with #1 and #2, which may account for the increment of the prevalenceof AD inShanghai. In fact, in recent years, industrial manufacturing has grown rapidly in #4JJ and #5BS, in contrast, #8(CB) still keeps in old production way as some other communities in the countryside. Indeed, there are several variables among ruralandurban areas, which might contribute to the differences found inprevalenceinShanghai. Pollution is usually higher inurban areas, as the traffic inurban areas is notably higher than inrural areas. Dotterud et al.  found a significant relative risk (3.0, 95%CI 2.5–3.5) for prevalenceof eczema in polluted versus nonpolluted areas. Other possible factors that might contribute to the effects are exposure to animals, maternal age, overcrowding inan apartment, differences in food (e.g. processed vs. fresh), socioeconomic factors and time spent indoors. Further studies on environmental circumstances are currently ongoing in our group to reveal the factors associated with a higher prevalenceof AD inurban areas.
International hospital-based studies have indicated a high risk of cognitive impairment after stroke, evidence from community-based studies inChina is scarce. To determine the preva- lence of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and its subtypes in stroke survivors resid- ing in selected ruralandurban Chinese communities, we conducted a community-based, cross-sectional studyin 599 patients accounting for 48% of all stroke survivors registered in the 4 communities, who had suffered confirmed strokes and had undergone cognitive as- sessments via the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Hachinski Ischemia Scale (HIS). Detection of PSCI was based on scores in these neuropsychological scales. Factors potentially impacting on occurrence of PSCI were explored by comparing demographic characteristics, stroke features, and cardiovas- cular risk factors between patients with and without PSCI. The overall prevalenceof PSCI was 80.97% (95%CI: 77.82%-84.11%), while that of non-dementia PSCI (PSCI-ND) and post-stroke vascular dementia (PSD) was 48.91% (95%CI: 44.91%-52.92%) and 32.05% (95%CI: 28.32%-35.79%), respectively. Prior stroke and complications during the acute phase were independent risk factors for PSCI. The risk of recurrent stroke survivors having PSCI was 2.7 times higher than for first-episode survivors, and it was 3 times higher for those with complications during the acute phase than for those without. The higher preva- lence of PSCI in this study compared with previous Chinese studies was possibly due to the combined effects of including rural stroke survivors, a longer period from stroke onset, and different assessment methods. There is an urgent need to recognize and prevent PSCI in stroke patients, especially those with recurrent stroke and complications during the acute phase.
To date, two other studies have reported the prevalenceof RLS in mainland China [10,12]. One was conducted in a population of 16 years of age and above in a town of Shandong prov- ince. The diagnosis in that study was based only on the 4-item screening questionnaire sug- gested by the IRLSSG, and no further interview was performed by a sleep specialist. Thus “mimics” (false positive diagnoses of RLS) could not be excluded. In that study, the prevalenceof RLS was 7.2% , which was much higher than that in our study (1.4%, 18 years). Anoth- er 3-step-design study surveyed an elderly population, over 50 years of age, in a town of Shang- hai. They used the 4-item screening questionnaire suggested by the IRLSSG to perform the first telephone interview. The second telephone interview was performed by a sleep specialist to rule out ‘mimics’ and secondary RLS. The final face-to-face interview was performed in the clinic for confirmation and examination. The overall prevalenceof primary RLS was 0.69% in the study , which was lower than that in our study (3.2%, 50 years). A possible explana- tion for the differences in the results between our studyand the previous studies is differences in procedure and sample selection.
