, for the physical analysis of the fruits in natura the following parameters were considered from the sampling of 30 fruits by treatment: Average mass (g), biometrics (mm) (transversal and longitudinal diameter) and density, the fruits were characterized as moisture content, proteins, lipids, pH, soluble solids content, ashes and carbohydrates, according to the methods of, the energy value (based on the values of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates provide 9.4 and 4 kcal g -1), and the determination of water activity. The color was determined by calculating the hue angle (h°). The minerals: iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, sodium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were submitted to analysis of the variance and the means were compared by the Tukey test (P≤0.05) in the computer program System for Analysis of Variance - SISVAR 5.6. The fertilizers that showed the best responses to the physic-chemical characteristics of the camapu fruits were the organic sources of tanned bovine manure and tanned chicken manure and the organic and chemical interactions (tanned chicken manure + NPK).
(Germination of osmoprimed and non-osmoprimed seeds and initial growth of Physalisangulata (Solanaceae) in saline environments). Th e genus Physalis belongs to the Solanaceae family, with 110 species, of which 11 occur in Brazil. PhysalisangulataL. stands out in the genus due to the presence of vitasteroids, especially physalins, found in roots, stems and leaves, showing antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. Th is study aimed to evaluate the germination of osmotic priming treatment and non-primed seeds and the initial growth of P. angulatain saline environments. Th e seeds were subjected to priming (PEG 6000) and incubated in solutions with increasing concentration of NaCl (2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14 and 16 dS m -1 ). Distilled water was used as control (0 dS m -1 ). Th e parameters
Данас већина култивара сезонског цвећа и перена, укључујући и таксоне ро- да Dianthus у комерцијалној производњи се размножава генеративно, сетвом F1 хи- брида (A nde r son , 2005). Сорте каранфила које се првенствено размножавају семе- ном припадају врстама: D. barbatus, D. chinensis, D. carthusianorum L., D. arenarius L., D. deltoides L. и D. knappii (Pant.) Asch. & Kanitz ex Borbás. Добијању F1 хибри- да претходи формирање чистих линија и успостављање хомозиготног стања, које гарантује потомство униформних особина често супериорнијих од родитељских (хетерозис). Овај поступак често је дуготрајан и мукотрпан због честих репродук- тивних баријера којима се спречава самоопрашивање (A nde r son , 2005). То се мо- же превазићи применом културе ткива (Su slow et al., 2002), при чему се узгајају хаплоидна ткива и ћелије, код којих се одговарајућим третманима постиже уд- вајање хромозома и на тај начин се добијају хомозиготне, диплоидне биљке за знат- но краће време него што би то било могуће класичним путем.
purposes we used as explant source seedlings obtained by aseptic seed germination presenting a very high efficiency. The species proved to prefer solid culture media rich in nutrients and supplemented with significant amounts of growth factors. To propagate the species, 7 variants of modified MS basal medium were tested. According to the results obtained, the optimum protocol for species micropropagation includes seed germination on MS mediun supplemented with 5 mg/l GA3, shoot multiplication on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 5 mg/l BAP as it was used on other species as well . For the rooting process we recommend subcultivation on MS modified with the addition of 1.8 mg/l IBA and 0.022 mg/l kinetin as other scientists recommended in literature . The acclimatization should use the optimum combination of perlite and forest soil in the rapport of 1:1.
Resumo – O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o balanço hormonal em fases da organogênese invitro de ápices meristemáticos de sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis). Para as fases de estabelecimento e multiplicação, foi utilizado o meio de cultivo Murashige & Skoog (MS) com diferentes concentrações de benzilaminopurina (BAP) e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA). Para o enraizamento, o meio MS modificado foi suplementado com diferentes concentrações de ANA e ácido indolbutírico. A diferenciação dos ápices meristemáticos foi possível com a adição de 0,1 mg L -1 de BAP e 0,05 mg L -1 de ANA. O melhor desempenho do enraizamento de plântulas é obtido com a adição de 0,5 mg L -1 de ácido naftalenoacético e 2,0 mg L -1 de ácido indolbutírico. Termos para indexação: Plukenetia volubilis, ápices meristemáticos, plântulas, propagação vegetativa.
however, it observed that the origin of the shoots influenced the formation of roots, regardless of the presence or absence of IBA. The largest numbers of rooted shoots occurred in those originated from cotyledon segments, not differing significantly (p≤0.05) among shoots derived from apical segments, and there was no need for an exogenous source of auxin for the induction of adventitious roots. However, the aerial shoots from apical segments treated with IBA had a better response to rooting, nearly doubling the number of rooted shoots. The obtainment of micropropagated plants in two steps was also reported by Gomes et al. (2010), in a study on invitropropagation of Maclura tinctoria (Moraceae), where the maximum shoot formation was obtained when 5.37 µM NAA + 4.45 µM BAP was used and root formation was observed on explants inoculated in WPM and supplemented with 23.62 µM IBA + 4.7 g L -1 activated charcoal.
