Background/Aim. The number ofelderly people inthe world is growing, inSerbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influ- ences thequalityoflifein different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related qualityoflifeoftheelderlyinurbanandruralareasinSerbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above inurbanandruralareasinSerbia. The next questionnaires were used: a socio- demographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standard- ized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), as a ba- sic index for the assessment and description ofthequalityoflife. Results. Inthe structure ofthe respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012), thelifeof those with family members (p = 0.009), and health status (p = 0.000), in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically signifi- cant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040), predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within therural population. The average value ofqualityoflifeinurbanandruralareas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720). For those living inruralareas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was ob- served between anxiety/depression and education. Conclu- sion. On the basis ofthe data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater inrural than inurbanareas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older inrural ar- eas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.
Objective: To evaluate thequalityoflifeand health ofelderlyinruralareasof Minas Gerais State’s center-west. Method: Cross-sectional study, in four municipalities of Minas Gerais State, by interviewing elderly people. Associations between socio-demographic andqualityoflife variables were tested, separated into “satisfactory”/“unsatisfactory” with values from the median of positive answers. It was used the chi-square test, Fisher’s test and regression. Results: 182 elderly answered the questions and showed a relation with the “satisfactory” qualityoflife — bivariate (p < 0.05): age by 69 years (61.6%), married (61.7%), living by 54 years inruralareas (68%), with no fi nancial support (59.5%), living with someone else (61%), non-smoker (60%), presenting good health (76.7%), satisfi ed with life (69.6%); regression: not having fi nancial support, living with someone else and not smoking. Conclusion: Elderly people inruralareas present good qualityoflife/health inthe cognitive aspect, access to services, goods, habits, but awareness must be constant due to their weakness. Descriptors: Elderly; QualityofLife; Integral Attention to Health; RuralAreas; Rural Population.
migration in search of employment. In West Africa, Ghana in particular, this has historically been manifested inthe migration flow of farmers from the poor regions inthe north to the more vibrant urban south (Anarfi et al.2003; Awumbila et al. 2008). Given the significant disparities between Ghana’s ruralandurban sectors, it is not surprising that urbanlife by and large represents the dream of formal employment, less social restrictions and diversified opportunities, while theruralareas provide limited employment outside agriculture, insecure income and inadequate infrastructure (Bookaye-Yiadom, 2008). In Kenya, migration of people from therural to urbanareas is not a recent phenomenon; it has been an issue and a problem over decades. People move to urbanareas for various reasons, which are well patterned and lined up from one direction-poverty. The causes of migration of people from theruralareas to urbanareas results to various effects that affect both ruralandurbanareas. However, during rural-urban migration decision making process is greatly affected intheruralareas, particularly by women. Rural women have been known to play a critical role intherural economies of both developed and developing countries. They participate in crop production and livestock care, provide food, water and fuel for their families, and engage in off-farm activities to diversify their families’ livelihoods. In addition, they carry out vital reproductive functions of caring for children, older persons andthe sick (Women, 2000). Although, in patriarchal societies, gender-based stereotypes and discrimination deny rural women equitable access to and control over land and other productive resources, opportunities for income-generating activities, access to education and
This study represents the secondary analysis ofthe Na- tional Health Survey ofthe population inSerbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study on a repre- sentative sample ofthe population . This study analyzed the characteristics of a total of 2.378 women aged 20 to 49. According to National Population Health Survey inSerbiain 2006, there was a total of 3,837 women aged 20 to 49. Regarding the questions related to the use of contraceptive methods, 2,876 women (75%) gave valid answers while the rest did not have a regular partner and, accordingly, did not consider these questions. Out of this number, 2,546 women used, from time to time, some form of contracep- tion in every sexual activity. The information about the socio-demographic characteristics and family planning were obtained through the interviews.
