36 hours and in Slovenia 10 hours less than in France are devoted to physicaleducation. About half of European countries 10 % of the total teaching time, only three countries 15 %, while Ireland only 4 % devote to physicaleducation. More worrying is the fact that approximately 40 % of the EU countries devote 60 hours or less to physicaleducation. Only 37 hours are devoted to physicaleducationin Ireland, a little more on Cyprus, Latvia, Turkey and Bulgaria. This fact points out very large differences between EU countries in the number of hours devoted to physicaleducation, as well as in terms of the total teaching time. It can be concluded that the designers of primary educationin Europe perceive physicaleducation as less important than other subjects. Our indings are in consistence with EACEA (2012), which notes that the total time for teaching physicaleducation represents only one- third of the time devoted to teaching the languages and only one half of the time devoted to mathematics. Despite the awareness that sporting activity and physicaleducation raise the quality of life, allow adequate psychomotor development and have positive effects on learning. Extremely wide-ranging impact of sports and physicaleducation to the entire spectrum of psychosomatic dimension requires irst the knowledge of child’s growth and development. However, it also requires the preparation of appropriate guidance, objectives and programmes of physicaleducation and teaching. The learning process should be designed in such a way that will build and take account of pupils’ skills, abilities, needs, as well as their uniqueness. We must be aware of the fact that the increased volume of physicaleducationinschools cannot compensate the lack of physical activity in everyday life.
This article aims to identify the objectives of physicaleducationinschoolsin Algeria and to compare their perceptions by teachers and students. Our concern lies in the fact that, from a methodological point of view, the physicaleducation teacher poses a real problem. In fact, being considered as a formalization activity rather than as an intellectual activity , teacher training provided inphysicaleducation, in terms of knowledge, skills , life skills and analytical skills , do not have the same outcome as other so-called storage materials and scientific materials. This was highlighted by Arnaud (1983): "Physicaleducation through an identity crisis. She is torn between different designs, scattered in various techniques, invaded by sport or confused with it, and it seems harder than ever to know what its aims are. In short, it is looking for its identity “(p. 13). This specificity is a problem of perception about the objectives it is supposed to continue. This includes teachers and their perception of the material as well as taught often consider physicaleducation as a complement to training promoting , among other things , integration into adult life.
The category Challenges for the implementation of the proposal also included questions of bureaucracy and even the educational scope of more conservative schools. The majority of respondents gave objective answers such as: yes or totally without further details, with their responses accompanied by facial expressions of stress and attempts to change the subject, which could suggest some fear in relation to the subject. Some mentioned the possibility of circumventing the issue:
participation inPhysicalEducation classes, school recess, physical activity to improve muscular strength / endurance and overall physical activity) with abdominal obesity and excess weight in adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 1,132 adolescents (14-19 years), enrolled in public schoolsin São José, Brazil. Information regarding the contexts of physical activity was obtained through questionnaires. The anthropometric indicators used to identify excess weight and abdominal obesity were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% conidence interval (95% CI). Results: Adolescents who actively commuted to school for 10 minutes or longer were 36% less likely (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58 a 0.71) of having abdominal obesity investigated by WC and 25% less likely (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65 a 0.86) of having excess weight investigated by means of BMI. The other physical activity contexts were not associated with anthropometric indicators. Conclusion: Active commuting to school was associated with lower odds of having abdominal obesity and excess weight in adolescents. Thus, active commuting to school can be an alternative for maintaining adequate levels of body composition.
This study examined the prevalence of attendance inPhysicalEducation (PE) classes and associated factors among high school students. A cross-sectional study performed with 2,874 public and private high school students (57.9% girls, mean age of 16.45 years; SD = 1.22) from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. Attendance in PE classes was measured by the question: ‘How many PE classes do you attend during a normal week? The factors measured were: attitude, self-efficacy, risks and benefits related to physical activity (PA), perceived health, PA level, sedentary behavior and nutritional status. Binary logistic regression was used. It was observed that 41.9% attended two or more PE classes per week, with higher prevalence rates in public school students than private school counterparts (56.6% vs. 6.6%; p < 0.001). Higher attendance in PE classes was observed in male and younger students from both school systems. It was also observed in students who did not work, were members of the highest economic class and whose parents had higher schooling levels in public schools, and from 1 st and
Private Institutions have the highest number of subjects, with an average of 44.5, followed by universities with 43.4. Higher schools for education mark the highest discrepancy, with an average of 40 subjects in their study plans. This evaluation field seems important to analyse because, teacher evaluation is a complex task. First and foremost, it requires a specific profile from the evaluator. In other works, not every teacher is capable of evaluating. The evaluator should be someone with specialized knowledge, enormous sensibility, empathetic communication and analytical skills, teaching experience and a heightened sense of social responsibility (Stewart, 2007). He has to be an attentive professional, capable of listening, clarifying, encouraging and helping to find
At the end of the related experiences, note the involvement of students in the development of other activities related to the theme, adapting them to the alternative spaces of the school. The creativity of the students preparing and producing alterna- tive materials and implements, to be used in throws, may also be evaluated. Make sure that the students can adapt everyday objects and create or recreate the implements for the throws and pitches. Suggest adapted materials: sand bags tied up with rope (hammer), broomsticks and rolled sheets of paper (javelin), round plastic lids (disk) (p. 21).
