The objective of this study was to develop methods for quan- tifying the intensity ofriverregulation using global runoff records. Two different approaches were introduced and dis- cussed. In the first, established approach (V¨or¨osmarty et al., 1997), the upstream dam volume is compared with the up- stream volume ofthe annual discharge and calculated the im- poundment coefficient. This requires that the catchment area ofthe station be determined. One way to do this is to relate the upstream storage capacity to individual gauging stations using geo-referenced dam statistics. The authors generated a geo-referenced data set of European dams and used a sink- to-source flow algorithm to link dams to gauging stations. Subsequently, the impoundment coefficients were calculated for 677 stations in Europe.
rivers measured, selecting appropriate input data is critical. Figure 7 indicates that all rivers greater than three times the pixel resolution and substantial numbers of smaller rivers are measured. While our results suggest that the NLCD represents an approxi- mation ofriver extent close to mean discharge, there are clear instances where chan- nels are wider than expected due to connectivity with the surrounding floodplain, mis-
Mean annual precipitation in the Yangtze River basin is about 1070 mm and mean annual river discharge is ∼976 km 3 , equivalent to a specific discharge of 542 mm. An- nual per capita water availability decreased from 2700 m 3 in 1980 to 2100 m 3 in 2005. Previous studies (Zhang et al., 2006, 2008; Jiang et al., 2007) show that there has not been a significant change in annual precipitation but an increase in the number of extreme (10th percentile) precipitation events is observed (Su et al., 2008). Greater variability in precip- itation has intensified floods and prolonged droughts. Spa- tial and seasonal changes in precipitation have also been ob- served. Increased precipitation has been detected in middle and lower reaches ofthe Yangtze River in summer whereas a decrease in precipitation is observed in the upper reaches ofthe basin near the Three Gorges Dam site in autumn (Xu et al., 2008). Although no significant trend was detected for annual runoff in the Yangtze River basin during 1961–2000, a significant positive trend in flood discharges was found in the middle and lower basin over the same period.
ABSTRACT: Sampling techniques to quantify the production of fruits are still very scarce and create a gap in crop development research. This study was conducted in a rural property in the county of Cachoeira do Sul - RS to estimate theefficiencyof randomized branch sampling (RBS) in quantifyingthe production of pecan fruit at three different ages (5,7 and 10 years). Two selection techniques were tested: the probability proportional to the diameter (PPD) and the uniform probability (UP) techniques, which were performed on nine trees, three from each age and randomly chosen. The RBS underestimated fruit production for all ages, and its main drawback was the high sampling error (125.17% - PPD and 111.04% - UP). The UP was regarded as more efficient than the PPD, though both techniques estimated similar production and similar experimental errors. In conclusion, we reported that branch sampling was inaccurate for this case study, requiring new studies to produce estimates with smaller sampling error. Key words: Caryaillinoinensis, mathematical model, crop production, post-harvest.
The primary health care reform that began in 2005 in Portugal aimed, according to the Missão para os Cuidados de Saúde Primários (MCSP), at reorganising the whole health system, with primary health care centres as the supporting pillar ofthe National Health Service (2006). Family health units (FHUs) were designed as one ofthe operational units of primary health care centres and were intended to be the first point of contact between the patient and the public health system (MCSP, 2006; MCSP, 2008). FHUs vary among themselves in terms of services provided and costs incurred and it is important to assess them in terms ofefficiency, in the context of an increasing proportion ofthe national income being devoted to expenditures on health. This work aims at (1) quantifying and ranking family health units in terms of cost efficiency, using stochastic frontier analysis as the chosen econometric technique, and at (2) establishing benchmarks (in the form of specific goals regarding performance) for them to follow, through the grades of membership method.
ABSTRACT: The lack of hydrological data in Brazil is the main limitation for structuring hydrological models, which are able to assist water resources management. Therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the performance of models without on-site calibration. Within this context, the aim of this study was to calibrate the SWAT hydrological model for the Camanducaia River Basin and to evaluate the performance of this calibration in a contiguous drainage basin, one ofthe Jaguarí River. For the calibration and validation steps, the SWAT-CUP program was utilized. Uncertainty analysis and calculation ofefficiency indexes were carried out through the SUFI-2 algorithm. The SWAT adjustment in the Camanducaia River Basin obtained adequate results, with a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient higher than 0.80 in the monthly time step and of 0.64 for the daily time step. With the parametrical transfer of this model to the Jaguarí River Basin, simulations were classified as very good in the monthly time step and acceptable for the daily time step. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the parametric transfer is a promising technique to model ungauged catchments, and can contribute towards water resources management in theriver basins ofthe Mantiqueira Range region, as well as in other regions with shortage of hydrological monitoring.
