Top PDF PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

Actually, only 2 sources embrace the suitable object of interest covering the whole Czech Republic. The first one is the military Digital landscape model 1: 25 000 managed by the Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office, which incorporates the bridges and similar objects in the form of 3D lines of their lateral edges at that part of area and in the grid in the rest of the territory. The second source is the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic (ZABAGED®) - altimetry, which has been preferred due to a more appropriate form for the set purposes. Since 2005, original ZABAGED® - altimetry has been improved by 3D polygons of bridges, body of dams etc. via stereo plotting of aerial photographs acquired within the periodical aerial photography of the Czech Republic. Before the modelling, some topological errors of the ZABAGED® - altimetry had to be fixed. About 10 000 polygons were not enclosed (probably because of the incorrect use of the snap function). The problem has been solved by the automatic process in ArcGIS software via Feature to Polygon function. All line features that have end vertexes of a distance of less than 1 meter have been enclosed. After this alternation, only 50 features had to be edited manually. Further, all grade-separated intersections (only approximately 10 events for whole territory) had to be prepared to the fit form. The Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre workplaces use Inpho OrthoMaster for the ortogonalization of aerial photographs. The software allows processing of all commonly used DTM formats. Before orthogonalization, it converts several formats to its binary native format DTM. In processing vast datasets, it can be long-standing (one 40 x 50 km block lasts about 1 hour), therefore DTM as input format is prioritized Inpho DTM Toolkit has been used for the combination raster and vector datasets for DTM files. The output model was created by the Surface Modelling function. Enclosed polygons were placed in the Object shapes class and grid points to the Mass Points class. The polygons delimiting the top of objects were vertically projected to the original terrain by definition of the boundary for removing terrain points inside. Afterwards, an interpolation algorithm computed the altitude of the boundary from the terrain (fig 4.).
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DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VALIDATION WITH NO GROUND CONTROL: APPLICATION TO THE TOPODATA DEM IN BRAZIL

DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VALIDATION WITH NO GROUND CONTROL: APPLICATION TO THE TOPODATA DEM IN BRAZIL

Digital elevation models (DEMs) are commonly used to describe the 3D geometry of the Earth surface for a variety of applications such as landscape synthesis, hydrologic modelling or geological hazard assessment. Satellite images have been increasingly used in the past two decades to provide DEMs, mainly through photogrammetry or radar interferometry (TOUTIN and GRAY, 2000). The quality of these data has been regularly studied, both to improve the mapping methods and to evaluate their applicative potentialities. Most experiments carried out for the validation of a single DEM or a DEM production method consist in comparing the obtained data with a reference data set, generally a set of ground control points. This comparison may be based on statistical accuracy indicators such as mean difference, standard deviation or RMSE (root mean square error), and when the GCPs are numerous and well distributed the error can be interpolated and mapped. This validation approach is very relevant to evaluate the positional accuracy of the DEM. However, many applications require a good rendering of terrain shapes and a high positional accuracy does not guarantee that his requirement is fulfilled, since accurate slopes are required rather than accurate elevations. In this article, we propose several quality criteria to validate DEMs in terms of shape rendering. The characteristic of these criteria is that they are difficult to implement with ground control, and they can rather be based on reasonable hypotheses concerning geomorphological rules that all topographic surfaces are supposed to fulfil.
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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MASSIVE DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO MAP DATABASE IN CHINA

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MASSIVE DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO MAP DATABASE IN CHINA

Digital orthophoto maps (DOM) have great advantages of high precision, plentiful information, fine intuition and visualization, and convenient acquisition, as one of the most important part of national spatial data infrastructure (NSDI)(Tian, 2006), and a type of required data resources in geo-spatial industry. In the continuous maintenance of fundamental geo-information DOM is not only one key part of national fundamental geo-spatial database, and also significant information resource of other geo- spatial data such as digital line graphic, digital elevation model and digital cartographic data ˄ Liao, 2006 ˅ . During the process of national economy construction and social development service, DOM could provide a lot of straightforward and convenient image applications for land cover classification, territory monitoring, resources and environment, city investigation, urban planning, forest management, agriculture assessment, disaster prevention and relief, public mapping service, and so on (Li, 2003; Wang, 2003).
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Topography and Land Temperature Investigation Using Arc GIS 10

