As shown in the present study, Serrano et al. (2013b) also observed that nuts attacked by powderymildew in 15% ofthe common cashew clones evaluated did not have any reduction in their mass. In this case, there is probably no significant penetration ofthe fungus that translates any significant damagetothe nut. The presence of phenolic components, particularly on the spongy mesophyll oftheBRS189cashew clone nut, such as anacardic acid, cardanol, and cardol, which, due to their already evidenced action against microorganisms (Mazzetto et al., 2009), could act by preventing the pathogen infection in tissues ofthe nut, thus avoiding severe damage, even in a condition of high epidemic in the field. On the other hand, because it is considered a pathogen with epiphytic characteristics, it is suggested that thedamage is only superficial.
Thecashewpowderymildew disease, caused by fungus Pseudoidium anacardii , is currently the most important cashew disease, affecting leaves, inflorescences and fruits. However, there is a lack of detailed reports in clealing with the effects of P. anacardii in the yield. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between powderymildew severity and fruit yield (quantity and quality) ofcashew. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa, in Pacajus county, state of Ceará, Brazil, from July to December 2014, with cashew clone BRS189, with eight treatments (T1 - 0 g, T2 - 0.5 g, T3 - 1 g, T4 - 2 g, T5 - 3 g, T6 - 4 g, T7 - 5 g and T8 - 7 g sulfur/L water), in order to obtain a disease gradient, conducted in a randomized block with four replications. It was evaluated the incidence and severity ofpowderymildew in cashewplants and related this data with yield and biometric characteristics of fruits and cashew apples. The severity was obtained by a descriptive scores varying from 0 to 4, estimated as a function ofthe proportion ofthe injured area in the organs ofthecashew, and the incidence through the proportion of organs infected. Cashewpowderymildew does not reduce fruit yield in clone BRS189, although it causes both weight reduction and nut size, also affecting the weight, size and quality ofcashew apples, making it impossible thecashew in natura trading it no control measures are done.
Abstract - Different application frequencies of metalaxyl + mancozeb were evaluated to control downy mildew in vine plants ‘BRS Vitória’ in two experiments conducted in Jales, São Paulo, one in theproduction cycle and another in branches formation cycle. In experimental design of randomized blocks, five treatments were compared (1- two weekly applications; 2- one weekly application; 3- one application every 14 days; 4- one application every 21 days; 5- applications after sporulation) with four replications, each plot with three plants. According tothe analysis ofthe area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), in both experiments, there were statistically significant differences between the disease control levels provided by the different treatments (P ≤ 0.05), being the control more efficient when there were two weekly sprayings with metalaxyl + mancozeb, followed by one weekly spraying. Regarding the number of sprayings ofthe treatment “spraying after sporulation” there was a reduction of over 90% when compared to standard treatment, “two weekly sprayings.” This reduction, however, did not result in a significant increase in the percentage of affected leaf area, which was less than 3%, causing no damagetothe plant and not interfering with the quality and the physicochemical characteristics of clusters.
Electrostatic spray can bring benefits tothe pesticide application such as the reduction of application rate and the increase of deposits on targets. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of electrostatic spraying using lower application rates and different adjuvants on soybean spray deposition and chemical control ofpowderymildew (Microsphaera diffusa Cooke & Peck). The field experiment was conducted in duplicate. A randomized complete block design with four replications in a 2 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial scheme was used. The factors were two application rates, with and without droplet electrification, two spray solution compositions, and one additional treatment. Deposition on upper and lower leaves, spray loss tothe soil, and powderymildew control effectiveness were evaluated. The electrical conductivity ofthe spray solution and the charge/mass ratio induced in droplets were also evaluated. All treatments reduced the soybean powderymildew severity. Electrostatic spraying responded positively to an increase in the electrical conductivity ofthe spray solution regarding the charge/mass ratio, but it did not increase spray deposition on the lower third ofthe canopy and did not influence spray loss tothe soil, which was higher as the application rate increased.
