steel. If the thickness of a graphene sheet approached food wrap parameters then it would need over 30-ton stress to pierce it with a needle. At the end of 2008, Professor James Tour together with Yubao Li and Al- exander Sinitskii of Rice University have observed that it could make an excellent material for thecomputer memory manufacture. Its life could reach 10 millions of cycles and it could be successfully applied within the temperature range from – 77 C up to 200 C, which means higher performance without the need for any intensive cooling. This year, considerable acceleration ofthe research can be observed. In February, IBM again has entered the scene with their design of a tran- sistor operating at the breath-taking speed of 100 GHz. According tothe IBM scientists graphene-based cir- cuits potentially can reach even the 1 THz speed, but for the time being there is no idea how to practically attain that. In the meantime, Professors Matthias Bat- zill and Ivan Oleynik ofthe South-Florida University have found a method for graphene cutting. A graphene sheet can be cut with the use of monocrystals and then nickel can be used to clean the edges. Two sheets pro- duced that way are subsequently put together to form one sheet that includes some structure disorder. Such procedure yields graphene structures ofthe pentagon and octagon forms unlike the original hexagon from. They form a kind of a “path” where current can pass as in an ordinary conductor. Additionally, it has been found that the discussed carbon allotrope makes an excellent heat conductor – 10 times better than silver that has been hitherto considered to be the best in that respect. Graphene seems to be a prospectful replace- ment for silicon as the silicon technology seems to ar- rive at its limits
There exists a vast literature, from basic feature extraction to object segregation, cate- gorization and recognition, and from image reconstruction, scale stabilization to stereo, in computer vision, but much less in biological vision. We therefore continue with a very brief summary of approaches related to this chapter, with spatial focus on the biological methods. In addition to a few general overviews, see e.g. [Hubel, 1995; Bruce et al., 2000; Rasche, 2005; Miikkulainen et al., 2005], there also are detailed and quantitative models of simple, complex, end-stopped, bar and grating cells [Heitger et al., 1992; Petkov and Kruizinga, 1997], plus various models for inhibitions [Heitger et al., 1992; Petkov et al., 1993b; Barth et al., 1998; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006a], edge detection [Smith and Brady, 1997; Elder and Zucker, 1998; Kovesi., 1999; Grigorescu et al., 2003], combined line and edge detec- tion [Verbeek and van Vliet, 1992; van Deemter and du Buf, 2000; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2004b, 2006a], and keypoint detection [W¨ urtz and Lourens, 2000; Hansen et al., 2001; Lowe, 2004; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2005b]. Other models address saliency maps and Focus-of- Attention [Itti and Koch, 2001; Parkhurst et al., 2002; Deco and Rolls, 2004; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006d], ﬁgure-ground segregation [Heitger and von der Heydt, 1993; Hupe et al., 2001; Zhaoping, 2003; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006a], and object categorization [Riesenhu- ber and Poggio, 2000a; Leibe and Schiele, 2003; Csurka et al., 2004; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006a]. Concerning faces, various approaches have been proposed, from detecting faces and facial landmarks tothe inﬂuence of diﬀerent factors such as race and age [Delorme and Thorpe, 2001; Yang et al., 2002; Ban et al., 2003; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2005c], including ﬁnal face recognition [Kruizinga and Petkov, 1995; Zhao et al., 2003; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006c,d]. Yet other models have been devised for disparity [Fleet et al., 1991; Ohzawa et al., 1997; Qian, 1997; Rodrigues and du Buf, 2004b], automatic scale selection [Lindeberg, 1994], visual reconstruction [Rodrigues and du Buf, 2006b], brightness perception [du Buf, 2001] and visual pattern detection at very low contrast [du Buf, 2005].