Topography and Land Temperature Investigation Using Arc GIS 10

Different types of data were used for preparation of surface analytical maps of the area, like- shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) data, National atlas of Papua New Guinea and topographical map of the corresponding area. One of the most widely used digital elevation model (DEM) data sources is the elevation information provided by the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) (Coltelli, et. al., 1996), but as with most other DEM sources, the SRTM data requires significant levels of pre-processing to ensure that there are no spurious artifacts in the data that would cause problems in later analysis such as pits, spikes and patches of no data (Dowding, et. al., 2004). In the case of the SRTM data, these patches of no data are filled, preferably with auxiliary sources of DEM data, like-topographical maps. Both data sets were used for this study. Optical bands with standard false color combination (SFCC) of LANDSAT 7 ETM+ satellite images were used to find out the land use/ land cover classes in the study area. Thermal band were also used to calculate the daily cold and hot surface. All other details of the variables are given in the Table 1.
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Influence of digital elevation models on landslide susceptibility with Logistic Regression Model

Influence of digital elevation models on landslide susceptibility with Logistic Regression Model

The Porto wine production is the most important economic activity of the Douro Demarcated Region (DDR), and the associated landscape is partially classified as a world heritage since 2001. The topography, modified by the construction of the ground frame systems, has very steep slopes (Figure 1). This morphological modification has important consequences on the soil hydrological and stability conditions (Fernandes et al., 2017). The ground frame systems, based on the construction of agricultural terraces, is capable to allow the mechanization of agricultural work. The terrace platform is divided into two sections: one excavated and another filled. The desegregated materials of the filled section is under the influence of a high subsurface flow hydraulic gradient that promotes instability, (Fernandes et al., 2017).
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The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

The modification process of AlSi21CuNi silumin and its effect on change of mechanical properties of the alloy

Essence of modification of silumins boils to change of form or size of silicon crystals present as eutectic or primary ones. Perfect sliding properties and high abrasion resistance of hypereutectoid silumins result from their structure, which can be characterized by precipitations of primary crystals of silicon in soft eutectic groundmass. Primary crystals of silicon are unfavorable due to their impact on machinability of material. They bring about considerable wear of tools and have negative effect on conditions of machined surface (big roughness). In case of hypereutectic silumins, by introduction of active nucleuses of crystallization are refined mainly a brittle, hard precipitations of primary silicon [1]. High content o silicon results in necessity of superheating of the alloy in limits of 850 – 900 C and keeping it
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The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The Influence of Small Amounts of Aluminium on the Spheroidization of Cast Iron with Cerium Mischmetal

The work was aimed to determine the influence of aluminium in the amount from about 0.6% to about 2.8% on the structure of cast iron treated with cerium mischmetal and subjected to graphitizing modification with 75% ferrosilicon. Four experimental melts were held during the investigation. The charge was composed of the specially prepared grey iron, containing the basic elements within the presumed limits. While determining the desirable quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron, two contradicting conditions were taken into account, i.e. that the purpose is to achieve the nodular cast iron (which means that the relatively large carbon amount would be demanded) and that introducing aluminium to the melt results in the decreased solubility of carbon in cast steel. Taking this into account, it was stated that the quantity of carbon in the charge cast iron should be maintained within the range of 3.2÷3.4%. It has been assumed that the silicon content in the charge material should fall within 0.7÷1.0%, as it was during the former investigations. Manganese content was restricted to 0.1% maximally in order to achieve the desired structure with ferrite fraction as high as possible. It has been also assumed that the content of both sulphur and phosphor should be at the possible lowest level.
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Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

Selection of the temperature of casting the bronzes to plaster moulds

The view of the drop of the solidification bronze on plaster mould and the fragments of plaster mould from the side of the contact with the melted drop show on Figure 8. Conducted analy- ses on station to the investigations of processes setting on the surface of the mould under the influence of the liquid bronze, in the normal weather condition of surroundings confirm that the considerable quantity of gases gives off in the process of the decomposition of the anhydrite. The large quantity of gas cavities testifies about this inside the drop of the solidification bronze on the surface of the plaster mould and characteristic shape and the colour of the surface of the plaster mould under the drop.
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Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

Bamboo-dominated forests of the southwest Amazon: detection, spatial extent, life cycle length and flowering waves.

tributaries arising throughout the bamboo province are rich in suspended sediment, even in forested landscapes and despite the low amplitude of relief within low-order basins. This indicates a high rate of mechanical erosion. Second, small streams dry up completely in the dry season, suggesting incomplete recharge of ground water in the rainy season, due to low permeability of the substrate. Third, all rivers draining the bamboo province which have been studied to date have high conductivity: 310, 190 and 270 m S.cm 21 in the Iaco, Caete´ and Chandless Rivers [16], and 390 m S.cm 21 on average in tributaries of the upper Acre River [17]. These conductivities are much higher than central Amazon streams draining infertile upland. This also indicates that mechanical erosion has occurred, exposing cation-rich Miocene tidal sediments or bringing them close to the soil surface [18]. Finally, fertile but poorly drained soils explain why several tree species found associated with bamboo on upland in the southwest Amazon are elsewhere confined to floodplains of muddy rivers fertilized by sediment from the Andes. Examples are Couroupita sp., Ceiba pentandra, Calycophyllum sp., Hura crepitans and Triplaris spp. This all suggests that low hydraulic conductivity shunts rainfall into surface runoff during the rainy season, allowing mechanical erosion to continue apace with uplift of the Fitzcarrald arch, leading to shallow soils and providing a fresh supply of unleached fertile parent material from below.
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A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

