Grande do Sul it is still considered a rare species. There is only few information regarding the characterization of these fruits in Brazil, and the main reports of this species are mainly focused on the pharmacology and agronomic conditions of the plant. The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and chemical composition, including bioactivecompounds, ofPhysalis fruits obtained from a spontaneous culture of the southern region of Rio grande do sul. Soluble solids, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, moisture, ash, crude fiber, crude protein, lipids, carbohydrates, total caloric value, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids from pulp and seed were evaluated. It was observed that the fruit has acid characteristics (4.8%), in addition to a considerable presence of lipids (1.96%) and carbohydrates (10.85%), containing high content of carotenoids (171.36 µg β -carotene.g -1 ), phenolic compounds (142.83 mg.EAG.100g -1 ) and
Yogurt has achieved considerable economic importance in recent years due to its composition rich in nutrients as a source of calcium, vitamins and proteins that can increase even more with the addition of other bioactivecompounds. Beet has high levels of phenolic compounds, in addition to its natural pigment. The objective of this work was to develop a natural yogurt without adding chemical dyes, with the natural dye of beet and to evaluate the effects of the bioactiveand antioxidant compoundsof this yogurt. The raw materials used were purchased in a local market in the city of Maceió, which were milk: whole UHT, skimmed-milk powder, crystal sugar and a jar of commercial natural yogurt (yeast), beets and lemon stored under refrigeration until processing. yogurt. The results showed physicochemical characteristics suitable for consumption for beet yoghurt with lemon. Regarding the contents of phenolic compoundsand antioxidant activity present, it had a high content of carotenoids and also excellent power to reduce the initial concentration of DPPH, thus indicating its promising consumption possibilities.
Gutiérrez et al. (2015) evaluated the effect of UV-C radiation on chlorophyll content by spectrophotometric analysis and found divergent results, with 18 to 21% of chlorophyll content degraded after sanitization treatment. Karaca & Velioglu (2014) found that in hardwood vegetables (lettuce, spinach, and parsley) sanitization procedures with ozone and chlorinated water did not promote a significant reduction in chlorophyll content. Nguyen et al. (2019) did not find differences in the chlorophyll content of baby spinach after sanitization with 75 mg/L of peracetic acid. However, Martínez-Sánchez et al. (2006) found significant differences in the chlorophyll contents of rocket leaves after sanitization with 20 ml/L lactic acid, 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite, 10 mg/L ozone or 300 ml/L peracetic acid. Evaluationof ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity
Numerous studies have been carried out in order to replace wheat with flour made from waste from fruit residues in the preparation of bakery products such as biscuits like cookies due to economic constraints, business requirements, new consumption trends, and specific eating habits (Aquino et al., 2010; Perez & Germani, 2007). Fruit residues can be important sources of nutrients and, to satisfy consumer demand for healthier products, many food industries are finding ways to add functional ingredients to their products (Assis et al., 2009). According to Aquino et al. (2010), when added to foods, such ingredients are associated tohealthy products by customers since they are able to modify/enhance the taste, texture, aroma, color, and nutritional value of the products produced. Santucci et al. (2003) stated that the mixture of flour made from unconventional products with wheat flour improves the nutritional quality of cookies and may even improve their palatability making them more accepted by consumers. Souza et al. (2008) concluded that
Many biocontrol agents are difficult to formulate as products. The sporulating Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus and Streptomyces, offer biological solutions to the formulations problems (Emmert and Handelsman, 1999). The endospores are thermotolerant structures and resistant to dryness, ultraviolet radiation and organic solvents. These properties, associated to the ability of producing peptide antibiotics, contribute to Bacillus utilization in commercial formulations for the biocontrol of several plant diseases. When producing biomass of Bacillus spp. for biological control, the production should be designed to maximize the production of efficacious spores rather than vegetative cells. On the other hand, the physiology of the vegetative cells are responsible for the field activity of the biological agent. B. subtilis R14 was isolated from the surface of cabbage leaves and has been shown to be effective as a biocontrol agent (Assis et al., 1996; 1997). Lipopeptides produced by this play a major role in the reduction of the incidence of the bacterial fruit blotch of melon and the black rot of crucifers observed in greenhouse and field trials (Monteiro et al., 2005; Santos et al., 2006).