taining medium. It was evident that MS 0 (no growth regulators) showed poor result. Results suggested that the use of phytohormone is eff ective for quick responses and high establishment rate of inoculated meristem. Th e explants responded well when the excised meristems were cultured in MS liquid medium supplemented with combination of GA 3 and KIN (Table 2). Among the three cultivars of eggplant, about 86.72% of the meristems of cv. Islampuri showed the response aft er eight days of inoculation in media containing 0.5 mg l -1 GA
The obesity has been considered one of the most serious public health problem in the worldwide scale, especially for being one of the main risk factors for many chronic diseases that characterize the metabolic syndrome. In addition to these diseases, obesity also causes dermatoses that affect not only the individual emotions but also cause various cutaneous infections. Thus, overweighting can be an agent that causes many types of stress: psychological, physical and social. In order to improve people’s life quality, several ethnopharmacological studies indicate plant species for the treatment of disorders associated with obesity due to the attraction of this regimen is perceived as safer and more health effective when compared to the treatment performed by traditional anorectic substances. If considered both food intake and also oral treatment with different compounds can promote change in the gene expression, besides an appropriate diet has been maintenance mechanism of body's vital functions. The aim of this work was to develop new standard methods for induced obesity and stress, which stress is induced through physical and psychogenic stressors in Swiss male mice. Also to evaluate the effect of supercritical extract of PhysalisangulataL. on the food intake and corporeal weight loss.
O TNF- α é um mediador crítico das reações de irritação da pele (Piquet et al., 1991), sendo uma importante citocina liberada na dermatite de contato irritativa (McFADDEN; BASKETTER, 2000). Lewis et al. (1993) demonstraram que esta citocina é liberada pelos queratinócitos invitro em resposta a irritantes e que também pode ser liberada pelos queratinócitos em resposta aos lipopolissacarídeos (KOCK et al., 1990), sendo uma citocina pró-inflamatória que ativa as células T, macrófagos e granulócitos, induzindo a expressão alterada de moléculas de adesão e liberação de outras citocinas (GROVES et al., 1995). No presente estudo, a Fisalina E, foi efetiva, por via tópica e via oral, em reduzir os níveis teciduais de TNF- α, resultado comprovado tanto através da dosagem (através de ELISA) quanto na marcação para TNF α na imunohistoquímica, e com isso reduzir a resposta inflamatória induzida pelo TPA. Algumas lactonas sesquiterpênicas esteroidais já foram descritas com atividade inibidora sobre o TNF α como as presentes no extrato da Tanacetum partheium (SUR et al., 2009).
The germination began on the fifth day after the inoculation of the seeds invitro for the culture media MS ¾ and MS ½, and on the seventh day for MS, the period during which the highest germination rate occurred in all the tested media (Figure 1). On the 14th day after seeding, 100 % of the seeds in MS ½ and MS ¾ had germinated, while, in MS, 87 % of the seeds germinated after this interval, demonstrating the high capacity of P. peruviana to germinate invitroin more diluted media (Figure 1). Therefore, for the rest of the experiments, MS ½ was used to reduce the purchasing costs of macro and micronutrients. The use of MS medium in more diluted compositions was reported for multiplication of P. peruviana by Chaves et al. (2005) and Rodrigues et al. (2013), who used MS ¾ and MS ½, respectively.
The Chemistry Laboratory of Natural Products, PN 2 of Farmanguinhos, prepared the extracts, fractions and pool of physalins and the Department of Biology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, performed the assays with snails. Plant material - P. angulata was collected in October 1995 in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil. The identification and the classification was performed by Dr Lúcia d’A Freire Carvalho, from Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro and an authentic sample stored at the herbarium of the Universi- dade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Botany Departament un- der the reference number of RFA23907/8. Specimens were also cultivated in the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz’s campus, Rio de Janeiro.
Damu, A.G., Kuo, P.C., Su, C.R., Kuo, T.H., Chen, T.H., Bastow, K.F., Lee, K.H., Wu, T.S., 2007. Isolation, structures, and structure cytotoxic activity relationships of withanolides and physalins from Physalisangulata. J. Nat. Prod. 70, 1146–1152. Guimar~aes, E.T., Lima, M.S., Santos, L.A., Ribeiro, I.M., Tomassini, T.B., Dos Santos, R.R., Dos Santos, W.L., Soares, M.B., 2009. Activity of physalins puriﬁed from Physalisangulataininvitro and in vivo models of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 64, 84–87.