The WHOQOL-BREF assesses thequalityoflife based on four domains: physical (pain and discomfort, energy and fatigue, sleep and rest, mobility, activities of daily life, dependence of medication or treatments andthe ability to work); psychological (positive feelings, thinking, learning, memory and concentration, self-esteem, body image and appearance, negative feelings, spirituality, religion and personal beliefs), social relationships (personal relationships, social support, sexual activity) and environment (physical security and environmental protection, inthe home, financial resources, health and social care: availability andquality, opportunity to acquire new information and skills, participation in, and opportunities for recreation/leisure, physical environment: pollution, noise, traffic, climate and transportation). 11
given enough attention inthe social and legislatory sense, in terms of unplanned, unregulated and uncontrolled construction. Often, present individual housing is not sufficiently rational regarding population density or infrastructural and suprastructural equipment. The impacts of agricultural soil occupation are magnified by unplanned and inadequate human activities, including insufficient safety measures. Advanced and integrated land use, planning and natural resource management have a critical role in reducing non-adequate soil use (Živanović Miljković, 2008). In addition, ruralareas are not only relevant for the users ofurbanareas, but also indirectly for suppliers to the city. Although Serbia is not a member of any European project regarding the development of peri-urban zones, this fact does not constrain the existing practice of using modern development frameworks for peri-urban zones. In this sense, an example of good practice can be seen inthe extract from the Detailed Regulation Plan for Block 23 in Bela Crkva. The peripheral position of this block, inthe peri- urban zone with agricultural hinterland, with its planning solutions promotes the development of peri-urban agriculture inthe scope of green spaces ( et al., 2011).
Objective: To describe the socio-demographic characteristics andqualityoflifeofelderly patients with systemic arterial hypertension; to correlate thequalityoflife with the time of diagnosis and number of medication, as well as to compare thequalityoflife with the type of medication. Method: In this cross sectional home survey design, 460 elderly people from ruralareas were involved. The data was collected with the use ofthe following instruments: World Health Organization QualityofLife-bref and World Health Organization QualityofLife Olders. A descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and t-Student test (p<0.05) were undertaken. Results: Predominant patient characteristics were: women between the age of 60 and 70, married, four to eight years of formal education, income of one minimum wage, living with their partners. The time of diagnosis was associated with lower qualityoflifeinthe physical domain. Elderly patients who used Inhibitors and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and who did not use AT1 blocker had lower scores in relation to functioning ofthe senses. Those who used calcium channel blocker scored higher in relation to autonomy. Conclusion: there is a need for actions to control systemic arterial hypertension and its associated complications, with the purpose of improving qualityoflife.
Slavuj (2012) referring to the Local Agenda 21 (2011) indicates that more clear understanding ofthe impact oftheurban area on thequalityoflifeof residents and other users oftheurban area, reflected inthe key role that the issues ofurban space to the strategies and programs of governments, international institutions, and local communities. One ofthe most popular programs of sustainable development, Agenda 21 stresses the need for action at all spatial levels. Key provisions ofthe program are: inclusion of as many members ofthe local community inthe decision-making process, identifying strengths and weaknesses ofthe local resources, integration of sustainable development objectives inthe policies of local authorities, raising awareness and education ofthe population, measurement, evaluation and reporting on the initiated projects. Local communities were invited to independently determine their own path towards sustainable development and environmental qualityoflife, due to their specificity and diversity. For example, the European Commission from 2003/04 implementing the project for the study ofthequalityoflifein European cities under the name Urban Audit. The said project year 2006/07 (second series of studies) included 321 city from the 27 European Union member states, and an additional 36 cities in Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. The project applies 250 indicators for collecting information on demographic, social and economic aspects, civic activities, education, tourism, transport, information society, culture and recreation. The project collects data on three spatial levels: theurban region, a city within the city area. The idea is that the city authorities need reliable information for urban planning, sustainable and prosperous development. As special highlights the value of collecting data on the level ofurban neighborhoods, or at the level that is really affecting people and that directly affect their experience of everyday life (Slavuj, 2012).
Objective: To investigate if the relationship between physical activity level (PAL) andqualityoflife (QOL) is affected by living environment (rural or urban). Method: A quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study was performed. Ofthe 40 participants of both genders, 20 were residents ofurbanareasand 20 were residents ofruralareasinthe town of Pimenta Bueno (RO), Brazil. The WHOQOL BREF and IPAQ Long Version questionnaires were used to assess QOL and PAL, respectively. Mann Whitney and Fisher's Exact were used to statistically compare groups for QOL and PAL scores. The correlation between the two was tested by the Spearman test. A significance level of p<0.05 was used. Results: No differences between theruralandurbanareas for QOL or PAL were found. Intherural group a positive and significant correlation was found between PAL andthe physical, psychological and complete QOL domains. In terms of PAL, elderly persons from therural area who were regularly active had higher total QOL and physical domain scores than insufficiently active elderly individuals from therural area. When place of residence was compared, insufficiently active elderlyintheurban area had higher scores on the social component of QOL than insufficiently active elderly from therural group. Among regularly active seniors, those living intherural area had higher physical QOL scores. Conclusion: According to the results, level of physical activity exerts a differential influence on the QOL ofelderly people from ruralandurbanareas.
