Cloudcomputing is currently a considerably active area in the computer science field. It is safe to say it due to the amount of scientific research done on the subject and the quantity of new products using the cloud as their foundation. Throughout this document we will discuss some of the published research papers related to the topic, and mention some of the products that are already taking advantage of cloudcomputing technology. Since the paradigm of Cloudcomputing seems to be getting a large acceptance, we believe it is in the best interest of future Cloud users to learn about the security issues they might face when deciding to move their businesses to the Cloud. The benefits of moving to the Cloud have already been discussed and enumerated in multiple texts [1, 2]. We present a discussion on this particular subject in Section 2.1. The question that we still need to ans- wer is whether or not high-value businesses can move to the cloud when the security risks they face are almost prohibitive. Showing that these risks are serious is what we propose to achieve with this work. We are going to perform an analyses demonstrating to current cloud clients, how insecure is their data going to be once they relinquish its control over to the Cloud provider. We also hope that our work can serve as a call for action directed at the research community, which will hopefully solve the problems we present here. In the thesis we take the word privacyin a broad sense, including any information that a company or a cloud user considers to be confidential or private.
Steven Warshak stops the government’s repeated secret searches and seizures of his stored email using the federal Stored Communications Act (SCA) in July, 2007. However, the government argues that the Fourth Amendment doesn’t protect emails at all when they are stored with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or a webmail provider like Hotmail or Gmail. This paper mainly focuses on the issues related to Privacyincloudcomputing. Privacy is defined as a fundamental human right related to the collection, use, disclosure, storage and destruction of personal data (Personally Identifiable Information-PII). The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and Canadian Institute of Charted Accountants (CICA) define that it is the right and obligation of individuals and organizations with respect to the collection, use, retention, and disclosure of personal information. Privacy is the protection of appropriate use of personal information of cloud user .
The Cloudcomputing is a latest technology which provides various services through internet. The Cloud server allows user to store their data on a cloud without worrying about correctness & integrity of data. Cloud data storage has many advantages over local data storage. User can upload their data on cloud and can access those data anytime anywhere without any additional burden. The User doesn’t have to worry about storage and maintenance of cloud data. But as data is stored at the remote place how users will get the confirmation about stored data. Hence Cloud data storage should have some mechanism which will specify storage correctness and integrity of data stored on a cloud. The major problem of cloud data storage is security .Many researchers have proposed their work or new algorithms to achieve security or to resolve this security problem. In this paper, we proposed a Shamir’s Secrete sharing algorithm for Privacy Preservation for data Storage security incloudcomputing. We can achieve confidentiality, integrity and availability of the data. It supports data dynamics where the user can perform various operations on data like insert, update and delete as well as batch auditing where multiple user requests for storage correctness will be handled simultaneously which reduce communication and computing cost.
The term “cloudcomputing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefi ts have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as diffi cult and expensive and the promise of cloudcomputing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloudcomputing has simplifi ed some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.
If user moves out of the network then same IP address is reassigned and reused by other customer, so it will create security risk to new user. A customer can’t assume that network access to its resources is terminated upon release of its IP address. The old IP address is assigned to new user still the chance of accessing the data by some other user. The address still exists in the DNS cache, it violating the privacy of the original user. IP addresses are finite quantity and billable assert. There is a similar lag time between when physical (i.e., MAC) addresses are changed in ARP tables and when old ARP addresses are cleared from cache, an old address persists in ARP caches until they are cleared .
Whenever an organization analyses the possible migration of its IT services to the paradigm of cloudcomputing, availability, security, privacy and data integrity are on the top of considerations. These concerns relate with both technological and legal matters, bearing in mind that the service provider can be legally responsible for any security breach in a cloud-based service, but, nonetheless, the client is usually the most severely affected. Therefore, before moving any service to the cloud it is vital to properly understand and model the division of responsibilities, risks and potential impact between the client institution and the cloud service provider. Additionally, the customers must recognize that, despite shifting their IT infrastructure to the cloud they are still responsible for compliance, risk and security management. Otherwise, the expect benefits provided by cloudcomputing can be counterweighted by the involved risks.
The global dimension of cloudcomputing requires standardized methodologies and technical solutions to enable stake holders to asses privacy risks and established adequate protection level. In this section we proposed a security scheme taking regarding issues and challenges keeping in mind. Our aim is to design and develop a security proposal that would be accurate, secure data in shared pool, secure for unexpected intrusions, adaptive and be of real time. The proposed secure model provides the security of cloud services by challenging these privacy issues:
Third Party Authentication can be considered as a form of scrutiny. Private audit-ability and public audit-ability are the two classifications of third party authentication. The private audit-ability may result in large scheme efficiency. But, the public audit-ability only enables everyone including the client, who is the owner of data, to insist the cloud server for the rightness of data storage without owning private information. Third - party auditor (TPA) aids in auditing the data of the client, so that the trouble of the data owner in handling the data can be eliminated. TPA audits to see if the data stored in the cloud is unharmed or not and thus, avoids the client from taking part. This audit performed by TPA is more essential because it accomplishes economies of scale for CloudComputing. The released audit assists the owners in assessing the risks that are related with the cloud data services accessed. The report can be advantageous to the cloud service provider for enhancing their cloud-dependent service platform .