Women also provide most of the labour for harvesting and post-harvest activities (FAO, 1996). Cassava is important, not only as a food crop but even more as a major source of income for rural households (Davies et al., 2008). As a cash crop, cassava generates cash income for the largest number of households in comparison with other staples. However the sustainability of this staple crop depends on the enormous availability of land for its cultivation. Land is the foundation of all human, social and economic activities that lie at the heart of social, political, or economic life of most nations especially African nations. Land is recognized as a primary source of wealth, social status and power, the basis for shelter, food, and economic activities and significantly provides employment opportunities in the rural areas. Land is fundamental to agriculture, yet the different challenges women face in accessing them are rarely fully addressed. For women, it is often particularly difficult to access, own or control land due to legal or cultural restrictions ( Emeasoba, 2012). This problem is widespread; women hold title to approximately two percent of land globally and are frequently denied the right to inherit property (World Bank, 2005). The wealth obtainable from cassava production, processing and marketing as a result of gender inequality remains under serious threat if nothing is done to improve the operating environmental and socio- economic conditions of the farmers in terms of asset holding, welfare and credit availability. The broad objective of the study is to analyze male and female access to land for cassava production in Abia state and specifically to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the difference in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female respondents.
abSTRaCT – We present the cases of two young females with severe atopicdermatitis, treated with anti-histamines, topical corticosteroids, high-dose systemic corticosteroids bursts and/or oral cyclosporine, without significant improve- ment and worsening with tapering of corticosteroids and/or cyclosporine. Several therapeutical adjustments were made without success before starting treatment with subcutaneous omalizumab. The clinical evolution of these patients under- going treatment with omalizumab is described and its role in the treatment ofatopicdermatitis is discussed.
There are 56 state-certiﬁed ethnic minorities inChina, of which 26 are living in the Yunnan province. People from these minority groups prefer to live incommunity concen- trated geographic regions. Xishuang Banna is a Dai concentrated community region. However, ethnic groups like Hani (Hani Zu) are more concentrated in the country- side, while the Han group (largest ethnic group) lives inurban areas throughout China. A total of 368 women (177 ruraland 190 urban) were recruited from October to November 2014. Urban women were from Xishuang Banna city andrural women from the Hani village, 60 km southwest of Xishuang Banna. Inclusion criteria were a) the participant should be a permanent resident of the area, b) have above 18 years of age, c) not be pregnant, d) have no history of total uterus or cervical resection, and e) provide written consent. Due to ethnic custom, community meetings were held prior to recruit- ment of participants in both areas. Interested women were then assigned to appointments at the local community center, where they were individually informed, and written consent was taken. All participants were interviewed by a trained interviewer in a separate room using a standard- ized questionnaire to gather information on the demo- graphic and social variables, cervical screening and reproductive history, smoking and drinking habits, and sexual behavior. Subsequently, a qualiﬁed gynecologist performed the pelvic examination and collected exfoliated cervical cells using a cyto-brush (Hybribio, China).
Although there are multiple etiologies of POI (genetic, chromosomal, infectious, and iatrogenic causes), the etiology cannot be identiied in most patients and this is referred to as idiopathic POI; up to 30% of idiopathic cases may have an auto- immune cause (4). The most convincing evidence coming from the commonly observed association of POI with other autoimmune disorders (5, 6) are demonstration of anti-ovarian antibodies (AOA, 7, 8) and histological indings of ovarian tissue from affected women. Roughly, one third of POI patients have AOA and/or antithyroid antibodies in their serum (1, 9). Various organ-speciic and systemic autoimmune diseases cause autoimmune ovarian insuficiency in up to 30% of women with POI (4). According to the literature, 2-10% of POI cases are known to be associated with adrenal au- toimmunity (10). One of the irst signs that auto- immunity may be responsible for ovarian function failure came from the observation that ovarian failure may precede the onset of Addison’s disease by 8-14 years (11). Autoimmune Addison’s dis- ease seldom develops in isolation, whereas several other endocrine glands and organs are generally affected, leading to an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APGS, 12). Two main forms of APGS can be clinically discerned, APGS types 1 and 2. APGS type 1 is characterized by an association of mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and Addison’s disease. In about 60% of cases, there is also an association with ovarian insufi- ciency. Blizzard et al. (13) and Irvine et al. (14) found that POI commonly presents with adrenal cytoplasmic antibodies, called steroid cell antibod- ies (SCA); they react with cytoplasmic antigens of other steroid-producing cells present in the ovary, testis and placenta. Alteration of lymphocytes and their speciic subsets, as well as T-cell mediated injury are likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune oophoritis. Surface markers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been shown to be deranged in early autoimmune phases and to be persisted through the disease, even after targeted disruption (15).