The following example gives a good insight tothe concept described above: All thesystem has its maximum capacity, it might be a number of users, processing power, a quantity of data it may handle, or some other aspects. So, if thesystem just cares about processing information without paying any attention to its maximum capacity several problems may arise which could lead systemto go down. To prevent such situation autonomous system must be aware of its maximum capacity at several levels and should be able to take actions necessary to avoid critical situations. It could be done through auto evaluation of its maximum capacity in some defined periods of time, and at the same time by measuring its current usage. Then, a set of rules must be defined, in order deal with the situations when the current usage ofthesystem almost reaches the maximum capacity defined during the auto evaluation cycle. This rules must be specified by the users ofthesystem. Also, a system must be flexible enough to allow dynamic amendments to that rules as well as the creation of new rules or deletion of old ones after thesystem goes live. By saying that, is also important to mentions that thesystem that going to be constructed using the Viable SystemArchitecture should offer means to allow all described above to happen.
Abstract: The power generation market has been under constant expansion in Brazil. This market consists of different sources of power generation, which carry different socioeconomic and environmental impacts linked to their operations. These impacts generate externalities in the form of damage to society, and their compensation is not of common consensus among stakeholders. In this sense, through theapplicationofthe systems thinking method, this article aims to create a computer model ofsystem dynamics that enables the evaluation ofthe total systemic cost, considering the externalities of power generation. To this end, an adaptation ofthe STSP – Systems Thinking and Scenario Planning method was applied. In the irst phase, a greater understanding ofthe subject was raised. Subsequently, there was the construction ofthe computational model. Finally, the model was applied to three real plants in order to assess ofthe integration of wind power in face ofthe replacement of hydroelectric and thermal (coal) sources. The results show an evolution in the understanding on the comparison ofthe actual cost of energy to society due tothe learning provided by the use of systems thinking in conjunction with the dynamic modeling of systems. The indings also indicate a change in the decisions about the energy matrix, if a systemic cost for evaluating new projects is adopted.
Student Attendance System is a project based on Bluetooth and RFID reader application.These projects are developing to take learner attendant during class hour as the students enter the class or lab. This RFID reader gets the student information through student matrix card.After get the student information, it will send tothecomputer in that class or lab. After that the individual in charge (professor, staff, and student) must connect tothe PC using Bluetooth to make his/her see the student attendant in that class. These systems are to avoid student cheating about their attendant. At the same time, this system will send a student attendance details tothe lecturer e-mail after the class dismiss. Bluetooth based new wireless applications can add comfort and security by automation ofthe tasks earlier controlled manually. In this paper advantages of low cost, low power and robustness of Bluetooth have been exploited to propose and execute two new consumer systems in the form of a garage door opening system and an electronic attendance record system.
Abstract. The paper deals with design of a web-based system for Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Remote applications and databases located in the "private cloud" are proposed to be the basis of such system. The suggested approach contains: service - oriented architecture, using web applications and web services as modules, multi-agent technologies for implementation of information exchange functions between the components ofthesystem and the usage of PDM - system for managing technology projects within the CAM. The proposed architecture involves CAM conversion into the corporate information system that will provide coordinated functioning of subsystems based on a common information space, as well as parallelize collective work on technology projects and be able to provide effective control of production planning. A system has been developed within this architecture which gives the possibility for a rather simple technological subsystems connect tothesystem and implementation of their interaction. Thesystem makes it possible to produce CAM configuration for a particular company on the set of developed subsystems and databases specifying appropriate access rights for employees ofthe company. The proposed approach simplifies maintenance of software and information support for CAM subsystems due to their central location in the data center. The results can be used as a basis for CAM design and testing within the learning process for development and modernization ofthesystem algorithms, and then can be tested in the extended enterprise. Keywords: production planning, multi-agent technologies, PDM - system, web - services, cloud computing, web – based system, CAM architecture, web based CAM.