The traditional model of application-centric access control, where each application keeps track of its collection of users and manages them, is not feasible incloud based architectures. This is more so, because the user space maybe shared across applications that can lead to data replication, making mapping of users and their privileges a herculean task. Also, it requires the user to remember multiple accounts/passwords and maintain them. Cloud requires a user centric access control where every user request to any service provider is bundled with the user identity and entitlement information . User identity will have identifiers or attributes that identity and define the user. The identity is tied to a domain, but is portable. User centric approach leaves the user with the ultimate control of their digital identities. User centric approach also implies that the system maintains a context of information for every user, in order to find how best to react to in a given situation to a given user request. It should support pseudonyms and multiple and discrete identities to protect user privacy. This can be achieved easily by using one of the open standards like OpenID or SAML.
Embora a ideia de cloudcomputing seja uma tendência relativamente recente, as suas raízes remontam aos anos 60. Em 1961, John MaCarthy, Professor no MIT apresentou o conceito de computação fornecido como um bem de consumo, semelhante à electricidade. Mais tarde, em 1969, J. Licklider, pioneiro no projecto que desenvolveu as bases da ARPANET, precursor da Internet, apresentou a ideia de uma rede de escala: “If such a network as I envisage nebulously could be brought into operation, we could have at least four large computers, perhaps six or eight small computers, and a great assortment of disc files and magnetic tape units—not to mention remote consoles and teletype stations—all churning away.”. Estes dois conceitos, em conjunto com a ubiquidade da internet, estão na base do que mais tarde viria a evoluir para uma infraestrutura de cloudcomputing (Krutz & Vines, 2010). De facto, o conceito de cloudcomputing não é mais que a evolução de conceitos de computação suportados por novas tecnologias e algumas já existentes, representando mais uma mudança de paradigma na forma como os serviços computacionais são desenvolvidos e acedidos pelos utilizadores (Sosinsky, 2011). Entre essas tecnologias podemos destacar, por exemplo, a capacidade de processamento, virtualização de recursos, a capacidade de armazenamento, largura de banda disponível, descida nos preços de hardware, etc. Tudo combinado torna a cloudcomputing uma infraestrutura apelativa e competitiva.
integrar Redes, Sistemas/Software e Banco de Dados em datacenters e utilizar técnicas de virtualização em um ambiente seguro? Sua empresa já trabalha em Cloud? CloudComputing revolucionou a infraestrutura de TI das organizações com a flexibilização de arquitetura, simplificação dos processos, o aumento da segurança e a elasticidade na contratação de serviços.
Existem muitas definições para computação em nuvem e um dos mais citados é do Instituto Nacional de Padrões e Tecnologia (Dillon et al., 2010; Mell e Grance, 2011): "Cloudcomputing é um modelo para permitir que convenientemente se faça o acesso à rede a pedido (on-demand) e a um grupo partilhado de recursos computacionais configuráveis (por exemplo, redes, servidores, armazenamento, aplicativos e serviços) que podem ser rapidamente fornecidos e libertados com o menor esforço de gestão ou serviço de interacção com o fornecedor. Este modelo de nuvem promove a disponibilidade."
Das diversas definições encontradas na bibliografia, a que, na perspetiva do candidato, melhor define este conceito é a descrita na versão final do NIST 2 (MELLl, et al., 2011) onde é referido que ―Cloudcomputing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models".
One of the greatest challenges of modern law is the adaptability of the legislation to the society that changes ever faster, with new forms of technology unthinkable in the past. Among these innovations there is CloudComputing, a set of computer services fitting the legal definition of service, but having no legal prevision, especially regarding its taxation. In face of the existing charges, it is identified as the most adequate one the Tax Over Services of Any Kind. However, at the light of constitutional and infra-constitutional principles, the charging for tributes over this service is seen as impossible in the current situation, both for lack of legal provision and for being a service provided out of the national territory, as well as for the lack of capacity to monitor and charge this tax by the municipalities.
Neste capítulo foram descritos os principais serviços de infra-estrutura da Amazon. O AWS é um chapéu de soluções e tecnologias baseadas no paradigma CloudComputing e é baseado em pura virtualização. O utilizador não tem à disposição recursos físicos, apenas virtuais. Todo o hardware e infra-estrutura de rede é propriedade da Amazon, mas colocado à disposição de quem a pretender usar, a partir do momento em que a primeira instância é inicializada. Existem diversos tipos de AMIs que podem ser seleccionadas personalizadas ou mesmo implementadas, com um nível de flexibilidade bastante elevado. Um utilizador tem, não só uma forma de poder criar datacenters virtuais, como um conjunto de serviços necessários para a integração de uma solução aplicacional de servidor, na nuvem. Este é o maior potencial dos serviços de infra-estrutura deste fornecedor.