When fruits reached the Completely Yellow stage, and therefore the highest quality for consumption, the variation among genotypes was explained to70.96% by PC1 (42.27%) and PC2 (28.69%) (Figure 1-CY). The variables associated with the formation of CP1 were antioxidant activity with chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, and with the formation of CP2, the carotenoids. Based on the correlation matrix, four genotype groupings were possible for the CY stage. In the P4, P6 and P7 group, antioxidant activity was higher than for the other genotypes. The P1 genotype showed a greater ascorbic acid content. The P3 genotype showed a greater flavonoid content than did the others. Genotypes P2, P5, P8, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13, P14 and P15 showed proximity in all characteristics related to CP1 and CP2, thus characterising the maturation profile in the strawberry guava.
The studies described in this thesis were performed at the Food Technology Group, Department of Agricultural Sciences, CITA – A, University of the Azores, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal and at Teagasc -Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Cork, Ireland. CITA-A and Teagasc are also fully acknowledged.
This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality andbioactive potential of partially defatted baru (Dipteryx alataVog.) almond flour (BAF). The flour’s proximate and mineral compositions, total phenolic, tocopherols and carotenoids contents, antioxidant capacity, trypsin inhibitor and amino acid analyses were performed. An experiment was conducted with 24 male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the flour’s protein quality. BAF has high protein, fiber and mineral contents (iron, zinc, magnesium and copper), and it is a source of calcium. BAF presented relevant amounts of total phenolics (625 mg/100g) and good antioxidant capacity (130 µmol/Trolox eq). Autoclaved BAF showed essential amino acids profile, digestibility and protein quality better than in natura BAF. Autoclaved BAF might be used for human consumption as a source of quality protein andbioactivecompounds, in healthy diets and processed foods.
The second reaction was the basic sulfur abstraction of 2-oxocarbonyl and thiocarbonyl compoundsand is also a very efficient and clean reaction. In this reaction, a new carbon-carbon bond is formed, one of the most important tasks in organic chemistry. Therefore, this transformation has great synthetic potential. The products obtained, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, are very useful as metal ligands. The reported methodology can be used for the design of new metal complexes, that have different applications (e.g. catalysis). The work presented in this two last chapters deviated a little from what was initially proposed. Although the two reactions studied have great potential, reports of their use in organic synthesis are scarce, therefore we decided to investigate them deeper to understand their scope and limitations.
A higher number of new natural compounds has been iso- lated from the starshes and sea cucumbers. This tendency does not mean necessarily that Asteroidea and Holothuroidea classes represent the source with larger diversity of natural compounds than other echinoderm class. Species from these classes seem to be more popular among researchers, probably due to the bioprospecting studies, which eventually discrimi- nates other marine invertebrates, such as sea urchins, crinoids and brittle stars. Therefore, further studies should be pursued on less studied species or even in non-studied at all, especially from Echinoidea, Crinoidea and Ophiuroidea, in order to screen and search for other new potential BC. In addition, more attempts on screening other biological properties rather than those already carried out in natural compounds, could demonstrate other potentialities; a BC with no antifungal activity could exhibit others activities such as anti-tumor and anti-inammatory. It is also important to emphasize that the
OBANDA, M.; OWUOR, P. O.; TAYLOR, S. J. Flavanol composition and caffeine content of green leaf as quality potential indicators of Kenyan Black Teas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, v. 74, n. 2, p. 209-215, 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ (SICI)1097-0010(199706)74:2<209::AID-JSFA789>3.0.CO;2-4. PACHECO, S.; GODOY, R. L. O.; NASCIMENTO, L. S. M.; CUNHA, C. P.; SANTIAGO, M. C. P. A.; ROSA, J. S. Adaptação do método de extração de carotenóides para escala de micro-extração. In: REUNIÃO DE BIOFORTIFICAÇÃO, 4., 2011, Teresina, Piauí. Palestras e Resumos... Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa Agroindústria de Alimentos; Teresina: Embrapa Meio-Norte, 2011. 1 CD-ROM. PIMENTA, A. C.; SILVA, P. S. R.; ZUFFELLATO-RIBAS, K. C.; KOEHLER, H. S. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart.) nativos no Cerrado Mato-grossense. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, v. 36, n. 4, p. 892-899, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-2945-416/13. PLAZA, L.; SÁNCHEZ-MORENO, C.; ELEZ-MARTÍNEZ, P.; ANCOS, B.; MARTÍN-BELLOSO, O.; CANO, M. P. Effect of refrigerated storage on vitamin C and antioxidant activity of orange juice processed by high-pressure or pulsed electric fields with regard to low pasteurization. European Food Research and Technology, v. 223, n. 4, p. 487-493, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217- 005-0228-2.
