a mean. Besides that the Country has significant castor oil demand and depends on international commerce to complement its production. The solution of these problems goes through the development of genotypes highly productiveand adapted to the producing regions. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate theproductivepotentialandselectionofcastorprogeniesofthecultivarFCA-PB, resulting from three types of pollination, in two crops and in two localities ofthe State of São Paulo. Grain productivity was evaluated, and some genetic parameters were estimated. In relation to the 2005/2006 crop, the progeny 49 cultivated in the locality of São Manuel produced 4170.66 kg ha -1 of grains. The highest heritability coefficients were observed in the 2005/2006 crop in the locacity of Araçatuba.
Abstract - The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE) in castorbean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types ofprogenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU), from crosses (CR) and from open pollination (PL). Grain yield oftheprogenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction ofprogenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simul- taneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.
Castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oilseed found in different regions worldwide, due to its easy propagation and adaptability. Cropping more productive disease-resistant genotypes that enable a mechanized production ensures greater economic returns for farmers. This study aimed to morphologically characterize and select promising castorbean accessions for mechanized cropping, mainly as a source of genetic variability for breeding programs with this purpose. Fifty accessions were assessed. Analysis of variance, dissimilarity clustering via the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and principal component analysis were used to analyze the collected data. The dissimilarity analysis based on the Gower distance for qualitative and quantitative variables revealed three groups of accessions andthe principal component analysis enabled theselectionof those with desirable traits. The accessions BOC1, PRAT1 and SM2 exhibited morpho- agronomic characteristics of interest to the mechanized production, such as ideal plant height, diameter, seed weight and oil content. Such genotypes show a potential for use as genitors in genetic breeding programs ofcastorbean.
ABSTRACT: Coffee cultivars that are better adapted and more productive can help reduce production costs and make coffee cultivation more profitable. The Mundo Novo cultivar has stood out as one ofthe most productive cultivars of Coffea arabica L. Therefore, the aim of this work was to select Mundo Novo progenies with high bean yield capacity and with other agronomic characteristics of interest. We evaluated thebean yield, seed size, plant height, upper and lower canopy diameter, stem diameter, and plant vigor of 24 F 4 progeniesand one check cultivar. The experimental design consisted of a randomized complete block
Abstract – The purpose of this study was to select Coffea arabica progenies for resistance to M. paranaensis in an infested coffee growing area using Henderson’s mixed model methodology. Forty-one genotypes were selected at the Coffee Active Germplasm Bank of Minas Gerais, and evaluated in regard to stem diameter, number of plagiotropic branches, reaction to the nematode, and yield per plant. There was genetic variability among the genotypes studied for all the traits evaluated, and among the populations studied for yield and reaction to the nematode, indicating possibilities for obtaining genetic gains through selection in this population. There was high rate of genotypic association between all the traits studied. Coffee plants of Timor Hybrid UFV408-01 population, and F 3 prog- enies derived from crossing Catuaí Vermelho and Amphillo MR 2161 were the most promising in the area infested by M. paranaensis. Key words: Coffea arabica, breeding, additive genetic value, correlation, root knot nematode.
CRZ H06 demonstrated a low shoot Al content and accumulation (Table 3) and obtained the highest root Al concentration and accumulation among the tested lines (Table 3), possibly due to its greater shoot growth (Table 1). This may have occurred because ofthe plant’s internal Al tolerance mechanism (Kochian et al. 2004), which compartmentalizes nontoxic Al forms in the vacuole, thereby reducing the Al transport to the shoots and contributing to a greater growth in this part ofthe plant. On the other hand, although CRZ H06 showed the highest root Al content and accumulation, it also exhibited the highest root length among the studied lines (Table 2), suggesting the presence of an internal tolerance mechanism.
accumulation rates reached maximum values between 60 and 70 dae in the spring-summer growing season (Figures 3 and 4). in fall-winter, the maximum daily uptake of K, ca, Mg and s occurred between 55 and 60 dae, whereas for N and p the daily uptakes was highest 70 and 90 dae, respectively. therefore, the daily uptake indicated that N or N and K topdressing can be applied later, or more frequently throughout the cycle, since N fertilization in this study was performed 20 dae andthe N and K demand ofthecastorbean hybrid was highest between 60 and 70 dae (Figure 3). although the period of maximum p uptake occurred 70 dae (spring-summer) and 90 dae (fall-winter), this nutrient should be supplied at sowing, because its low availability in the early stages, besides reducing the number of leaves, delays fruit production in primary racemes (Nakagawa et al., 1982), which accounts for at least 30 % ofthe total yield (Nakagawa et al., 1977).
The genetic gains obtained with selection ranged from -0.41% for NDM to 11.07% for 100SW, in relation to the general mean ofprogenies, and from -0.42 to 9.62%, respectively, in relation to the best control. The traits associated with earliness and peduncle length showed negative genetic gain values. These results are important since selection aimed at reducing the expression of these traits. Sousa et al. (2015) highlighted the difficulty in obtaining early genotypes with compound inflorescences. For the second crop in the Central-West region of Brazil, especially in the state of Mato Grosso, it is essential for cowpea cultivars to be early, because they are sown at the end ofthe wet season. In the present study, the occurrence of transgressive segregation resulted in progenies with compound inflorescences and that are earlier than the earliest parent.