Abstract: The research aimed to identify the meanings attributed by students to local problems in communities damaged by environmental disasters, in order to obtain generator themes for Environmental Education (EE) in the school curriculum. Data was produced with an exchange of correspondence between researchers and the students of a school from Blumenau/SC, which it was damaged by an environmental disaster. It was understood that the students explain the environmental events in their community according to the media discourse about “trash” in opposition to other actions of reality, such as housing on the hillsides and the removal of the slopes vegetation. Also, it was found some lack of knowledge of the students about the commitment of the city government and other public bodies, as well as, the actions and investments in construction to mitigate environmental damages in the community. A proposal of generator themes for a work in EE was elaborated with this research.
The subjects were 120 students (58 girls and 62 boys from junior and senior schools) and 40 physicaleducation teachers (20 women and 20 men). The selection of the teachers was confined to public junior and senior schoolsin urban and suburban areas in the Lisbon district; those which presented similar characteristics and rules, including spatial and material conditions for the physicaleducation class, and where the board of directors authorized the teachers’ participation. The physicaleducation teachers and the students accepted voluntarily to participate in the study.
Today the informative providing of sporting science is carried out by scientific periodic and continued editions which, in particular in Ukraine, form the system of documentary sporting scientific information. Scientific magazines belong to them („Pedagogic, psychology and medical-biological problems of physicaleducation and sport”, „Physical of education of students” (Kharkov), „Physical activity, health and sport”, „Physical rehabilitation” (Lvov), „Announcer of the Prykarpattya university. Series: physical culture”, Ivano-Frankovsk); scientifically methodical magazines („Physicaleducation is at modern school”, „Physicaleducationinschools of Ukraine”, „Basis of health, and physical culture” (Kyiv), „Theory and method of physicaleducation” (Kharkov), „Theory and practice of physicaleducation”, Donetsk); scientific theoretical magazines („Theory and method of physicaleducation and sport”, „Science in Olympic argue”, „Sporting medicine” (Kyiv), „Suburb scientifically sporting announcer” (Kharkov), „Sporting announcer of Pridniprov’ya”, Dnipropetrovs’k); continued editions („Issues of the day of physical culture and sport” (Kyiv), „Young sporting science of Ukraine”, „Healthy way of life” (Lvov), „Announcer of the Zaporozhe national university. Series: Physicaleducation and sport” (Zaporozhe), „Announcer of the Tchernihiv national pedagogical University of the name of T. G. Shevchenko. Series: Pedagogical sciences. Physicaleducation and sport” (Tchernihiv), „Scientific magazine of the National pedagogical university of the name of M. P. Dragomanova. Series: Scientifically pedagogical problems of physical culture (physical culture and sport)” (Kyiv), „Physicaleducation, sport and culture of health, in modern society” (Lutsk), „Physical culture, sport and health of nation” (Vinnytsya), „Youth scientific announcer. Series: Physicaleducation and sport” (Kyiv), „Conception of development of industry of physicaleducation and sport”, Rivne). Most scientific magazines are included in the system of forming of national abstract resources of „Ukrainika scientific” , in particular scientific and scientific theoretical magazines: „Pedagogic, psychology and medical- biological problems of physicaleducation and sport”, „Physical of education of students”, „Theory and method of physicaleducation and sport”, „Science, in Olympic argue”, „Sporting medicine”, „Suburb scientifically sporting announcer”. In the National library of Ukraine of the name of V. I. Vernadskogo the created database is for free access to information about the results of scientific activity of domestic scientists and specialists, that is instrumental in activation of including of Ukraine to the international system of scientific electronic communications .