F3) Extrusion/milling: The whole grains were previously milled into flour which was processed in a co-rotating twin-screw model Evolum HT 25 (Clextral, Firminy, France) at constant screw speed of 600 rpm and temperature profile: 30, 30, 60, 90, 100, 100, 120, 120, 150 and 150 °C, from feeding to the outlet (Vargas-Solórzano, Carvalho, Takeiti, Ascheri & Queiroz, 2014). The screw diameter (D) was 25 mm and the total configured screw length (L) was 1000 mm, providing an overall L/D ratio of 40. The die had four round openings of 3.8 mm each in diameter and 9 mm in length. Dry sorghum flour was placed in the feeding zone by a twin-screw, loss-in-weight gravimetric feeder model GRMD15 (Schenck Process, Darmstadt, Germany), and monitored by Schenck Process Easy Serve software (Schenck Process, Darmstadt, Germany). Distilled water was injected between the first and second feeding zones through a port with 5.25 mm internal diameter from the start of the barrel using a plunger metering pump model J-X 8/1 (AILIPU Pump Co. Ltd., China) set to compensate moisture differences in the samples and provide a final moisture content of 12%. The samples were collected over 15 –20 min. Subsequently, the flours were packed in polyethylene bags, covered with aluminum foil and stored at 18 ± 1 °C, for no more than 24 hours until analysis. Once obtained through the previously described processing, the moisture of the flours was determined by gravimetry after oven drying (Nova Etica, 4000, Brazil) at 105 °C. Next, the flours were packed in polyethylene bags and stored (- 20 ± 1 °C) in a freezer until analyzes.
through food. In view of this, consumer perception, unconventional potatoes, that is, potatoes with a multiplicity of skin colors, flesh color and tuber shape are gaining space in the market in several countries. These potatoes have higher concentrations of antioxidant compounds than conventional cultivars and their consumption can increase the intake ofcompounds with benefits to human health (Brown et al., 2005). CIMA, FF; PEREIRA, ES; SCHIAVON, MV; MUNHOZ, PC; LENZ, EA; WOLTER, DD; SILVA, TA; AZEVEDO, FQ; VIZZOTTO, M; PEREIRA, AS.
Apples (Malus domestica Borkh) has high phenolic compounds content (Khanizadeh et al., 2008; Goulas et al., 2014). On apple juice and cider, phenolics can contribute to the sensory characteristics, such as their color, astringent and bitter taste. Moreover, phenolic compounds have demonstrated potent antioxidant properties in various systems that exhibit biological activity due to their cytoprotective properties (Babbar et al., 2015; Yassin et al., 2017). These compounds are related with reduction of the risk of incidence of various diseases such as cancer, coronary and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s) (Hyson, 2011).