Data were subjected to a preliminary analysis of variance to detect genetic variability among progenies. The prediction of gains was made to achieve an ideotype, andthe best progenies were selected based on the performance on the fruit number (above 50 fruits/plant), fruit fresh mass (above 200 grams), length (above 80 mm), fruit diameter (above 70 mm), fresh mass of pulp (above 90 grams), fresh mass of shell (below 110 grams), rind thickness (below 4.0 mm), soluble solids (above 11 ° Brix) and total titratable acidity (above 2.5 grams of citric acid per 100 ml of juice).
fundamental steps for the success in plant breeding. For the common bean crop, the development of genotypes that combine favorable agronomic traits and seed quality may increase the chances of adopting new cultivars. This study aimed to select promising parents and segregating populations to develop slow seed-coat darkening lines, together with high grain yield, lodging tolerance and short seed cooking time after storage, as well as to investigate the relationship between seed-coat darkening and seed cooking time after storage. Twenty segregating populations (F 3 , F 4 and F 5 generations) and their parents were evaluated. The sum of ranks index for combined traits was used in theselectionof superior populations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between seed-coat darkening and cooking time after storage were estimated. Among the parents, the BRSMG Madrepérola cultivar was the most promising to generate lines with seed- coat darkening. The superior populations were BRSMG Madrepérola x IPR Saracura, BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Sublime, BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Estilo and BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Notável. A linear relationship was not found between seed-coat darkening and seed cooking time after storage, indicating that the first trait is not an adequate indicator to infer about seed cooking time.
Products and byproducts obtained from thecastorbean crop have high socioeconomic value, with applications in the manufacture of nylon fabrics, in the steel industry as cutting oil for lamination, in the industry for the finishing of fine leather, paints and varnishes, perfumery. The oil extracted from the seeds has 90% ricinoleic acid, which promotes high economic value as lubricant for high-speed engines, being widely used in aviation, whereas in medicine it has been used for its purgative qualities (Silva et al., 2008).
Choosing parents and segregating populations are fundamental steps for the success in plant breeding. For the common bean crop, the development of genotypes that combine favorable agronomic traits and seed quality may increase the chances of adopting new cultivars. This study aimed to select promising parents and segregating populations to develop slow seed-coat darkening lines, together with high grain yield, lodging tolerance and short seed cooking time after storage, as well as to investigate the relationship between seed-coat darkening and seed cooking time after storage. Twenty segregating populations (F 3 , F 4 and F 5 generations) and their parents were evaluated. The sum of ranks index for combined traits was used in theselectionof superior populations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between seed-coat darkening and cooking time after storage were estimated. Among the parents, the BRSMG Madrepérola cultivar was the most promising to generate lines with slow seed-coat darkening. The superior populations were BRSMG Madrepérola x IPR Saracura, BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Sublime, BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Estilo and BRSMG Madrepérola x BRS Notável. A linear relationship was not found between seed-coat darkening and seed cooking time after storage, indicating that the first trait is not an adequate indicator to infer about seed cooking time.
again for rust resistance and upright growth. In the F 5:8 generation plants were individually selected for yield, adaptation, upright growth, resistance to common bacterial blight, and commercial standard of carioca grain. In the F 8:9 generation, line LM 98202709 was selected for yield and upright growth. In 1999, this line was assessed along with 159 others from the breeding program of Embrapa Rice and Beans and with four Carioca controls. Preliminary tests were performed at four sites (Pelotas- RS, Passo Fundo-RS, Santo Antônio de Goiás-GO and Ponta Grossa- PR). In 2001, the line was assessed along with 43 others and two controls, in the Intermediate Trial conducted in seven environments: Santo Antônio de Goiás-GO, Ponta Grossa-PR, Lavras-MG, Sete Lagoas-MG, Planaltina-DF, Simão Dias-SE, and Seropédica-RJ. The combined data analysis for grain yield and other agronomic traits indicated line LM 98202709, with the pre-commercial name CNFC 9461, for the Test of Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU). In the VCU test it was evaluated once more with 11 lines and four controls, in a randomized block design with four replications and plots of four 4-m rows, using the recommended technologies for the different cropping systems in a total of 44 environments, in the states Santa Catarina, Goiás, Distrito Federal, São Paulo,and Tocantins. Thereafter, further VCU tests were conducted in 82 environments in the states of Goiás, Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Sergipe, Pernambuco and Rondônia. Grain yield andpotential
The risk profile graph associated with the likelihood ratio test showed that the largest increase in the likelihood function occurred at the group level four, and an increase of 26.94 could be observed. Everitt (1981), quoted by McLachlan and Basford (1988), suggests that this test can be used if the ratio n/p (number of observations to the number of variables) is greater than 5 and n> 5. In any case, the likelihood ratio or the growth of risk is a useful guide for defining the number of groups. The method can therefore define more precise criteria for group formation, resulting in less subjective groups of accessions. The risk profile graph has been used for different values of G and to identify the point of maximum growth as a criterion for defining the number of groups (GONÇALVES et al., 2009).