A new wireless sensor system suitable for smart bleeding detector towards better healthcare, the simplicity ofthe circuit and low power consumption in the sensor plays a major role in the reducing the cost ofthe sensor system, this wireless sensor system could be adapted to other automated monitoring applications. The designed bleeding detector has been tested in real diaper with a speaker. A clear sound is heard from the buzzer. The analogue switch, encoder, RF transceiver, decoder, GSM door sensor and mobile-call GSM alarm system and gateway (API) Application Programming Interface are already tested and working with many applications and circuits. The designed system is not costly, the two fine conductors plus the pressing studs may cost maximum from 0.1 to 0.2 USD. In addition, the bleeding detector unit is decoupled from the pressing studs for reuse. The costly parts of this system are the mobile-call GSM system, but the other parts are very cheap. In today’s mobile environment, a GSM alarm system has became very necessary for hospitals because it is used in fire detection and surveillance. Therefore, the GSM alarm system can be used for many purposes beyond this system.
At this scale of temperature and time (Fig. 9) it is difficult to identify the characteristic changes ofthe sample temperature, respectively, during the annealing (stage T2 - isothermal annealing), hyperquenching and quenching bronze (stage T3 - cooling in ambient air and T4 stage - cooling in 10% NaCl solution in water). Figure 10 shows representative characteristics of temperature changes during the isothermal annealing bronze sample at a constant temperature of t=1000 °C for 3600 s. There was a decrease ofthe temperature characteristic bronze samples during the annealing process in the studied range of isothermal annealing time (30, 60 and 120 min.). The presented characteristics t=f(τ) for a sample of bronze in the furnace that, after heating the furnace and the sample to a temperature of 1000 °C, there was a gradual decrease in temperature ofthe sample to about 996°C. Decrease ofthe temperature ofthe sample is associated with absorption of heat by the phase existing in bronze at 1000 °C, necessary for the occurrence ofthe following diffusion processes:
The diagram in Figure 1 shows the basic requirements for a material-related module in a CAPCAST system. Thesystem user (manufacturer or his employees) introduces tothesystemthe customer's technical requirements concerning the material, and also gives the current price/cost of materials and processing. Entering current prices is necessary to keep the calculations up- dated all the time against the ongoing market price fluctuations. However, this operation does not have to be performed each time when the type of material is determined; it is enough to provide current prices in thesystem keeping pace with the rate of changes in the market and introducing these changes with the same fre- quency with which the fluctuations occur in the market (e.g. once a week, once a month, etc.). The user will have at his disposal an intuitive and easy to use interface, which should correspond in its
IEEE standard images for different number of ASCII characters. Tables 1-2 indicate the PSNR values for various Stego-images of size 256 x 256 using the proposed techniques, calculated for 1500 characters. We conducted further experiments with the Lena image using more characters. Table 2 indicates the PSNR values for the Lena image calculated for up to 1997 characters using the three suggested techniques. Thus, using the proposed method, up to 1997 characters (or 15,976 bits) have been embedded in a 256 x 256 pixel image. This shows that, 12.5% ofthe image pixels are used to embed 15,976 bits and yet the perceptual quality ofthe stego-image is still high. The PSNR ofthe third method can be controlled depending on number of bits being stored in various positions. Considering a minimum of 34 dB PSNR threshold for stego-image perceptual quality  It is clear from the obtained PSNR values that the proposed technique can generate stego-images with good perceptual quality. For qualitative assessment, , Figures 11(a), 11(b) show the Baboon image before and after steganography using the proposed technique for 500 characters. Figures 12(a) and 12(b) show the Lena image using the proposed technique, for 1997 ASCII characters.
)n the context ofthe cohesion policy, solidarity must represent a support for development . For that purpose, solidarity can be seen as a help for self‐help and its success depends a great deal on the capacity and the training ofthe people to whom the support of making maximum profit out of these addresses to. This support does not mean exclusively financial support, although it is necessary and important but, of all things, it means an exchange of experiences and cooperation, the development of capacity through training, open discussions with the interested factors and last but not least a critic, but a constructive dialogue between the various levels of government: European, national, regional, local. )n other words, a functional labor market should represent a catalyst for the general objective ofthe European Union – social and economical cohesion – because it has in view the connections with the different markets ofthe services and ofthe goods and generates the necessary income for supporting the participation ofthe individuals, bringing them together, placing them in collaborations. )n this context, the starting points for promoting the inclusion through the activities of social economy have in view: adapting the institutional environment, developing the public‐private partnership, developing the social dialogue between players, investments in the human capital and supporting the exchange of good practices within the European Union.