The main goal of this work was to analyze the effect of water and potassium and interaction between these factors parameters which are related with vegetative growth (height ofthe plant, diameter of trunk below ofthe coastal and the diameter of trunk above ofthe coastal) and the parameters related with nutritional situation (potassium, iron and sodium) ofthe precocious dwarfish cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) variety BRS189. A field experiment was carried out in the parcel of ground D in at Curu-Pentecoste Irrigation District, Ceará, Brazil, from september/2005 to february/2007. The statistical design was completely randomized blocks in split-plots, with four primary treatments, four secondary and four blocks. The main treatments corresponded to four water depths (W 1 = 25% ETc; W 2 = 50%
The defense responses genes related to disease resistance were identified through functional annotations of detected SNPs and InDels compared tothe reference genome. Previously reported disease resistant genes/QTLs from PRGdb in Cucumis melo were taken into consider- ation. A total of 411 putative disease resistance genes have been reported in melon, and this number is low compared tothe numbers of resistance genes known in Arabidopsis (526), grape (690), and rice (1206) . In melon, resistance genes have been identified for diseases includ- ing zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) (Zym; ), watermelon mosaic virus-Morocco (Potyvirus) (Nm; ), aphis gossypii (Fn; ), papaya ring spot virus- watermelon type (PRSV) (Prv; [47, 50]), cucurbit aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV) (cab-1 and cab-2; ), beet pseudo yellows virus (BPYV; ), cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV; ), lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV; ), cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV; ), melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV; ), cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) (cgmmv-1 and cgmmv-2; ), and fusarium wilt (Fom-1; , Fom-2; [59, 60]). In addition, several pow- dery mildew resistance (Pm) genes have been mapped or cloned in the melon genome (Pm-1; , Pm-2; , Pm-3; , Pm-4 and Pm-5; , Pm-6; , Pm-8; , and Pm-F & Pm-G; ). In addition, several studies were reported that Mildew Locus O (MLO) genes act as sus- ceptibility factors in PM disease and their inactivation of specific MLO genes (knock-out or knock-down) leads to mediating form of mlo resistance .
Powderymildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete fungus Erysiphe pisi Syd. is one the most devastating diseases of (Pisum sativum L.) with a considerable impact in seed production. So far, the most efficient genetic resistance to this disease identified is conferred by the naturally occurring or experimentally induced by chemical mutagenesis recessive state ofthe locus er1. Identified over 6 decades ago and genetically mapped tothe Pisum sativum Linkage Group VI over 20 years ago, this gene was recently identified as a homolog ofthe barley (Hordeum sativum L.) powderymildew resistance gene MLO, and renamed as PsMLO1. The broad spectrum resistance conferred by the er1/PsMLO1 locus was found to be a consequence ofthe loss of function ofthe encoded PsMLO1 protein. After the publication ofthe expressed sequence of this gene by another research group, we published the genomic sequence of this gene, which harbors a relatively long (TA) microsatellite sequence (SSR) in the fifth intron. SSR markers based on this highly polymorphic microsatellite can be used for marker-assisted selection in multiple pea powderymildew resistance breeding programs involving the er1/ PsMLO1 resistance, except in the rare circumstances where the progenitor lines are monomorphic for the microsatellite sequence. The use of established SSR markers is an affordable and straightforward approach for identification and discrimination of alleles of progenitors in breeding programs, permiting the easy analysis of their inheritance among progenies.
The number of runner tips did not differ significantly among source types, which highlights that it is a developmental plant variable affected mainly by photoperiod and temperature (Smeets, 1980; Sonsteby, 1997). Nevertheless, their growth differs according to source-sink relationship. When tips were collected weekly, their growing period was shorter that when they were collected monthly. The plant growth process follows an exponential curve, their young leaves act as sinks, and the aged ones act like sources (Iqbal et al., 2012). This implies that tips growing for only one week before being collected depend more on assimilates from the mother stock plant than those growing during one month. Nevertheless, only young tips bearing root primordia can be used for theproductionof plug transplants from runner tips (Lieten, 1998; Poling & Maas, 1998), and higher number of tips collected monthly is not a true advantage, because most of them are too aged and have to be discarded. Considering that tips emitted early in the spring can be used for multiplying stock plants for further productionof tips (Dal Picio et al., 2012), the weekly period should be retained for theproductionof strawberry plug transplants.