The other part of the despectinised apple juices was fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae r.f. cerevisiae (inoculated at 2.10 6 cells.mL -1 ; Fermol Bouquet, AEB Group, Otaly) under anaerobiosis to obtain the ciders. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted at 20-23 °C until complete utilization of fermentable sugars (< 0.1 g.L -1 ). The ciders were then centrifuged (8000 g at 4 °C for 20 minutes) (HOMAC CR-GOO, Hitachi, Japan) and bottled. The cider samples were kept at -18 °C until further analysis. All process (juice and cider) was made in duplicate. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and total flavanols The analysis of phenolic compounds was performed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton & Rossi, 1965). Results were expressed as milligrams of 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalents per litre of apple juice or cider using a calibration curve. The total flavonoid content (TFC) of the juices and ciders was performed according to method described by Zhishen et al. (1999). The results
The link between diet and the incidence of some diseases, such as coronary heart diseases, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and different types of cancer is already well-known. Diet is also recognized, as part of a healthy lifestyle, and it has a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of those diseases. A classical example is the association between the animal saturated fats intake and the occurrence of colon, prostate, and breast cancer. Diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated to the reduction in the occurrence of some types of cancer including lung, colon, esophagus, and stomach cancer. Although the mechanisms associated with the reduction of the incidence of these diseases are still not completely clarified, it is known that these diets are usually poor in saturated fats and rich in fibers and various vitamins and minerals. The foods which either prevent or minimize chronic and degenerative diseases, in addition to their role to a good nutrition, are called functional foods (POURCHET-CAMPOS, 1998). They have drawn the public opinion attention due to the health benefits they bring. Indeed, they have been the focus of many studies on foods in great research centers world-wide (PARK; KOO; CARVALHO,
peel have catechins with high antioxidant activ- ity. Pomegranate flavonoids show antioxidant ac- tivity with the indirect inhibition of inflammatory markers, such as TNF-α. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, and also prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis. The ellagitannins also in- hibit the activation of inflammatory pathways such as MAPK. Furthermore, they could inhibit angiogenesis through down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cancers, thus signifi- cantly decreasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ellagitannins and ellagic acid are metabo- lized by the intestinal micro flora to produce uro- lithins, which have anti-inflammatory properties. Since pomegranate extract is rich in polyphenols (oleanolic, ursolic and gallic acid) it could prevent cardiovascular problems by decreasing low density lipoproteins (LDL), increasing high density lipo- proteins (HDL), stability and serum paraoxonase activity 1 and NO production increase (Aviram and Rosenblat 2013, Zarfeshany et al. 2014). Pome- granate juice is rich in bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective functions (Asgary et al. 2013, Wu et al. 2015).
. As antioxidants are needed by our body to combat reactive oxygen species they are important as food additives. Hwang JY et al. reported for the first time that protein hydrolysates from defatted peanut kernels possess antioxidative activity . It is hoped that the understanding of scavenging of radical capacity and other antioxidant properties of the peanut peptide may lead to use of peanut peptide as secondary foods especially for certain populations such as infants, the elderly and convalescing patients. The present study was conducted to compare and contrast the biophysical properties of peanut protein isolate and its hydrolysed product, peanut peptide. Properties such as emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, turbidity, solubility, water holding and fat adsorption capacity were measured. The antioxidant properties of peanut peptide were also determined. To the best of our knowledge, these properties of peanut peptide have not been investigated so far.
Um produto que pode ser produzido a partir de alguns frutos da Physalis é o vinagre. Definido por Aquarone et al. (2001) como um alimento do grupo dos condimentos, obtido por fermentação acética de soluções alcoólicas diluídas, sendo estas resultantes de fermentações alcoólicas de mostos açucarados ou amiláceos. O vinagre, assim também como o vinho e a cerveja, é um fermentado conhecido e explorado há milhares de anos por povos de várias civilizações. No Brasil e em alguns outros países com culturas semelhantes, não se dá a devida importância ao alimento e às suas propriedades nutritivas e medicinais.
DETERMINATION OFBIOACTIVECOMPOUNDS IN BRAZILIAN ROASTED COFFEES. Coffee is a product consumed all around the world, Brazil being the biggest exporter. However, little is known about the difference in composition of the different brands in terms ofbioactive substances. In the present study, ten of the most consumed brands of coffee in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. Caffeine contents, trigonelline and total chlorogenic acid varied from 0.8 g/100g to 1.4 g/100g; 0.2 g/100g to 0.5 g/100g and from 3.5 g kg -1 to 15.9 g kg -1 , respectively. The large heterogeneity observed in the amounts of the bioactivecompounds can