In this context, the watershed ofthe Cascavel River (BHRC) located west of Paraná, has a drainage area of 50.11 km 2 length of 17.5 km and a maximum height of 767 m and minimum of 718 m, being responsible for about 80% ofthe total production ofthe public water supply system of Cascavel city, Brazil, making its relevance monitoring (CASCAVEL, 2011). Among the main problems identified in public supply rivers, located inurbanareas, is the lack of riparian vegetation in both urbanandruralareas, resulting inthe development of erosion and silting up ofthe watershed processes that affect the water supply to riverside population (CREPALLI, 2007).
As state institutions, it should be possible to present and make use of electronic government inthe function of serving the community. The emphasis in information technology to avoid the digital gap in at least. The provision of better government services to residents, increase interaction with the business world and industry, through access to information for community empowerment, a more efficient government or management. The results of that is expected of a reduction in corruption, the increase in transparency, the increase in comfort, and rising income or reducing expenses. Based on the results of research. Electronic government inthe context ofthe ability to look the ability to run the function of government electronic media and build partnerships with private not optimal it is marked with the need for the allocation of fund optimally and support to work jointly with private companies to more so handling equipment and support for the success of electronic government could be achieved. As an effort to harmonize the acceleration ofthe completion of work, the licensing ofthe city of Samarinda must be able to implement the interests of citizens as well as problems faced by. No service to stop because ofthe support of funding led to the ability to reform it weakened to find appropriate formulations to stiffness in public service is not of stagnation. According to results ofthe review Khidasseli in Sutedi (2010) that norms behavior officers public service providers (a code of conduct for public officials), who set about norms in an administrative authority: 1) The obligation to work in accordance with the rules of law and standards of conduct of relevance to its function, 2) The obligation to put themselves in a neutral of or free from the
I think we can answer this question inthe positive: Yes, He can, because He is the most perfect being and His omnipotence is absolutely unlimited. A very important premise underlying the answer to the last question is that the risk is not so great, or even that it is very small. It is so because the nature and mechanism ofthe created world ensure with a very high proba- bility that all purposes intended by God will be attained without his causal action inthe processes occurring inthe world. The emergence oflifeinthe universe is almost inevitable, because the universe is large and old enough, and biochemical mechanisms are very effective. The emergence of sentient beings was also almost inevitable because of longstanding and countless mutations and adaptations of living organisms to their environment. All this was very probable and hence in a sense necessary (inevitable). The great advantage ofthe non-deterministic world is its own creativity, which is possible because ofthe chance events happening in a way restricted only by the laws of nature. Thus, if one evolutionary path fails another one is opened. Perhaps a mutation suitable for the growth and development of a given species happened by chance and enabled it to survive in hard con- ditions and further develop. Elasticity and redundancy are very typical for the world of chance, but because of these properties, this world has a large number of possibilities and abilities to develop and regenerate after various natural catastrophes (Łukasiewicz 2006).
The aim of this paper is to investigate the labor earnings differential between white and black workers with a bachelor ’s or graduate degree in Brazil, decomposing this gap into components accounted for by observable differences across individuals, and differences inthe return on these characteristics. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Census. This survey, conducted by the Brazilian Census Bureau (IBGE), has information about labor market and field of study for those who have tertiary education, in addition to demographic characteristics ofthe individuals. The empirical strategy is based on decompositions ofthe mean labor earnings difference between white and black workers using the traditional Oaxaca- Blinder methodology (Oaxaca, 1973 and Blinder, 1973), and decompositions for different quantiles ofthe earnings distribution, through the method proposed by Fortin, Lemieux and Firpo (2009). This way, not only the racial earnings gap could be attributed to differences inthe distribution of observable characteristics, andinthe returns on these characteristics, but also the former component can be decomposed into contributions associated with individual’s distribution across fields of study, mismatch between education and occupation, attainment of a graduate degree and demographic variables. And this could be done for different percentiles ofthe earnings distribution.