In China, little is known about inheritance mode and resistance genes for powderymildew in Chinese pea germplasms, except for pea line X9002  and cv. Xucai 1 . Zeng et al.  indicated that pea line X9002 was stably resistant topowderymildew. Recently, Wang et al.  revealed that X9002 carries a recessive gene for powderymildew resistance, which was mapped in a region containing the er1 locus on pea LG VI, using molecular markers AD60 and c5DNAmet. Subsequent PsMLO1 cDNA sequence analysis confirmed that resistance in X9002 was conferred by the er1-2 allele . Recently, using the same analysis applied for X9002, Sun et al.  revealed that resistance in Chinese pea cv. Xucai 1 was also conferred by the er1-2 allele. Mutations identical to those in X9002 and Xucai 1 also occurred in previously described resistant pea cultivars and lines, such as Stratagem (JI 2302) , Franklin, Dorian, and Nadir . The present study obtained cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 at the er1 locus from the identified 16 resistant pea landraces and controls. Based on 10 cloned sequences, the sus- ceptible (Bawan 6) and resistant (X9002 and YI) controls produced identical PsMLO1 cDNAs to their respectively previous studies, which confirmed the accuracy of cDNA sequencing ofthe target gene, PsMLO1 [13, 42]. The resistant pea landrace G0005576 from Chongqing pro- duced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions in PsMLO1 (S2 Fig). All three transcripts were identical to resistant pea germplasms carrying the er1-2 allele [13, 42]. This indicated that resistance in G0005576 was also conferred by er1-2. Interestingly, the insertions of 155-bp and 220-bp are very similar (96% and 95%, respectively) to a sequence repeated five times in a pea genomic BAC clone sequence (GenBank accession number CU655882). The inserted 220-bp sequence is also highly similar (~87% iden- tity) to part of a giant Ogre retrotransposon (GenBank, accession number AY299395) in the pea genome [58, 60].
Powderymildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powderymildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues ofthe leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues ofthe plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powderymildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement ofthe Mlo genes in susceptibility tothe endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance topowderymildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared tothe control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared tothe previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility ofthe tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.
stalks harvested at the useful portion, extracted in electric motor grinding Model B-728 Inox Roll 220v considered “low extraction efficient” and estimated considering the respective plants population at the portion. The stalks were processed two times in the extraction, and at the second time they were folded in half to obtain a higher juice extraction and the values were expressed ºbrix; e) total reducing sugars (TRS): determined by the Somogoy method, adapted by Nelson (1944); f) brix tonnes per hectare (TBH): determined from multiplication between productivity of stalks green matter per hectare, juice extraction percentage and total soluble solids (average ºbrix), expressed in tonnes ºbrix ha -1 .
ABSTRACT - This work aimed at verifying the chemical response to Spodotera frugiperda associated to some selected genotypes resistant to this fall armyworm, subsidizing studies for improving commercial cultivars. Genotypes were grown and divided into two groups: a group was infested with S. frugiperda and another group was not infested (control). Extracts from plantsof both groups were prepared and their chromatographic profiles were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, described in the literature as a natural metabolite with food deterrent activity, was identified in some extracts by comparison with the authentic standard and, later, by mass spectrometry. The chromatograms obtained were classified using chemometric methods. The majority ofthe genotypes studied showed reduction in the concentration of chlorogenic acid when they were infested by the insect. In addition, extracts of some infested plants showed good activity against S. frugiperda, indicating the synthesis of one or more bioactive substances. This change in the metabolic profile was evidenced by statistical analysis, where pairs of control- infested genotypes were distinct from each other. The results point that interaction between insect and plant impacted on theproductionof metabolites by the plant.
Based on the use of imidazolinone tolerant cultivars, the Clearfield (CL) Production System was introduced in Rio Grande do Sul during the 2003/2004 crop season. This system increased the efficiency of weed control and spontaneous weed rice growth in commercial fields. Nowadays, CL cultivars are planted on approximately 70% ofthe rice area in Rio Grande do Sul.