Wirl (1995) examines the impact ofregulation on DSM programs in a setting where electricity demand depends on service demand – the product of electricity usage and the energy e¢ ciency ofthe appliances. The regulated …rm aims to maximise pro…ts which are equal to the electricity sales revenue minus the electricity supply cost and investment in incremental energy e¢ ciency. Wirl (1995) shows that rate of return regulation fails to provide incentives for the …rm to undertake DSM. This is a direct result ofthe incentives that …rms regulated under rate of return regulation face to maximise total quantity sold (as the regulated price is greater than their incremental cost). Nevertheless, when combined with a shared savings mechanism, where the …rm is allowed to share some ofthe bene…ts accruing to consumers, rate of return regulation can lead to incentives for provision of DSM programs. The type of energy e¢ ciency program o¤ered by the regulated …rm, however, would favour high consumption rather than energy conservation. For example, the regulated …rm would favour programs with high rebound e¤ect –which refers to consumers’response to more e¢ cient appliances with more rather than less electricity consumption – such as providing more e¢ cient lighting and air conditioning. Doing so would result in consumers using more lighting in their gardens or setting lower temperatures in their living rooms.
Surface of C120 steel after arc plasma treatment showed tracks have multizone microstructure composed ofthe remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate, which can have diversified microhardness. Structure (particularly precipitation of martensite, bainite retained austenite and secondary cementite) in the remelted zone is dependent on the arc plasma treatment parameters. The cooling rate obtained during the treatment by arc plasma ofthe steels is compared to the cooling rate ofthe steels during conventional heat treatment. This cooling rate can be estimated on the basis ofthe standard CCT diagram for C120 steel. Increased ofthe current intensity of arc plasma lead to of grater areas of materials remelting and it decreases ofthe cooling
Typical temperatures for the process of crystallization and melting ofthe ZRE1 alloy, i.e. temperature ofthe beginning and the end of crystallization, and melting point for intermetallic phase and the Mg (α) solid solution were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The tests were performed on the SETSYS thermal analyser manufactured by Setaram, using the TG-DTA head. The systems allows measurements of heat flow during phase changes related to melting and crystallization of tested alloys. The measurement ofthe temperature ofthe beginning and the end ofthe change were made with the method of two tangents’ intersection (“one set point”). The conditions ofthe experiment are given in table 2, and the DTA curves for the ZRE1 alloy during heating and cooling are shown in figure 2.
The paper presents a statistical assessment ofthe effect of chemical composition on mechanical properties of hypereutectic AlSi17 silumin, which is expected to act as a counterpart of alloys used by automotive industry and aviation for casting of high-duty engine parts in West European countries and USA. The studies on the choice of chemical composition of silumins were preceded by analysis ofthe reference literature to state what effect some selected alloying elements and manufacturing technology may have on the mechanical properties (HB, R m and A 5 ) of these alloys. As alloying additives, Cu, Ni and Mg in proper combinations were used. The alloy after
Tobacco, alcohol, and betel quid are the main causes of squamous cell cancers ofthe upper aerodigestive tract. These substances can cause multifocal carcinogenesis leading to multiple synchronous or metachronous cancers ofthe oesophagus, head and neck region, and lungs (‘ield cancerisation’). Globally there are several million people who have survived either head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) or lung cancer (LC). HNSCC and LC survivors are at increased risk of developing second primary malignancies, including second primary cancers ofthe oesophagus. The risk of second primary oesophageal squamous cell cancer (OSCC) ranges from 8-30% in HNSCC patients. LC and HNSCC survivors should be ofered endoscopic surveillance ofthe oesophagus. Lugol chromoendoscopy is the traditional and best evaluated screening method to detect early squamous cell neoplasias ofthe oesophagus. More recently, narrow band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy has been established as an alternative screening method in Asia. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) is the best evidence- based screening technique to detect (second primary) LC and to reduce LC-related mortality. Low-dose chest CT screening is therefore recommended in OSCC, HNSCC, and LC survivors. In addition, OSCC survivors should undergo periodic pharyngolaryngoscopy for early detection of second primary HNSCC. Secondary prevention aims at quitting smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol consumption. As ield cancerisation involves the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the head and neck region, the patients at risk are best surveilled and managed by an interdisciplinary team.
The demographic structure obtained for the European conger eel characterized a population exclusively composed of young individuals. In this study, it was impossible to know the fishing gear used during the fishery. The small populations that dominate in the study area can be explained by the gradual increase in fishing effort expressed by the increase in the number of trawlers and small boats and exploitation the same areas of fishing. However, Sullivan et al. (2003) showed in Irish coastal waters the absence of small fish between 68 to 80 cm. This was associated with the selectivity ofthe fishing gear rather than indicating the absence ofthe small individuals. Similar results have been already reported by Correia et al. (2009). The allometric scaling 'b' for both females and males of C. conger was greater than 3 and was consistent with other results obtained in other area (Tab 2).
