Top PDF Process optimization for biodiesel production from jatropha oil and its performance evaluation in a ci engine

Process optimization for biodiesel production from jatropha oil and its performance evaluation in a ci engine

Process optimization for biodiesel production from jatropha oil and its performance evaluation in a ci engine

Abstract - Biodiesel production through transesterification process of Jatropha oil were studied. This paper investigates the influence of KOH (catalyst) amount; molar ratio of methanol to oil; reaction time and reaction temperature on Jatropha biodiesel yield were studied. The optimal combination of process parameters for maximum yield was found out by using Taguchi’s Techniques. A four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was used to carry out performance and emission tests. Different blends of Jatropha biodiesel with neat diesel were tested. The result concluded that Jatropha oil can be used as an alternative fuel in existing diesel engines without any engine modifications.
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Yield performance of half-sib families of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

Yield performance of half-sib families of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.)

Among oilseed plants, physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) stands out for its yield potential, superior to traditional oil- seeds, and for the physiochemical characteristics of its oil, which lends itself to biodiesel and biokerosene production (Dias 2011). This oilseed also stands out as a perennial crop alternative, without the need for annual replanting, and as a non-food crop, and therefore it does not directly compete against food crops. In spite of these potential advantages, it is important to consider that this species is still passing through the domestication process (Juhász et al. 2010, Freitas et al. 2011, Dias et al. 2012). Low yield, uneven fruit maturation and lack of improved cultivars with greater yield limit the viability of this crop (Dias et al. 2007). From the initial seed yield expectation of 4 t ha -1 year -1 or more, yields of
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COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER AND ITS DIESEL BLENDS

COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER AND ITS DIESEL BLENDS

Geo et al. (2008) have studied the combustion process of Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) and its methyl ester (RSOME) and also reported higher emissions of CO, HC and smoke and lower NOx as compared to that of diesel. Balusamy and Marappan (2008) have experimented with Methyl Ester of Thevetia Peruviana Seed Oil (METPSO) and reported a lower emission of CO, HC and a higher NOx as compared to that of diesel. Banapurmath et al. (2008) have conducted test with Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga methyl ester in a Diesel engine. They reported that higher peak cylinder pressure and shorter ignition delay for all biodiesels when compared with diesel. Sahoo and Das (2009) have conducted the experiment with methyl esters of Honge (HOME), Jatropha (JOME) and Sesame (SOME) in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection Compression Ignition (CI) engine and reported that the higher emission of CO, HC and smoke and lower NO as compared to that of diesel. In this experimental study, the biodiesel from different non-edible oils was produced by a method of alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Rajan and Kumar (2010) have studied the performance of a diesel engine with internal jet piston using biodiesel. They reported that the brake thermal efficiency is increased; the CO and Smoke emissions are decreased at full load. The NO emission is increased at full load compared to diesel fuel with the base diesel engine. The objectives of this experimental study are to assess the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with Neem oil methyl ester diesel blends and compared with diesel fuel.
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Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis: Optimization of production and its properties

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis: Optimization of production and its properties

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase; EC 2.4.1.19) converts starch in non reducing, cyclic malto-oligosaccharides called cyclodextrins (CDs). The major types of CDs contain 6, 7 and 8 glucose molecules linked by α(1-4) glycosidic bonds to form a ring and are named as α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD, respectively. CDs have the ability to encapsulate other molecules within their ringed structures. The ability of these unusual molecules to form inclusion complexes, which can change the physical and chemical properties of guest molecules, offers a variety of potential uses for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries (3,22). According to Van Der Veen et al. (26) many factors involved in producing specificity of CGTases have been
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By Ana Rita Guerra Silva Rodrigues

By Ana Rita Guerra Silva Rodrigues

Frequently, catalyst is prepared separately from the reaction mixture in order to favor the mass transfer. Sodium hydroxide is often used because it is cheaper and it is more available than potassium hydroxide. The amount of NaOH used in conventional processes consists, normally, in 1% of the total mass of edible oil. From the mixture between methanol and NaOH is obtained sodium methoxide which will be transferred to the transesterification reaction [21]. The molar ratio oil:methanol used in basic catalysis conventional processes is 1:6. Transesterification reaction is carried out in a mixed batch reactor during 1h30 at T=60ºC yielding 97% [17]. After the reaction, the mixture must settle down between 4h to 8h hours in order to recover glycerin (by-product), methanol that did not react and contaminants that might be formed. In the separator, the mixture glycerin/methanol is recovered at the bottom and the mixture with biodiesel, mono-, di-, and triglycerides and contaminants (small amounts of methanol, NaOH, soaps) is recovered at the top. Methanol recuperation is made with a mixture glycerin/methanol distillation at 65ºC and 1 bar. The Biodiesel will pass through a downstream process with three consecutive distillated water washes followed by a drying process in order to produce Biodiesel according to the norm EN14214. The first wash is done with water and a small amount of HCl in order to neutralize soaps that have been formed during the reaction and the NaOH left. The volume used of water is the double of biodiesel produced. This wash should be done at pH 7 with mechanical agitation with a minimal period of 4 hours. The second and third wash is made only using distillated water at the same conditions. The water used in the 2 nd and 3 th wash is reused to the 1 st and 2 nd followed washes,
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Studies on the production of bioethanol using Jatropha curcas biomass, a coproduct of the biodiesel production process