Abstract – his is a descriptive and quantitative national survey aimed at presenting Health Education practices (HE) developed by PhysicalEducation professionals work- ing at NASF in Brazil. Overall, 296 professionals participated in this study, stratiied by Brazilian regions and NASF groupings. Electronic interviews were conducted regarding the activities developed at the unity where each NASF professional worked. he main activities reported were gymnastics (40.1%), and walking (29.4%), having as their priority public elderly people (68.8%), groups of hypertensive and diabetic patients (30.9%) and young people (48.3%), respectively. he most discussed topics in lectures and orientations was the importance of physical activity (51.4%) and the second most cited was the preven- tion/treatment of comorbities (32.3%). he community spaces most utilized by PhysicalEducation professionals to develop activities were: public squares, community centers and schoolsin the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil, and religious entities in the northeastern and Midwestern regions. In conclusion, in spite of the diversity of activities developed in diferent regions of Brazil, there is predominance of traditional PhysicalEducation contents, which relect the need of permanent education of such professionals to improve the quality of services ofered to the community.
chemistry, in which progress is more or less steady until a major discovery causes a radical theoretical revision (referred to as a paradigm shift by Kuhn, 1970), language teaching is a field in which fads and heroes have come and gone in a manner fairly consistent with the kinds of changes that occur when people jump from one bandwagon to the next (M. Clarke, 1982). One reason for the frequent swings of the pendulum is that very few language teachers have a sense of history about their profession and are thus unaware of the linguistic, psychological, and sociocultural under- pinnings of the many methodological options they have at their disposal. It is hoped that this overview will encourage language teachers to learn more about the origins of their profession. Such knowledge will ensure some perspective when teachers evaluate any so-called innovations or new approaches to methodology, developments that will surely arise in the future.
Two schools are located in the Lower Mondego region (the Mondego state School and the White private religious School), three in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (the Tejo state School, the Blue private religious School and the Green private secular School), and one in the Central Alentejo area (the Montado state School). The first region is characterised by having an excessive supply of private education. Diversity in types of educational offers is at its maximum in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, offering a complete “school market”. In the Central Alentejo, a rural and depopulated area, the study case was carried out at the Montado state school, the only available upper secondary educational offer in the municipality. Although the parents interviewed were middle class and particularly active in educational issues (they are all members of Parents’ Associations), social criteria were not decisive in the sample. School selection was based on the existence/absence of a local educational market. Yet, pupils access to the three private schools of the sample is restricted by family financial resources, even in the case of charter schools, since funded classes are increasingly smaller.
Today it is estimated that the number of people affected worldwide by HIV/AIDS has reached almost 34 million. In 2007 there were 2.5 million new cases and the number AIDS related deaths were almost 2.1 million (1). IRAN is a Middle Eastern country that is facing rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic (2). In IRAN the first case of Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was reported in 1987 (3), this was followed by a rapid increase in the number of Cases (4). In 2007, officially there were 66000 Iranians living with HIV/AIDS, of which 11000 were females (5). Of all cases with a known transmission route, 85% were injecting drug users and 10% were reported acquiring the infection through sexual contacts (2). There are several factors that contribute to the higher risk of HIV infection among young people e.g. first sexual experiences, the higher proportion of sexually transmitted disease, addiction that begins usually at this age, and so on (6). On the other hand, there is a chance to establish protective health- behavior patterns in young people, which might endure in to adulthood. Since there are uncontrolled sexual contacts, high prevalence of addiction, absence or limited sex education and higher marriage age in Iran, the Iranian youth are counted as a high risk group for HIV infection. Also because of fears among most Iranian people that AIDS education promotes high risk behaviors, sex education about HIV transmission has no place inschools and universities in Iran (7).
and 32% of women and 13% of men did not reach normal values for the age group. In agreement with our findings, a study with adolescents in the southern region of the country found that males obtained significantly higher values of strength and muscle endurance than females and, according to the researchers, it can be explained by the higher amount of mass muscle activity in men 24,29 . It should be taken into account that non-ideal values of neuromuscular variables, in general, are risk factors for chronic-degenerative dysfunctions associated with the motor system, as well as can result in an increased risk of falls among the elderly 30 .