All the case report form data were entered in a customized database using SPSS program (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA). All the analyses have been performed using SPSS Version 10.0. Age adjusted mean levels of different demographic, lifestyle and physical variable were determined. Numerical variables are reported as mean ±SEM. Trends in numerical variables have been determined by ANOVA test for trend. Prevalence rates are reported as percent with 95% confi- dence intervals (CI). Age-adjustment inprevalence rates has been performed using the direct method and female population in 2001 Indian census used for adjustment. We used these age- data as it corresponds better with the study periods. Trends inprevalenceof risk factors inrural, urban-poor andurban-middle class groups were determined with Mantel Haenszel X 2 test for trend. Two-line regression analysis was performed to determine association of over- weight/obesity inrural, urban poor andurban middle class women with various risk factors. P values <0.05 were considered significant.
Intermetals are creep-resistant materials with unique properties intermediate between the properties of metals and ceramics. Their low density, high strength and resistance to oxidation, combined with sufficient ductility and fracture toughness, make them an attractive material for machine elements operating at elevated temperatures andin corrosive environments. Intermetallic phases based on Fe and Al (called intermetallics) are intermetallic compounds very interesting in terms of the technological properties, which combine the properties of metals and ceramics. From the Fe-Al phase equilibrium diagram it follows that the widest use could have two phases: FeAl and Fe 3 Al. Of these two phases, more useful seems be the FeAl
Data were recorded in MS Access and analysed in Stata 10 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA). Participant character- istics were summarized using frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and means and standard deviations for continuous variables. Chi square and t tests were used to compare demographic characteristics between men and women. Odds ratios and their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between variables and HIV prevalence. Unadjust- ed (univariable) analyses were conducted and a likelihood ratio test (LRT) used to screen for variables to be included in the adjusted (multivariable) model. Variables that reached a significance level of P,0.1 were selected for inclusion in the multivariable model based on the theory of conceptual frameworks . Sex and age were included and retained in the multivariable model as a priori confounders. Variables were removed from the multivariable model using a backward elimination type algorithm, retaining those that remained significant at P,0.05. Predictors of HIV incidence were determined by fitting unadjusted and adjusted models using a similar algorithm to that used for the HIV prevalence analysis.
4,6,7,9,10,13,17,22,23] and included: (a) age (continuous per year); (b) sex (male or female); (c) income (,1,000 or 1,000 Pula/month [where 1 Pula was equivalent at the time of the study to approximately US$0.25]); (d) education (did not complete high school or had at least a high school education); (e) residence type (rural, urban, or urban village); (f) marital status (married, living with partner, or other); (g) knowledge surrounding HIV/AIDS (correct or incorrect); (h) symptoms of depression (continuous measure with score ranging from 1.0 to 4.0); (i) frequency of visits to a medical provider (less than one, one or two, or three or more visits/year); (j) history of testing for HIV (yes or no); (k) intergenerational relationships, deﬁned as having had sexual relations with a partner ten or more years older or younger in the past year  (yes or no); (l) lack of control in sexual decision-making in the previous 12 months (participants were included in this category if they believed that their partner usually or always made the decision as to whether or not to have sex); and (m) health status (very good or good versus fair or poor).
This work was supported by a grant from the Merck, Sharp & Dhome Foundation, Portugal. The Northern Region Health Author- ities agreed and funded the investigator meetings. The authors thank their fellow participants working in the Department of Neurology, Hospital Geral de Santo Anto´nio (Porto) and Hospital de S. Pedro (Vila Real), particularly Carla Ferreira, Miguel Veloso, Carlos Correia, and Gabriela Lopes for performing the echo-Doppler studies, Severo Torres for organizing the echocardiographic studies, Joa˜o Lopes and Joa˜o Ramalheira for performing the electroencepha- lographic studies, the psychologist Luı´s Cunha, and the neuroradi- ologist Joa˜o Teixeira. The authors also thank the general practitio- ners and nurses working in the health centers involved in this study. A special thanks to the patients and their families, without whose cooperation and help this study would not have been possible. A grateful acknowledgement goes to Professor Charles Warlow, Uni- versity of Edinburgh, for his helpful comments and time spent on the ACINrpc Study. The authors have no conflicts of interest with respect to this work.