Studies on the production of bioethanol using Jatropha curcas biomass, a coproduct of the biodiesel production process

However, if digestibility improves significantly after hydrolysis of the long polysaccharide chains, the economic feasibility improves significantly. When comparing the three pretreatments, NaOH was the most effective for the concentration of glucan and xylan, but had a negative effect on the protein content. After hydrolysis of the pretreated Jatropha meal, the two alkaline pretreatments showed to be more effective than the acid pretreatment when comparing the concentration of produced glucose and xylose by HPLC. When DNS was used for the comparison of reducing sugars, the acid pretreatment showed greater sugar concentrations. Knowing that acids are more effective for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, it was likely that a greater portion of hemicelluloses was hydrolyzed into various pentose sugars (xylose, arabinose, ect.), causing the higher reducing sugar concentration for acid pretreated solids in comparison with alkaline treated biomass. After 24 hours, sugar concentrations averaged roughly 5 g/L for the three pretreatments. If theoretical fermentation of 0.51 g ethanol/g monomeric sugar is assumed, ethanol concentrations will not surpass 2.5 g/L (3.15%).
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Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Obtained from the Treatment of Poultry Abattoir Effluents and its Potential for Biodiesel Production

Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Obtained from the Treatment of Poultry Abattoir Effluents and its Potential for Biodiesel Production

The data obtained showed that evaluation of the parameters measured was necessary in order to define the best reaction mechanism for the use of this sludge oil in biodiesel production. The degree of acidity is shown in Figure 1. For the production of biodiesel, an acid catalysis reaction can be used to decrease the neutralization step in the process, or blends can be produced together with a raw material of low acidity index, in order to maintain the basic transesterification reaction. Figure 2 shows the moisture content, which varied from 0.05 to 0.89% (m/m) for the months analyzed. This could have been related to seasonal precipitation, since the storage tanks were open to the atmosphere. This information is important in the production of biodiesel, since the presence of water can lead to hydrolysis reactions, inflicting on the yield and causing final storage difficulties. Figure 3 shows the density of the sludge oil during the period, with no significant variations. The peroxide index (Fig. 4) is an important parameter, since it is directly related to degradation. The decrease in the index over the months could have been due to the consumption of peroxide in subsequent oxidation reactions. According to NAWAR 2 , this process can be accelerated if the oil is contaminated with a metal that
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Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed oil: parametric and optimization study

Microwave-assisted methyl esters synthesis of Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed oil: parametric and optimization study

Various non-edible oils have been used for biodiesel production through transesterification of triglycerides by using different methods, such as mechanical stirring, supercritical procedure (Ong et al., 2013), ultrasonic techniques (Ji et al., 2006), hydrodynamic cavitation (Chuah et al., 2015b), and microwave (Lee et al., 2010). However, only a few studies have reported on biodiesel production from Kapok seed oil (KSO). Among them was the study recently conducted by Yunus Khan et al. (2015) who investigated the fuel properties of a biodiesel obtained from the blends of Ceiba pentandra and Nigella sativa by mechanical stirring. Sivakumar et al. (2013) also studied the effect of molar ratio of methanol to Kapok oil, temperature, time, and catalyst concentration on biodiesel production process by using mechanical stirring method. In a different study, Vedharaj et al. (2013) reported that biodiesel derived from Kapok oil emitted higher nitrogen oxides compared to diesel fuel. The authors further strived to reduce the nitrogen oxides by using urea based selective non-catalytic reduction system, which was retrofitted in the exhaust pipe (Vedharaj et al., 2014).
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Produção de biodiesel de óleo de fritura residual em um módulo didático de biodiesel / Biodiesel production from residual frying oil in a didactic biodiesel module