The insight of Dr. Alcides Carvalho as a breeder is easily perceived upon reading the text that describes selectionofthe coffee ‘Catuaí’. Even after early selectionofthe best plants in the F 1 , F 1:2 , or F 2:3 generations, conducted with 2, 2, and 3 harvests, respectively, the experiments were kept in the field, andthe yield of each one ofthe plants individually was noted annually. Although it is not mentioned in the article, he certainly continued to observe the performance ofthe plants selected in past generations to confirm the correctness of his choices. As an example, experiment EP 30 with F 1:2 coffee plants was planted in Campinas, SP, in February 1956, and ripe fruit was harvested from 1958 to 1971. In the following generation, F 2:3 progenies were evaluated in the EP 50 experiment set up in Campinas in January 1960, andthe plants ofthe F 1:2 generation were selected based only on yield accumulated in 1958 and 1959. The F 3:4 generation was planted in various experiments beginning in 1965 with F 2:3 plants selected through mean yield of ripe fruit measured from 1962 to 1964. As the experiments ofthe previous generations were kept in the field, on this occasion, data were already available from 7 harvests of EP 30 for confirmation ofthe correct choice made in 1959 with only 2 harvests (Table 2).
Wolfert et al. (1997) propose a computerized system to control processes in the food production sector. The premise for the application of such architectural control is the development of a model which represents the involved processes to be monitored. The model interacts with two different domains: the domain of business control, which refers to the panning andthe control ofthe company as a whole, including managerial functions such as investments management, allocation of resources, marketing, sales, among others, andthe domain of control of processes, which refers to production, involving not only the activities of agricultural production but also the logistical functions of stocking and transportation. Based on Information Technology (IT), data about the managerial physical processes are processed, resulting in interfaces for the supervisory control, the quality control andthe processes optimization.
Evaluation of pre-commercial hybrids in a germplasm bank is essential for determining its commercial potential or its utility as a potential genitor in a breeding program. The objective of this study was to determine genetic divergence and per se behavior of 47 pre-commercial hybrids from okra germplasm bank ofthe Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Precocity index (%), number of fruits (fruits per plant), average fruit mass (g) and productivity (g per plant) were evaluated. Analysis of genetic divergence was performed by multivariate analysis using Mahalanobis distance with different clustering methods (UPGMA and canonical analysis). The performance of hybrids was compared by Scott-Knott (p= 0.05). A significant genetic variability among okra hybrids was observed. UPGMA and canonical analysis grouped the hybrids similarly, being satisfactory to represent genetic divergence. Ten hybrids presented higher performance than the commercial hybrids. Among them, UFU-QB16 stood out as the most promising hybrid for being used as a potential parent in breeding programs after auto pollination.
Complete chloroplast genomic sequences can be obtained using a shotgun strategy . This approach involves DNA purification from isolated organelles , mechanical shearing ofthe DNA, and cloning of random fragments for sequencing [15,16]. Cloned restriction fragments from purified chloroplast DNA have also been used to complete chloroplast genome sequencing [17,18]. If a reference chloroplast genome from a related species is available, primers can be designed to amplify multiple PCR fragments to cover and assemble the whole chloroplast genome [19,20]. Recently, the rolling circle amplification technique  has been used to amplify chloroplast DNA and generate the necessary quantities of DNA for standard Sanger capillary sequencing [22,23] or next-generation sequencing . In addition, chloro- plast genomes are often assembled as byproducts of plant genome sequencing projects. Complete chloroplast genome sequences have been obtained using genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. In these cases, the libraries are screened by hybridization or PCR amplification of a conserved chloroplast sequence to identify large-insert BAC clones that contain chloroplast DNA. A few BAC clones that cover the complete chloroplast genome are then sequenced by a shotgun strategy . Here we report the compete castorbean chloroplast and mitochondrion genome sequences generated from a whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing project ofthecultivar (cv.) Hale  along with draft chloroplast genome sequences obtained by methylation filtration (MF)  from additional castorbean cultivars. MF is used for selectively cloning and sequencing hypomethylated (i.e. low-copy) sequences from plant genomes, reducing the recovery of repetitive elements that are usually methylated [28,29,30]. As the chloroplast DNA is not methylated [31,32], MF libraries are typically constructed using nuclear DNA to reduce the recovery of mitochondrion and, mainly, chloroplast DNA clones, which are preferentially selected in MF libraries . Therefore, we used a MF approach to sequence the chloroplast genomes of seven additional castorbean accessions in order to identify polymorphisms for phylogenetic and population genetic studies.
Castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oil plant having enormous economic and social significance, which can be found in several regions of Brazil, generating employment and income owing to its numerous application possibilities in the industrial area, in addition to its energy potential prospects in biodiesel production (Rampadarath & Puchooa, 2016; Vasconcelos et al., 2017). However, with the increasing demand for this crop, many producers are compelled to apply methods that were traditionally used for the preservation of grains and cereals, thus rending it essential to study post-harvest stages ofcastorbean grains to preserve their physiological characteristics for long periods of time avoid grain deterioration resulting from their biological activity.