I think we can answer this question in the positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer tothe last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action in the processes occurring in the world. The emergence of life in the universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
Abstract: The study examined the male and female level of access and ownership to land for cassava production in Abia state. The objectives ofthe study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics ofthe respondents, determine the differences in quantity of cassava produced by both male and female farmers. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used select 218 respondents. Questionnaire was used for data collection while frequency counts, mean, percentages and Z-test were used in analyzing the data generated. The result shows that the mean age for male and the female were 52.7 and 46.2 years respectively. 94.5% ofthe male and 97.2% ofthe female had one form of formal education. The mean household size ofthe male and the female were 8 and 7 persons per house. The mean farming experiences ofthe male and female were 16.54 years and 13.26 years respectively. Mean income generated from cassava stand to be (#) 54882.57 and (#) 126082.60 respectively for both male and female. The Z- test analysis result shows that mean farm sizes ofthe respondents were 2.91 hectares and 2.45 hectares respectively for both male and female. The analysis also showed that there was significant difference between access to farmland of male and the female farmers at t = -2.613 at 5% significant level and cassava output of male and the female at t = -4.764 at 1% significant level. It was therefore recommended that a micro- credit scheme be established by government and nongovernmental organization target mainly on female cassava farmers for purchase of resources for cassava production.
The reallocation of property rights at the transition from slavery to free labor in Brazil, the US South, Jamaica, among others, were often followed by stagnation and even falls in GDP per capita. One theory for the higher productivity of slaves claims it was the coercion available to slave-owners and not to employers. A second argues that plantations were using various incentives to induce it – more food, time-off etc. Loss of scale at abolition is the implied theory. In this paper, some recent theories ofthe firm are used to study the incentive mechanisms when effort at multiple tasks must be supervised. A principal-agent model is used to show how wrong incentives after abolition could have induced former slaves to produce more peasant crops relative tothe plantation staples which yielded more GDP. If at the transition to free workers there is no technical progress or changes in product prices, plantations may become unviable and the economy can collapse into lower- productivity family farms or worse. An exception to this argument is the “gold rush” outcome where the pulverized activity is so lucrative that growth can occur without hierarchical production structures. In the absence of such windfalls, agents may resort to less efficient, incentive-compatible mechanisms akin to sharecropping, tenancy and marginal-product wage labor which do not need the supervision which firms provide.
Enhanced recovery is so important in the petroleum industry that the location ofthe producer well is chosen with the secondary well (injection well) in mind. As mentioned before, efforts to enhance recovery are costly and are dependent upon the state ofthe economy and the potential oil recovery volume. Consequently, repeated monitoring of a reservoir is essential to choose the best locations for the injection wells. The idea is to design an optimal distribution of injection wells so as to optimize long-term production. There are several types of wells: wildcat well, rank wildcat well, step-out well, pro- ducer well, injection well, etc. Since there are different steps in the process of obtaining oil, wells are classified broadly as exploratory wells and development wells. Examples of exploratory wells are wildcat wells (drilled a mile or more from an area of existing oil production) and rank wildcat wells (drilled in an area where there is no existing produc- tion). If the exploratory drilling proves successful, the company starts to drill step-out wells (also included in the exploratory well category). After the oil field has been delin- eated, the company starts to drill production wells within the known extent ofthe field. Every well drilled inside the known extent ofthe field is called a development well (Hyne (2001)). The development well category includes producer wells and injection wells (re- call that injection wells are drilled to enhance oil recovery). Different categories of wells have different probabilities of finding oil. On average, rank wildcat exploratory wells have lower success ratio than step-out wells. An oil company can rank wells in terms of probability, even in the face of uncertainty. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in 2000 the success rate for wildcat wells was 39% (Hyne (2001)). Note that an unsuccessful drilling is classified as a dry hole in both exploratory and development well categories.