Next, we investigate the behavior of predetermined variables associated with signifi- cant coefficients when using our baseline bandwidth. Figures 5–8 show RD plots for the four variables. For the case of the dummy that indicates if the candidate was elected in the prior election, p-values are equal to 67% (linear), 7% (quadratic) and 10% (cubic). The significant coefficients are relatively close to the commonly used threshold signifi- cance value of 10%. Because of this, we believe that this result is not an impediment to our analysis. However, birth year and mean wages are associated with more significant coefficients. In the first case, p-values are 29% (linear), 2.8% (quadratic) and 5.9% (cu- bic), and coefficient estimates range between 1.27 to 4.29 years. For the case of mean wages prior to elections, p-values are 7%, 2% and 5%. The figure shows that a losing candidate in the cutoff point is expected to be associated to firms with mean wages (prior to election) equal to about R$900.00 (taking averages across polynomial degrees), while, for winning candidates, this number drops by R$200,00, or 22%. For mean wages in election year, coefficients are less significant than in the previous case: p-values are 14%, 6% and 10%. We recognize that this may be an issue. However, since there is a relatively small number of predetermined variables with significant coefficient (four out of 72), we consider that we can proceed with the investigation using this bandwidth and still attribute a causal interpretation to the results in the main analysis.
comprehensive re-structuring to enable trainees to become independent clinicians and investigators at the earliest possible time. The average age to receive one’s ﬁ rst R01 grant (investigator-initiated research project grant) from the NIH has been steadily increasing, and is now 42 years old for a PhD and 43 years old for an MD. The CRTF II is especially troubled by the effect that this delay in achieving independent funding has on recruitment into translational and clinical research. A number of US institutions have incorporated elements of translational and clinical research training—including Master’s degree programs—into medical school, residencies, or fellowships without adding signiﬁ cantly to the total amount of time in training. However, the task force envisions more fundamental restructuring that would begin early in medical school and continue seamlessly through residency and fellowship training to prepare graduates to compete for independent research funding at an earlier age. This would permit graduates to begin contributing to science during their years of highest creativity, and have more productive years in their careers. The Association of American Medical Colleges intends to facilitate such a reengineering effort.
exists only by the encounter with a problem that destabilizes the rese- archer and places him with the challenge of creation. Thus, the problem in the works of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari is in line with the mo- bilization and action, not stabilization, and therefore, cannot be esta- blished beforehand, offered from one to the other, to be something that meets us in our processes and travels, promoting the need for intensive reaction. It is through the encounter with the problem that makes cre- ation possible, in other words, it leads then to the desire – as a creative power – for the discovery, unfolding into a transformation of thought (Deleuze, 2011; Deleuze, Guattari, 1992). From this, we can understand that if the answer to the problem has already been given previously, or already exists, or even if there is certainty in what one expects to find, there is no way to state a problematizing-encounter, since occurrence as a problem-encounter, this movement generates new knowledge in the subject, body knowledge, route effects and collisions, put in the pro- cess of walking in search of answers. We can state, with Deleuze (2011), that it would be in par with deterritorialization: a change embedded by certainty, going to other places, or new territorializations, given by the new, promoted by the unrest-problem. “The occurrence mode is pro- blematic” (Deleuze, 2011, p. 57), and so, the ramifications are effects of this operation, which goes through the body, since it will only work for this achievement, given that “[...] occurrences concern exclusively to the problems and define their conditions” (Deleuze, 2011, p. 57). This me- ans that there is no previous definition or theorization for facing the problem. That is the opposition that the author proposes to the theore- matic reasoning, since thinking due the occurrence works in the proli- feration that emerge from the encounter itself with what becomes to the subject, in a problematic order. There is no way to develop a universal theory for problems that do not yet exist, nor for any practice that me- ans to be universalizing. Even though the field of education, in general, sometimes has this pretension.
The Health and Citizenship Integrated Education Activity, was created in the semester of 2000.2, at the initiative of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), with the purpose of making the health courses more flexible and has assumed pivotal role in the chang- ing process of the formation of health professionals. The PhysicalEducation course UFRN has appropriated of this formation space to gradually lodge curricular components to potentiate the health promotion. The purpose of the paper is to present the integration of PhysicalEducation course UFRN along a curricular component common to other health courses. This is a peda- gogical experience report methodologically characterized as exploratory study of descriptive character of qualitative approach. It appears that the entering of physicaleducation provided extensions of perception on health promotion through physical activity in students and teachers from several courses in the field of health.