Produção de biodiesel de óleo de fritura residual em um módulo didático de biodiesel / Biodiesel production from residual frying oil in a didactic biodiesel module

Neste artigo investigou-se a produção de biocombustível a partir do óleo residual de fritura por transesterificação etílica via catalise homogênea básica em um módulo didático de biodiesel pertencente ao curso de Engenharia Química da Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará. O óleo de fritura residual utilizado foi obtido em residências no município de Marabá, no estado do Pará e foi caracterizado em termos de índice de acidez, porcentagem de ácidos graxos livres, massa específica, teor de umidade e viscosidade e os biocombustíveis foram caracterizados em termos de índice de acidez, massa específica, viscosidade, cinzas, além de análises de espectroscopia no infravermelho para o óleo de fritura e o biodiesel. Foram realizados dois experimentos de transestericação com hidróxido de potássio (KOH) e um com hidróxido de sódio (NaOH) com massa equivalente de catalisador a 1% e temperatura de reação de 60 ºC, variando razão molar de óleo/ álcool e tempo de reação. Os resultados experimentais demonstraram que o experimento utilizando NaOH foi o que se apresentou consoante com as normas da Agência Nacional de petróleo. Assim, verificou-se que é possível a produção de biodiesel em um módulo didático a partir de óleo de fritura residual, demonstrando a viabilidade da produção de biodiesel utilizando uma matéria-prima residual. Palavras Chave: biodiesel, transesterificação, óleo de fritura.
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Biodiesel production from vegetable frying oil and ethanol using enzymatic catalysis

Biodiesel production from vegetable frying oil and ethanol using enzymatic catalysis

Biodiesel is a biodegradable alternative fuel for diesel oil, produced from renewable sources of energy (mainly alcohol and vegetable oil or animal fat), free of sulphur in its composition. It can be used in diesel engines without the need of any kind of adjustment, without significant loss of performance and contributes to improving the life of the engine (because it’s lubricant capacity is better than the one from diesel oil). Biodiesel has clean burning (pollutants production from biodiesel is lower than the one from diesel oil combustion). There are dozens of plant species from which oil can be extracted to produce biodiesel, such as sunflower, soybean, palm, corn and all oils and animal fats.
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Review and Comparison of Various Properties of Jatropha oil Biodiesel

Review and Comparison of Various Properties of Jatropha oil Biodiesel

Abstract: To avoid the conflict between food security and biodiesel production; second generation biofuel has drawn much attention. From this sense, Jatropha curcus is widely considered as an ideal feed stock of biodiesel production. The properties of Jatropha crop and Jatropha oil are main consideration of policymakers to persuade Jatropha as a potential cradle of biodiesel. This paper deals the various physical-chemical and biological properties of Jatropha oil with environmental impact. Comparison between palm oil, soybean oil and canola oil has also discussed. The major properties highlighted are kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, yield rate, productive life and GHG emission.
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Produção de energia (biodiesel) e recuperação de materiais (biochar) a partir da pirólise de resíduos de lodo urbano

Produção de energia (biodiesel) e recuperação de materiais (biochar) a partir da pirólise de resíduos de lodo urbano

Safe disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most pressing issues in the wastewater treatment cycle: at the European Union level, sludge production is expected to reach 13 Mt by year 2020. Sludge disposal costs may constitute up to, and sometimes above, 50% of the total cost of operation of a WWTP, and contribute to over 40% of its GHGs emissions. The most common disposal options at the moment are landfilling, disposal in agriculture (about 40% EU- wide), incineration or co-incineration, and use in the industrial production of bricks, asphalts and concrete. Sewage sludge, however, still contains beneficial resources such as nutrients, that can be recovered through specific processes (e.g. precipitation as struvite) and energy, recoverable through a variety of approaches. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of urban waste sludge was applied for the production of oil, (Syn)gas, and biochar that were afterwards characterized and compared to mainstream alternative fuels (biodiesels) and other material recovery options. Sustainability issues related to the production of biodiesel/biochars from urban wastewater treatment sludge are also discussed. The paper shows that waste urban sludge can indeed be a full component of the urban circular economy by allowing, if properly processed, recovery of energy resources at multiple levels: bio-oils (biodiesel), syngas and bio- char, all having definite advantages for final residues use and disposal. Biodiesel, in particular, allowing energy recovery as liquid fuel, offers a much more flexible and efficient utilization. Keywords: biochar, biodiesel, materials, microwaves, pyrolysis, sustainable energy, urban waste sludge.
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Effect of single double bond in the fatty acid profile of biodiesel on its properties as a CI engine fuel