A Method To Find The Area Of Sector Without The Usage Of Angle Made By The Chord

Thus if we prove that ΔL/ΔF =(r+a)/(r-a) then the theorem is proved. Now let us consider a circle with centre at origin and radius ‘r’. Thus the equation of circle is x²+y²=r².The equation of the chord at ‘a’ distance from center is ax-ry- ar=0 or Y= a/r(x-r).

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Avalanche situation in Turkey and back calculation of selected events

Avalanche situation in Turkey and back calculation of selected events

The avalanche mass started from the high part of the mountain on 18 January 1993 at 7:30 a.m. and buried 85 houses, 72 of which were completely destroyed or trans- ported to the far end of the run-out zone (Fig. 4). Fifty-nine people were killed and 21 injured. Prior to the avalanche release, new snow had fallen continuously for a period of three days, with heavy northern winds which brought 70 cm of fresh and dry snow; the air temperature had consistently remained at well-below zero (Gürer and Naaim, 1993). The villagers inferred that the first avalanche had come from the slope on the orographic left-hand side (the release zone of this avalanche is visible for the villager), filling the chan- nel with snow deposits. Just a few minutes later, a second avalanche came from the slope on the right-hand side (this release zone is invisible for the villager) and flowed over the previously filled channel, destroying large parts of the vil- lage. People mentioned a past avalanche which had occurred around 1890, in which 10 houses disappeared. Other than this information, no one living there could remember any other avalanches.
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Survey of Digital Materials for Teaching Less Commonly Taught Languages

Survey of Digital Materials for Teaching Less Commonly Taught Languages

Table 2 shows the number of student practice materials -- Phrase books, Vocabulary builders, and Script tutorials -- for each of our focus languages. Phrase books are sparse in our survey, since they are peripheral to the milieu under observation: they are rarely used in classrooms and rarely produced by academic or government sources. Vocabulary and Script tools, on the contrary, were well represented and appear to be on the rise. We see two reasons for this trend. First, digital media lend themselves easily to those uses. Teachers find it easy to create interesting digital activities to reinforce vocabulary and script learning, and students enjoy using them. The second reason is that amateurs who have never taught a language may have the impression that the script and vocabulary are all that is needed to master a new language. Hobbyists have designed colorful interactive websites and apps that offer an engaging environment for practicing vocabulary and script skills, but they seldom go beyond those elements of language learning. Though not from an academic source, the hobbyist materials we have selected to cite in the LMP bibliography would serve as excellent adjuncts to a formal course. The script tutorials, of course, are found only for languages that do not use the Roman alphabet.
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Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Operating characteristics of turbine mixers based on the analysis of power demand of the mixer’s drive

Optimisation of the turbine mixer’s performance during the preparations of the sand mix still remains an important issue as this mixer type is now in widespread use. Monitoring techniques of the system sand mixing include the analysis of electric power demand by the mixer’s drive based on measurements of power components. This study shows the operating characteristics of turbine mixers as the function of electric power demand by the drive system.

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Quím. Nova  vol.27 número3

Quím. Nova vol.27 número3

Based on the outstanding regio- and stereoselectivity of the enzymes, biocatalysis provides nowadays a convenient methodology to achieve selective chemical transformations of a wide range of substrates having very different chemical structures, through enzyme- catalysed reactions 7,8 . Moreover, as enzymes are environmental

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Inoculum preparation and Production of L-asparaginase

Inoculum preparation and Production of L-asparaginase

screen newer organisms in order to obtain strains capable of producing new and high yield of L-asparaginase. Among the actinomycetes several Streptomyces species such as S. karnatakensis, S. venezualae, S. longsporusflavus and a marine Streptomyces sp. PDK2 have been explored for L-asparaginase production (14). The enzyme is produced throughout the world by both submerged and solid-state cultures. Extra-cellular asparaginases are more advantageous than intracellular since they could be produced abundantly in the culture broth under normal conditions and could be purified economically. In this paper, we report the production of an extra-cellular L- asparaginase by a novel isolate, Streptomyces gulbargensis (3) under submerged culture using groundnut cake extract. Attempts were made to study the optimization of L- asparaginase production, its purification and characterization from S. gulbargensis.
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Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