Trophoallergens are specific components of food or its ingredients, able to precipitate the atopic eczema at 19.6% to 30% of the dogs with atopicdermatitis (AD). This study evaluated the efficacy of hydrolyzed soy dog food and homemade food with unusual protein in the control of chronic pruritus in dogs with AD. For this, twenty-eight dogs with AD were selected. AD diagnosis was based on Favrot’s criteria. The animals were separated in two groups; one group consumed hydrolyzed soy dog food while the other group consumed homemade food with protein sources and original carbohydrates. They were evaluated every two weeks by the Rybnicek and CADLI scale over 60 days. Animals in the group that consumed hydrolyzed soy dog food presented a reduced score of pruritus (Rybnicek scale) on days +15, +30, +45 and +60 (P<0.01) compared to day 0. While the dogs in the homemade food group have not presented a significant difference (P>0.05) in 60 days of treatment. When evaluated by the Canine AtopicDermatitis Lesion Index (CADLI), dogs treated with soy hydrolyzed dog food had a partial improvement on days +45 (P<0.05) and +60 (P<0.01) compared to day 0, while the dogs in the second group did not show improvements (P>0.05) in 60 days of treatment. In conclusion, soy hydrolyzed dog food has proved effective to partially control clinical signs of food-induced atopicdermatitis; however, it is not effective for the complete control of the disease.
[8,11]. Members of the genus Paederus are usually large and moderately convex. They are usually two-colored, with prominent black or blue and red coloration, but sometimes the entire body is a monochromatic black, blue or red. Paederus fuscipes Curtis, the most common species in our region, is the main cause of Paederus derma- titis. Its head is shiny black, its thorax and first four abdominal segments are red, its elytra are blue, and its last two abdominal segments are black. Its population increases markedly during the rainy season in July and August . It is commonly found in agricultural crops, including maize, bajra (pearl millet) and berseem (Egyptian clover), as well as in domestic gardens . This study was designed to elucidate the population dynamics of rove beetles and the peak season of Paederus dermatitis. A sur- vey was also carried out to ascertain the demographic fea- tures and housing conditions of individuals living in the context of this cutaneous condition.
Study population was comprised by 1042 children attending the 17 nursery schools involved in the INAIRCHILD project (approved by the Ethics Commission of Universidade do Porto and by the Ethics Commission of Hospital de S. João, Porto). These nursery schools were located inurbanand suburban contexts in Porto district andinrural context in Bragança district (both in northern region of Portugal). In Porto district there were considered 3 and 7 nursery schools, respectively for infants (children aged under 3) and pre-schoolers (3-5 years old); in Bragança district, there were considered 2 and 5 nursery schools, respectively for infants and pre-schoolers.
of households are expected to continue to perform their traditional roles and at the same time take on men’s responsibilities. However, culture dictates that they consult men even when they are away. The daunting extra burden on rural women left behind can have far-reaching consequences, including on girls. Girls are stopped from going to school and take up the roles of their mother when their fathers have migrated to town, hence, denying them education. This study is in concurrence, with a study done inChina, which found out that the shortage of male farm workers due to migration has resulted in girls being pulled out of school in order to take care of younger siblings and to help with farm work (IOM, 2009). Further analysis of the literature review indicates that in African societies, decisions about rural development projects are usually hampered by absenteeism of men in the household and they are the determinants on women’s involvement incommunity projects. This paper observes that women’s needs frequently differ from those of men, but are often overlooked when such kind of projects are being formulated and implemented. Therefore, improved access to decision making would provide women a chance to articulate their peculiar needs in the household and the community. Implications on Education
Data were analyzed using the glm-function in R version 2.15.2 (R Development Core Team, 2012). Possible associations of S. aureus nasal carriage with age, sex and the other four risk factors investigated by the questionnaire (exposure to hospital environ- ment, self-reported antimicrobial therapy, self-reported disease, and health worker in household) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. The confounding effects were assessed for each factor through assessment of the effect of the parameter estimates by offering the factors individually and assessing the effect from this. Furthermore, two-way interactions were assessed. For analytical purposes, community-associated (CA) S. aureus was defined as isolates from participants without previous exposure to the hospital environment, whereas community-onset (CO) S. aureus referred to isolates from participants with a history of hospital exposure within the last 12 months . Model fit was assessed using the Pearson X 2 -statistics to judge unexplained extra- binomial variation. Relative risks of significant parameters were subsequently estimated. The two-sample z-test was used to compare the proportion of strains resistant to the different antimicrobials in the two areas. Furthermore, the association of genotypes (spa type, CC-groups, PVL-positivity) to sex and source (community) were determined using the Fisher exact test. Only the four most prevalent genotypes with more than 10 observations were included in this analysis.