Effect of single double bond in the fatty acid profile of biodiesel on its properties as a CI engine fuel

Table 2 shows the saturation levels of the selected biodiesels. It can be seen that the difference in unsaturation levels of the cotton seed, jatropha and karanja are lesser in magnitude with significant difference in MUSFA. In other biodiesels like rape seed, corn and olive oil, MUSFA dominates in the fatty acid profile with more than 70 % of unsaturation

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COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING KARANJA BIODIESEL BLENDS AS FUEL

COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE USING KARANJA BIODIESEL BLENDS AS FUEL

Karanja based bio-diesel is a non-edible, biodegradable fuel suitable for diesel engines. Karanja biodiesel has been prepared by transesterification method. Biodiesel-diesel blends have been prepared on volume basis. Physical properties of Karanja biodiesel, diesel and its blends have been determined. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, VCR diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends (10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 75%) with neat diesel. A series of engine tests, with CR 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 have been conducted using each of the above blends for comparative evaluation. Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, peak pressure development, heat release rate analysis of engine have been studied. The results of the experiment in each case have been compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Ignition delays of bio-diesel blends are lower than that of diesel; peak pressure takes place definitely after TDC for safe and efficient operation. Comparable rate of pressure rise obtained is indicative of stable and noise free operation of CI engines with karanja biodiesel blends. B10 is suitable alternative fuel for diesel at slightly higher CR can be used without any engine modifications.
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MANAGEMENT OF VASCULAR WILT OF LENTIL THROUGH OILS

MANAGEMENT OF VASCULAR WILT OF LENTIL THROUGH OILS

(Anonymous, 2011). The extent of the damage to the crop due to the disease ranged from 20-40% annually from 20- 24% (Saxena and Johnsen 2007). Lentil wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Lentis appears in the field at both seedling and adult stage. In seedling wilt sudden droopping followed by drying of leaves and the whole seedlings and apparently healthy looking roots with reduced proliferation. Adult maturity stage symptoms first appears during flowering to late pod filling stage, sudden drooping of top leaf lets of the affected plant leaflet closure without premature shedding apparently healthy looking root system with a slight reduction in the lateral roots. Seed from plants affected in mid-to-late pod filing stage are shriveled dried dull in appearance (Khare et al., 1979). Excessive use of agro-chemicals like fungicides may affect the soil health and lead to declining of quality of products. Hence, a natural balance needs to be maintained at all cost for existence of life and property. The obvious choice would be judicious use of agro-chemicals and more and more use of naturally occurring material in farming systems. It helps in maintaining environment health by reducing the level of pollution, human and animal health hazards, cost of agriculture production. Although various fungicides have promising results in controlling the wilt of lentil but there is a problem of phytotoxicity and fungicidal residue leading to the environmental pollution. In recent times, there has been a worldwide sowing to the use of eco-friendly methods for protecting the crops from diseases. Present paper deals with use of oils against wilt in lentil.
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Monitoring of acylglycerides in the biodiesel production process / Monitoramento de acilglicerídeos no processo de produção de biodiese

Monitoring of acylglycerides in the biodiesel production process / Monitoramento de acilglicerídeos no processo de produção de biodiese

Braz. J. of Develop., Curitiba, v. 6, n.4,p.22136-22144 apr. 2020. ISSN 2525-8761 quantified at some points in the biodiesel process. Therefore, in this work, the signs of mono, di, triacliglycerides and free glycerol were identified and quantified at some points in the biodiesel synthesis process. The importance of monitoring these compounds illustrates how ¹H-NMR can be a powerful tool in decision making, making it very informative when combined with the productive sector, in addition to being a simple method that does not require prior treatment and derivatization to perform numerous analyzes.
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PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

Considering the spatial characteristics of the room where is this production process performed, lot of buffer stores restricts the movement of workers, as well as container handling in the production process. Containers on the workplace are not colour coded, which leads to the formation of wasters. In this production process is frequent that the buffer stores with work in progress are in the workplace more days due to the transfer of staff to other production, because of the need to accumulate a sufficient amount of units for visual inspection.
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Experimental Analysis of Performance of Diesel Engine Using  Kusum Methyl Ester With Diethyl Ether as Additive