Synthesis Of Arts In Architecture Of Uzbekistan Of The Ancient Period

was based on plastic contrast. For example, to emphasize the central part among the other composition, the architect 'in the middle third of the main wall had arranged an extensive (5.60 m) but shallow (75 cm) niche‖ [16, 46p]. The building itself was small in scale, and to emphasize its monumentality and visually to expand its interior, the sculptors correlated the height of zofor (1.40 m) to 6-meter span of the building. Frieze made with account of the angle of perspective, was decorated with garlands, supported by frames of children. The images of the frieze were original in the "very understanding of the ideal of human beauty and its artistic expression in plastic forms" [44, 61p]. Often in these images there was observed a deliberate asymmetry (in the faces), the disproportion (in the figures), aimed to correct the visual angle. For the sculpture in Toprak-kala "a rhythmic repetition of similar sculptural groups, determining architectonic division of interior, was characteristic" [45]. The style and the manner of sculpture, for example, of friezes were the same as of acanthus, volutes. So, it can be assumed that the ancient sculptors have been actively involved not only in the development of sculptures, but in architectural and decorative compositions (especially of capitals), and the connection between the latters was very tight. In general, the nature of decoration of the premises depended on the functions of the latter: "household and service rooms were modestly furnished, as for residential and ceremonial rooms they were finished with the appropriate splendor‖ [46, 67p]. The sculpture, obeying the architecture, served as an element of its design. In Bactria a monumental sculpture "was designed primarily to be installed in the temples" [22, 901p]. In architectural
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Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazard along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy)

Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazard along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy)

was to increase their values. Since the SGS scenario considers low density develop- ment, sprawled growth could lead to greater travel distances which in turn can result in growth along the road networks. Therefore, the RG coefficient was increased. Spatial planning is more aimed at how to satisfy the demand for new urban areas and thus, flexibility in current exclusion levels is expected. Exclusion layers were arbitrarily set

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Some Arguments for the Operational Reading of Truth Expressions

Some Arguments for the Operational Reading of Truth Expressions

Now we must make one remark concerning the concepts of formal semantics and meta-language. Philosophers who accept a model theory think that the semantics of a given language L can be described in its meta- language, ML. ML enables us to deine a model which is a structure consisting of a certain domain and a speciic function by means of which a logical value can be assigned to every sentence of L. The meta-language may serve to represent the object language’s sentences and the reality described by those sentences. It is possible because the so-called semantic deinition of truth contains a set of translation rules which enable the rendering of each primitive expression of L into ML. So, one can give a precise deinition of truth for L in ML. However, such a deinition of truth for L is—from the perspective of ML—in a sense, purely syntactic. All it really says in regard to any given sentence p belonging to L is that it has the property of being true iff a certain sentence π belonging to ML which is a translation of p is true. That π is true is, however, taken for granted in ML, and that is the reason to claim that Tarski’s deinition is in some sense syntactic – the speciication of true sentences of L is made by means of giving a list of true sentences of ML , and the sentences on the list play the role of axioms. The syntactic character of formal semantics has been noticed by the noblest critic of the whole idea of meta-languages, Ludwig Wittgenstein. 5 Wittgenstein, in his
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The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The comparison of the structure and microhardness of the tool steel C90 and HS 6-5-2 remelted with the electric arc

The examination of the structure and microhardness of surface layer of C90 non-alloy steel and HS 6-5-2 high speed steel after electric arc treatment are presented in the paper. The comparison has been presented due to the similar content of the carbon in both steels. The structure of the remelted zone of the steel C90 before the conventional tempering consists of the cells, dendritic cells surrounded with the cementite, there is a plate martensite and retained austenite inside them, whereas the structure of the steel HS 6-5-2 is consistuted with cells, dendritic cells and dendrites surrounded with the eutectic system, inside of which there is a plate martensite and retained austenite. Such structure is characterized by the similar microhardness (790-800 HV0,065) and intensity of the tribiological wear. The tempering causes the decrease of the microhardness in non-alloy steel and the increase of the microhardness in high speed steel.
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Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

The sub-basin/sub-watershed components of SWAT can be placed into eight major components including; hydrology, weather, erosion/sedimentation, soil temperature, plant growth, nutrients, pesticides, and land management. Erosion and sediment yield are estimated for each HRU with the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) (Williams et al., 1984). SWAT has been extensively validated across the U.S. for streamflow and sediment yields (Arnold et al., 1999). Limited validation of the SWAT nutrient simulation has been attempted. However, in this study, the surface runoff from daily rainfall was estimated using the modified SCS curve number (USDA-SCS, 1972) and the potential evapotranspiration (PET) was determined using the modified Penman–Monteith approach. The default values provided by the SWAT crop database were used for the crop phosphorus uptake and the optimal plant concentrations (Arnold et al., 1998).
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