The majority of plant resistance genes (R genes) are members of large gene families. Understanding the evolution of R genes and the mechanisms underlying the evolution of novel R genes has become an important research field. Sequence rearrangement of R genes in multigene families through recombination can lead tothe generation of novel R gene specificities. However, recombination in R gene regions can be complicated. Although most R genes are localized in high recombination regions , resistance loci with recombination suppression have been reported . Suppressed recombination can cause co-segregation (complete genetic linkage) of multiple markers that may not be physically closely linked. The genetic and physical mapping in the 7AL distal region allowed us to examine the ratio of physical to genetic distance in the MlIW172 region based on the analyses ofthe overlapping BAC sequences of A genomes from Chinese Spring, Langdon and T. urartu scaffolds (Fig. 4). Although our BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds were from different A genomes and did not completely cover the MlIW172 region, we obtained a total of ,929 kb of sequences that were anchored tothe genetic map (Fig. 2). These
Initially the best salt content was evaluated for subsequent use in planning the experiments to evaluate the other factors (concentrations of gum and ethanol). To assess the influence of NaCl concentration, four aqueous solutions were prepared containing 10%w/v of unprocessed (in natura) gum (exudate), which were submitted to magnetic stirring for 24 hours. After this period, the pH of each solution was adjusted to pH 7 with sodium hydroxide 1 M (NaOH). Then, in each 100 mL of gum solution, varied quantities of NaCl were added (3, 5, 7 and 9 g), to obtain solutions called gum-NaCl 3%, 5%, 7% and 9%w/v. These were stirred until the salt was completely dissolved. Then the solutions were centrifuged to remove sand and other solids. The resulting solutions were filtered through a sintered disk funnel with porosity 1. The gum was extracted by precipitation using ethanol 95.54 °GL as non-solvent agent, in the ratio of 4:1 (ethanol:gum solution). After precipitation, the mixture was again centrifuged to separate the precipitate from the hydroalcoholic solution.
There are few studies on effects of salinity on adult cashewplants, thus the objective was to evaluate the growth and ion accumulation in dwarf cashewplants, irrigated with saline water. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, in Pacajus, CE. For thirteen months the treatments in seedlings of clone CCP 06 were applied. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications, referring to salt solutions adjusted to different electrical conductivities (0.4, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m -1 ). Theplants were irrigated
Additionally, the other components found in HSCAN, as anthocyanins, carotenoids and phenolics, have also been characterized as antimutagenic compounds and could have influenced the observed results with HSCAN in the SMART assay. Mendoza-Díaz et al. (2012) observed that rich anthocyanins and carotenoids extracts from creole maize races were able to reduce the 2-aminoanthracene- induced mutagenicity on TA98 and TA100 strains of Sal- monella typhimurium. Similarly, aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited antimutagenicity against EMS-induced mutagenesis using the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B forward mutation assay. The bio- active compound purified from the most potent rose cultivar was identified as an anthocyanin, which have po- tential health benefits (Kumar et al., 2013). Among carot- enoids, beta-carotene showed antigenotoxic properties in relation to radioactive iodine-131 and doxorubicin in Wis- tar rats using chromosomal aberration (Berti et al., 2014) and micronucleus tests, respectively (Aissa et al., 2012). The antimutagenic properties of different carotenoids from the green algae Chlorococcum humicola were observed in TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains of S. typhimurium with or without metabolic activation (Bhagavathy et al., 2011). Monente et al. (2015) tested the main bioactive compounds in coffee extracts to determine their role in antimutagenic activity. The results indicated that 5-caffeoylquinic acid standard was highly effective in the inhibition of 4-nitro- o-phenylene-diamine (NPD) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) mutagens, mainly due to caffeic acid, which had similar antimutagenic activity.
The concentration of daidzein in the cultivar IAC-24 was approximately 6.3 times higher than that ofthe quercetin and rutin, which is not observed in the IAC-17. These compounds can affect the physiology of insects, although the mode of action of this phytoestrogens needs to be better studied. Soybean seeds injured by stink bug produced a higher quantity of daidzein and genistein isoflavones, which reduced food quality for insects (Piubelli et al. 2003).
ABSTRACT - The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damageof S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and ﬂ ower bud; leaf and boll; ﬂ ower bud or boll; and leaf, ﬂ ower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 ﬂ ower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 ﬂ ower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damageto cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate ﬁ eld observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton.
lyzed for markers had either one or both the PM resistance genes present. The approach of mapping desirable genes in wild species background and then transferring them using MAS may prove more useful than transferring these first in cultivated wheat background followed by mapping. However, both the approaches will have their own merits and limitations. Sr22, for example, transferred from T. boeoticum to hexaploid wheat has not been used widely be- cause of linkage drag associated with it. As this gene confers resistance to stem rust race TTKSK (also known as Ug99), renewed interest in its deployment demanded shortening ofthe introgressed segments. DNA markers closely linked to Sr22 were identified and used to shorten the introgressed segments , . The approach of mapping the genes in wild species back- ground followed by marker assisted transfer adopted in the present study has resulted into de- velopment of introgression lines which are agronomically as good as the recipient elite lines.