Experimental Analysis of Performance of Diesel Engine Using Kusum Methyl Ester With Diethyl Ether as Additive

fuel for SI engine. Because of high octane quality. But it is not high quality CI engine fuel ethanol can be easily converted through a dehydration process to produce di ethyl ether (DEE). It is an excellent com- pression ignition fuel and higher energy density than ethanol. It is also called as cold start aid additive for engine and having very high cetane number com- pared to diesel [6]. N. K. Miller Jothi, G. Nagaraja in their experimental study with homogeneous charge CI engine fueled with LPG using DEE as an ignition enhancer and it was found that the maximum reduc- tion in smoke and particulate emissions is observed to be about 85% and 89%, respectively, when com- pared to that of diesel operation, however an increase in CO and HC emissions was observed [7]. Similarly can cinar, H. Serdar Yecesu [8] investigated the use of premixed diethyl ether in a HCCI-DI diesel engine and it was observed that increase in in-cylinder pres- sure and higher heat release in the premixed stage of combustion. Masoud Iranmanesh, [9] in their study it was concluded that 8% DEE add to the D-E10 (di- esel-ethanol) blend is the optimum combination based on the performance and emission analysis with the exception of smoke opacity in which 15% DEE addition made the lowest smoke opacity. At this op- timum ratio the minimum peak heat release rate, the lowest NOx emissions and the maximum BTE were occurred at full load condition. similarly Saravanan D., Vijayakumar T. [10] found that 10% DEE and diesel blend was optimum combination in term of BTE and BSFC. Obed M. Ali, Rizalman Mamat [11] in their study an oxygenated additive diethyl ether (DEE) was blended with palm oil biodiesel (POME) in the ratios of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% and tested for their properties improvement. These blends were tested for energy content and various fuel properties Blends of DEE in POME resulted in an improvement in acid value, viscosity, density and pour point with increasing content of DEE. Vara Prasad U. SATYA [12] concluded that Brake specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions values are lower with 20% blend of JOME with 5% DEE whereas B20 with DEE15 yielded lower NOx emissions. Similarly B40 of JOME with DEE10 performed better in terms of brake specific energy consumption. The higher ce- tane rating of DEE is advantageous for obtaining lower smoke opacity and also lower NOx emission [13]. 15% Mahuva methyl ester blend with 80% di- esel and 5% diethyl ether shows slightly lower BSFC and Drastic reduction in smoke is observed at higher engine load [14]. Whereas the BTE of B40 NOME with 15% DEE was higher than B100 at injection pressure of 210 bar [15].
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Effect of engine parameters on NOx emissions with Jatropha biodiesel as fuel

Effect of engine parameters on NOx emissions with Jatropha biodiesel as fuel

The study was carried out in the laboratory on an advanced fully computerised experimental engine test rig comprising of a single cylinder, water cooled, four stroke, VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) Diesel engine connected to eddy current type dynamometer for loading. Setup (Figure 1) is provided with necessary instruments for online measurement of cylinder pressure, injection pressure and crank-angle. The specifications of the engine used for study are given in Table 2.

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Biodiesel production from oleic acid and ethanol using niobia based catalysts

Biodiesel production from oleic acid and ethanol using niobia based catalysts

que apresentaram melhores atividades catalíticas, as condições experimentais de temperatura, massa de catalisador e razão molar etanol:ácido oleico foram otimizadas, utilizando a técnica de planejamento de experimentos e análise canônica. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura de calcinação afetou as propriedades texturais, a estrutura e a acidez dos materiais. O aumento na temperatura de calcinação provocou decréscimos na área superficial, na acidez total e, consequentemente, no desempenho catalítico para a reação de esterificação, em ambos os catalisadores. No entanto, se comparado ao ácido nióbico, o fosfato de nióbio apresentou maior estabilidade térmica, com diminuições não tão significativas nas conversões obtidas. Esse fato ocorreu, pois o ácido nióbico muda sua estrutura de amorfa para cristalina quando calcinado a 500 °C e o fosfato de nióbio somente sofre alterações em sua estrutura quando submetido a temperaturas de calcinação maiores que 700 °C. Todos os parâmetros afetaram significativamente o rendimento em ésteres. Rendimentos em ésteres de até 70% foram obtidos em condições operacionais otimizadas, para ácido nióbico e fosfato de nióbio. Em outra etapa deste projeto, o processo de hidroesterificação para a produção de biodiesel foi simulada, utilizando o software UniSim, e uma análise econômica preliminar foi realizada. Os dados de conversão obtidos em laboratório para as reações de hidrólise e esterificação foram utilizados como dados de entrada para os reatores simulados. O processo de hidroesterificação mostrou-se tecnicamente viável, produzindo biodiesel em uma vazão mássica de 770 kg/h (6736 toneladas/ano) com alta pureza (97%), no entanto, baseado no diagrama de fluxo de caixa obtido, o processo não se mostrou economicamente viável.
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