The development of fisheries sector was expected to keep the economy growth stable, to absorb more labor forces, to produce high foreign exchange, and the most important thing is to increase the income per capita as well as to give a muliplier effects to the society. The effect of economy from an economy activity is usually performed with input-output analysis approach (I-O) and Computable Geberal Equlibrium (CGE) to know the direct, indirect and induced impacts . The impact of economy in a productive activity, for example fisheries can be grouped into three catergories, i.e. direct advantage, indirect advantage, and induced advantage . Direct advantage is triggered from the fishing activity that needs input like labor force/ ship’s crew, fuel, Ice, clean water, supplies/ ration etc. That input can be obtained from other sector. This can cause indirect advantage. If ship’s crew is from local area, the expense of the crew can create induced benefit in that area. Not all the benefits or the impact can be felt by local society. Does the input come from the other area or imported one, the rotation of money can cause indirect benefit then. This is a leakage of benefit. The flow of the money from the fisheries activity to the local society at last creates the impact of economy and economy leakage. Even though it is a little, the empirical studies that try to count the downstream and upstream linkage in small scale fishing in a developing country tend to show that the number of added work is created through the downstream and upstream linkage that is significant enought . Downstream and upstream linkage is stated in Table 1. Generally, the international value chain for economic commodities is important for sellers, such as, tuna, salmon, skipjack tuna, shrimp and tilapia, which consist of some nodal with a product that passes over longer to achieve consumers. Whereas some species that is not economically important is important to the sustainability for local food which is part of the shorter value chain . Small scale fishing is very important as a source of livelihood, earning, production and world fish supply. Besides that, small scale fishing provides fish that directly gives contribution to increase the food and nutrition sustainability .
The present cross-sectional study was conducted amongst mothers having children between 0-36 months of age group in the field practice area ofRural Health Training Centre(RHTC) of Department ofCommunity Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. This centre is situated at about 5 kms from the Medical College and caters to a population of about 12,500 from 8 villages. All the mothers of children less than 36 months old were included in the study. A total of 500 mothers had children less than 36months of age, of which, 468 mothers everbreastfed their infants & hence data pertaining to breastfeeding practices was asked in detail from mothers of babies who were breastfedi.e.468. A house to house survey was conducted and the researcher herself filled the pre-tested closed ended structured questionnaire. Informed verbal consent was taken from each of the participants. The related information regarding appropriate breastfeeding practices in the initial six months was taken for example, initiation & frequency of breastfeeding, colostrum feeding, exclusive breastfeeding. Structured questionnaire required 20 min. to half an hour. The study was carried out for a period of one year i.e. May 2009 till April 2010. The terms and definitions for Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices were according to National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding 4 . The information thus
Clinical diagnosis is usually easy except in infants, tod- dlers andin elderly people, which present more-atypical clinical features. Skin biopsies can help to exclude other common diseases mimicking, coexisting or complicating AD, malignant diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lympho- ma or, remarkably inchildhood, other rare diseases such as primary immunodeficiencies and nutritional deficien- cies. To support diagnosis, several sets of criteria have been proposed over time, but the original Hanifin and Rajka criteria 35 remain the most widely used worldwide. 14