One potential explanation for finding no impact of Pro-Gavião is that there were other rural development programs taking place in Bahia at the same time, and these might have differentially affected the control AMCs. The World Bank, for example, invested heavily inrural poverty alleviation programs throughout the Northeast of Brazil in this period. Because IFAD was investing in these 13 municipalities, other programs might have left these locations alone and targeted other —almost as needy—municipalities. This would imply that our control group based on non-neighbors would not have represented the counterfactual of zero program intervention, but rather the counterfactual of no PG intervention. This would alter the interpretation of our results. To address this issue, we were able to gather administrative data from the state government of Bahia on spending in PG and neighboring locations. Although it was not possible to verify this hypothesis for the complete set of 54 municipalities analyzed, we did succeed in obtaining information from 25 municipalities inthe River Gavião region (13 PG municipalities and 12 ofthe closest neighbors). This can help to provide evidence about how important PG was in relation to the other programs.
manufacturing can be exemplified make instant noodles for 5 people inthe restaurant, but chef only cook once and split the 5 then the waiter gives the customer. Everyone has the desire to taste like spicy, salty, sweet it is inthe table provided the spice seasoning. So here chef do cook only once even though tastes different flavor. Or the other exemplified use the concept of lean manufacturing is, if the someone want to buy and pant inthe supermarket for their necessary. Only pants so it’s very waste for their, from time, fuel, pay parking place, cost, reduce energy. If their inthe supermarket. They should buy other necessary such as clothes, jacket, sock foot, style t shirt, neck. And other exemplified from lean concept like is if there’s parents have four daughter want to study inthe same town. The parent should rent home for their daughter better then their daughter rent room inthe boarding house. So it’s reduce finance to pay a room. And also the other benefit, if the parent want to visit their daughter can meet once time in one place without wasting time. So they can keep each other to study, until the can achievement target to be bachelor. For seeking the concept lean manufacturing some expert view from dimension same thing but there’re different main point such as:
This study focused on Taal, which standout among the towns ofthe country. Boasting of numerous well- preserved historical landmarks and cultural treasures dating back from the Pre-Spanish colonial period, the place is visited with natural attraction like the oldest stone structures and ancestral homes and its magnificent churches. This town had been chosen by the researchers as the subject of investigation to assess the potentials of Taal as a tourist destination andin so doing, to assess theareas where improvement may be implemented and to recommend what may be taken to achieve the development and improvement. Taal is worth studying and reviewing. It is here where the justification of this study centers.
mechanical grinding and polishing. Back scattered electrons (BSE) were utilized in SEM in order to reveal difference in chemical compositions of microcomponents present in particular samples. The SEM investigations were used to reveal the distribution of graphite and other big particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), on the other hand, was applied for examination of nanosized secondary precipitates, i.e. vanadium or niobium carbides and/or nitrides (or carbonitrides). The thin foil technique was implemented for this purpose. The 3 mm disks were ground down on sand papers and then dimpled to about 0.1 mm thickness. Afterwards the disks were further thinned in an ion mill until a perforation had appeared. The TEM investigation was carried out by means of a JEOL 2010 ARP analytical scanning transmission electron microscope operating at acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Imaging was performed by conventional transmission mode while for chemical analysis (X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy - EDS) the nanoprobe mode was utilized. The nanoprobe mode enabled to obtain electron probes approaching a few nanometers in diameter (practically about 10 nm because at smaller electron probes the number of X-ray counts is usually too low for analysis). The EDS analysis was performed by Oxford-Link system attached to the microscope. The Oxford- Link system was equipped with Si(Li) detector. This system detects all elements down to boron. In order to examine the crystallography of precipitates the Selected Area Diffraction (SAD) patterns analysis was also performed.
The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) software (version 15) was used in testing whether or not the means of dependent variables were significantly different among groups. The total % yield of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ofthe stored urine over the 6-month study period were analysed. This was indicative of when the urine could be used for crops that require proportionally high percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium. The significant difference in yield of NPK between male and female urines was also established for each month over the 6 months study period. If the overall ANOVA was significant and a factor had more than two levels, a post-hoc multiple comparisons follow up test was carried out using Least Significance Difference (LSD) or Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). In all cases, significance was determined at the 95% confidence level. One-way analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences among means, with a significance level of 5% (p< 0.05).