Chama a atenção o fato de que os casos mais agudos de fragilidade financeira registrados nessa crise envolveram instituições financeiras que não tinham, pela norma existente antes de sua eclosão, acesso aos seguros de depósitos e/ou às ope- rações de redesconto das autoridades monetárias. Essa característica é própria daquilo que vem sendo denominado de global shadow banking system. Esse termo foi empregado, pela primeira vez por Paul McCulley (2007), diretor executivo da maior gestora de recursos do mundo, a Pimco. Note-se que, entre as medidas ado- tadas pelo Fed e por outros bancos centrais, encontra-se a abertura do acesso às operações de redesconto – com a aceitação de títulos lastreados em crédito hipote- cário e outros – a essas diversas instituições que não podiam utilizá-las como os bancos de investimentos e as GSE. Entretanto, essas medidas revelaram-se insufi- cientes para conter o “desmanche” do global shadow banking system, pois, bus- cando sobreviver, venderam avidamente os ativos para os quais ainda existia mer- cado, provocando acentuada desvalorização de seus preços.
To tackle these problems, in this paper we rely on a large panel of matched employer- employee data. Based on administrative files maintained by the federal government in Brazil (Rela¸c˜ao Anual de Informa¸c˜oes Sociais - RAIS ), the data provides information on every single employment relationship that all registered employers have during the year. The data set is rich in that it contains information on wages and on the characteristics of workers (sex, age, education), establishments (industry, size), and jobs (occupation, tenure). Its census nature allows precise computations ofthe share of women within the segregation dimensions of interest: occupation, industry, establishment, and job cell (i.e., occupation within establishment). This a strength of this study as compared tothe previous literature, which had to rely on small samples of workers or a limited set of occupations to calculate the proportion of females along these dimensions. The longitudinal aspect ofthe data for workers and establishments also allows us to deal with distinct forms of unobserved heterogeneity in wage regressions. One ofthe main contributions of this paper is the incorporation of fixed effects for workers, firms, and workers-firms matches in the estimation ofthe segregation effects of interest on the gender wage gap. Tothe best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that does that in the literature. 2
While the political aspect, the border region is classified as vulnerable to political conflicts with neighboring countries due tothe intersection of territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, especially in the segment of border that have not been agreed. The issue of border actually starts to rise along with the emergence of waters and fisheries department in 2000 as it continued to release the border policy through the Decree of President (Perpres) No. 78 of 2005 concern the Management ofthe Outermost Small Islands. As we know there are 11 (eleven) cases in both borders sea and land, as follow: First, the case of Sipadan and Ligitan islands (two our leading islands) by the International Court has decided to belong to Malaysia since 2002. Secondly, the case of Ambalat as an effort of Malaysia to claim the waters territory called Ambalat block occur vagueness in maritime boundary so that this neighboring country tries to take advantage of this vagueness and at last Indonesia set a new base point from Karang Ungaran, until now negotiation has not been completed. Third, Jemur island in Riau province were ever claimed by Malaysia but actually the island is behind our leading island in the area. Fourth, the hostage of supervisory personnel of marine and fishery resources of our borders by Malaysia in response tothe arrest of Malaysian fishermen that entering Indonesian waters illegally. These facts indicate that almost each year occur borderline cases experienced by Indonesia. Certainly, it has been a restriction on the importance ofthe Indonesia sovereignty as a maritime country to be developed and considered as one ofthe forms ofthe sovereignty ofthe Republic of Indonesia relating tothe international sea, archipelagic and deepness waters as well as the air space over the territorial sea, archipelagic waters and inland as well seabed and land including natural resources contained therein. Given the importance of maritime areas handling related tothe waters, islands and fisheries, it is necessary for specially the management of area with regard tothe coastal areas and small islands which are also regulated in Act No. 1 of 2014 concern the Amendment of Act No. 27 of 2007 concern the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands. In the Act is understood that the coastal areas and small islands are vulnerable damaged by the activities of people in the use of resources or due to natural disasters and exploitation, so that the need for security measures in the area. Based on this case, it is needed a strategic policies that _________________________