To make it as simple as possible for a (meteorological) end user to use distributed computing resources, we make use of a so-called middleware system. ASKALON, an existing mid- dleware from the Distributed and Parallel Systems group in Innsbruck, provides integrated environments to support the development and execution of scientific workflows on dy- namic grid and cloud environments (Ostermann et al., 2008). To account for the heterogeneity and the loosely cou- pled nature of resources from grid and cloud providers, ASKALON has adopted a workflow paradigm (Taylor et al., 2007) based on loosely coupled coordination of atomic ac- tivities. Distributed applications are split in reasonably small execution parts, which can be executed in parallel on dis- tributed systems, allowing the runtime system to optimise resource usage, file transfers, load balancing, reliability, scal- ability and handle failed parts. To overcome problems result- ing from unexpected job crashes and network interruptions, ASKALON is able to handle most of the common failures. Jobs and file transfers are resubmitted on failure and jobs might also be rescheduled to a different resource if transfers or jobs failed more than 5 times on a resource (Plankensteiner et al., 2009a). These features still exist in the cloud version
Usage optimization of available resources allows for improvement in the Quality of Service (QoS) supplied to the users, through faster and more responsive services. It also allows for cost reduction by the suppliers, due to less energy consumption by the more efficient resources and a better achievement rate of the Service Level Agreement (SLA), the contract that establishes the minimum performance requirements and the economical penalties for failing them, resulting in a gain for both parties of the Cloud market. Win-win situations are a great motivator for research, making the study of resource optimization highly desirable. One of the main parts of the Cloud is the scheduler, responsible for assigning tasks to the available hosts. This scheduling is made on-line [ HKKS03 ], meaning the assignment is made when a task arrives to the Cloud and should remain unaltered, save for host failure. The Cloud scheduler needs to evaluate the available hosts and decide which one is more fit for the task and will get it done more efficiently. This evaluation takes the specification of the tasks into account, either by user provided information or by testing it on a sandbox and assess its needs, and hosts’ workload and resource usage. Current standard scheduling techniques do not take into account the performance interference of Virtual Machines (VM) co-allocation [ KKB + 07 , PLM + 10 ]. This interference is a major bottleneck in current Cloud infrastructures, caused by the inability of virtualization technology and hardware architecture to fully separate some of the resources used, making multiple VMs race for the same resources on a given host. Rackspace, a major Cloud services supplier and founder of the OpenStack project, announced a new product designed to fight this same problem. Their solution is to remove co- allocation altogether and offer a contract that specifies that a given host is fully owned by a single user [ Kon14 ]. The announcement voices their experience with virtualization and the negative effects that interference has had on their service.
Abstract —The integration of information and communication technologies in education according to the global trend occupied a great interest in the Arab world through E-Learning techniques and put it into the form of services within Services Oriented Architecture Technique (SOA), and mixing its input and outputs within the components of the Education Business Intelligence (EBI) and enhance it to simulate reality by educational virtual worlds.This paper presents a creative environment derived from both virtual and personal learning environments based on cloudcomputing which contains variety of tools and techniques to enhance the educational process. The proposed environment focuses on designing and monitoring educational environment based on reusing the existing web tools, techniques, and services to provide Browser-based-Application.
Cloudcomputing is a computing paradigm in which the various tasks are assigned to a combination of connections, software and services that can be accessed over the network. The computing resources and services can be efficiently delivered and utilized, making the vision of computing utility realizable. In various applications, execution of services with more number of tasks has to perform with minimum intertask communication. The applications are more likely to exhibit different patterns and levels and the distributed resources organize into various topologies for information and query dissemination. In a distributed system the resource discovery is a significant process for finding appropriate nodes. The earlier resource discovery mechanism incloud system relies on the recent observations. In this study, resource usage distribution for a group of nodes with identical resource usages patterns are identified and kept as a cluster and is named as resource clustering approach. The resource clustering approach is modeled using CloudSim, a toolkit for modeling and simulating cloudcomputing environments and the evaluation improves the performance of the system in the usage of the resources. Results show that resource clusters are able to provide high accuracy for resource discovery.
research institutes and small/medium size enterprises, reducing the IT cost is especially important. For example, in the traditional school lab, because of software license and hardware constraints, many useful application software and platforms are not accessible to students “anytime and anywhere”. This problem may be solved using PaaS inCloudcomputing. Through virtualization and other resource sharing mechanisms, Cloudcomputing can dramatically reduces user costs and meet large-scale applications’ demands. Using virtualization techniques, it is possible to open a few platforms in a single physical machine (Windows, Linux or others) so that resources can be shared better and more users can be served. Most of Cloudcomputing platform is based on virtualized environments. In a virtualized Cloudcomputing lab, there are four major parts: software and hardware platforms provided from real and virtualized servers (narrowly speaking, PaaS resources); resource management node; database servers and users who access resources through Internet or Intranet. Generally speaking, above mentioned platforms and users can all be called resources in the Cloud. In the following sections, we consider a framework of design and implementation of PaaS in the Cloud, especially focusing on the resource management. Section 3 discusses the design architecture and major modules in the system; section 4 introduces the implementation technologies and operational environment; Related work in the literature are introduced in Section 5; finally a conclusion is provided in section 6.