One ofthe most common defects leading to the rejection of faulty castings made of duplex cast steel is hot cracking. Hot cracking – differently from cold cracking which occur on cooling, when the material exhibits already distinct elastic properties – proceeds in the semi-solid state, particularly when the temperature of solidifying casting is close to the equilibrium solidus point. There exist a range of temperatures in the vicinity ofthe solidus point within which the solidifying metal shows very small deformation ability and small strength. Therefore even little stresses occurring at the solidification stage and caused by density difference between ferrite and austenite, or restricted shrinkage, or various temperature gradients, can be the reason of hot cracking. Copper addition, as it is used in cast steel grades implemented in Polish power industry applications, decreases the temperature ofthe end of solidification, thus affecting beneficially the surface reproduction quality, but on the other hand it can promote, along with several other elements contained in duplex cast steel, the peritectic transformation during the last stage of solidification. The presence of peritectic solidification, i.e. strictly speaking the structural stresses accompanying that process, is the well-known and significant reason ofthe increased steel defectiveness in the continuous steel casting (CSC) technology if the steel with carbon content promoting the peritectic transformation is processed.
Abstract. This paper deals with the use of time-series of High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models (HR DEMs) ob- tained from photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR coupled with aerial photos, to analyse the magnitude of recently re- activated large scale earth slides – earth flows located in the northern Apennines of Italy. The landslides underwent com- plete reactivation between 2001 and 2006, causing civil pro- tection emergencies. With the final aim to support hazard assessment and the planning of mitigation measures, high- resolution DEMs are used to identify, quantify and visualize depletion and accumulation in the slope resulting from the re- activation ofthe mass movements. This information allows to quantify mass wasting, i.e. the amount of landslide mate- rial that is wasted during reactivation events due to stream erosion along the slope and at its bottom, resulting in sed- iment discharge into the local fluvial system, and to assess the total volumetric magnitude ofthe events. By quantifying and visualising elevation changes at the slope scale, results are also a valuable support for the comprehension of geo- morphological processes acting behind the evolution ofthe analysed landslides.
quality of alternatives with regard to price within a category (Jin & Suh, 2005). Organic vegetable products have advantages and technologies related of environmental friendly. Perceived quality is not the actual quality ofthe brands or products. Rather, it is the consumers’ judgment about an entity’s or a service’s overall excellence or superiority (Aaker, 1991). Sometimes is directly related to the reputation ofthe firm that manufactures the product (Davis et al. 2003), and viewed as the degree and direction of discrepancy between consumers’ perceptions and expectations (Chen & Chang, 2005). Perceived quality and perception of quality had closer theoretical, perception defined is the mental process that persons go through in selecting, organizing and interpreting information into meaningful patterns (Truong & Yap, 2010:532). It can be interpreted that perception of quality is overall judgment of superior quality of organic products as result from selecting, organizing and interpreting form the alternative product. Measurement of customer perception of quality on organic products is divide on several things, included guarantee (origin, brand, label, variety), organoleptic characteristic (firmness, color, flavor, aroma), and external factors (damage, size, price) (Carrasco et al., 2012:1422). In other side on organic product it measured with environmental concern, environmental consideration, environmental performance, environmental image, and environmental reputation (Chen & Chang, 2013:71).
The incorrect macrostructure is distinguished by very significant differences in the grain size, which is reflected in the quantitative analysis. The grain area distributions in the projection plane (Fig. 6) and ofthe grains with a non-planar surface (Fig. 7) are of a bimodal nature and the differences in the assessment ofthe average values and standard deviations (Table 1) do not exceed 12%. The quantitative evaluation is supplemented with distributions ofthe grain shape coefficient (Fig. 8 and 9) and elongation coefficient (Fig. 10 and Fig. 11). These distribution parameters juxtaposed in Tables 2 and 3 show high coincidence ofthe values calculated.
The RDI is an irrigation management that consists in inducing water deficits to plants at developmental stages, in which the fruit growth and quality have low sensitivity to water stress, not hinder its potential productivity, in order to increase water use efficiency. The PRD irrigation, also known in Brazil as controlled alternate partial root-zone irrigation, consists in alternating the side ofthe plant that receive irrigation every 10 to 21 days, at the phenological stage of fruit set to the harvest. The use of these strategies is based on the fact that the water deficit in the soil induce the production ofthe hormone abscisic acid (ABA) by the roots, which translocates through the vascular axis, concentrating on the shoot, promoting partial closing ofthe stomata and the control of vegetative growth, consequently reducing the water lost to the atmosphere. McCarthy et al. (2000) points out that the PRD is based on biochemical responses of plants to achieve a balance between vegetative and reproductive development through water stress, as a result, there is a significant improvement in production per unit of irrigation water applied. The irrigation should be performed before the water availability in the soil is reduced to levels that alter
companies of any kind, including the banking industry is not enough to just rely on internal resources and capabilities they have and implement business functions are single fighter. The success gained competitive advantage depends on the ability of companies in perceived value to customers who exceed that offered by competitors. For an industry that includes the banking industry in the creation of value to the customer and achieving superior performance must be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the type and intensity of competitive forces in the industrial environment. Increasing the strength of competition in the industrial environment both of Rivalry Among Existing sellers and new entrants will result in price competition and tighter margins obtained which will ultimately affect the performance ofthe company. Especially against the banking industry, including Islamic banking, competitive landscape facing now not only fellow Islamic banking in the country, but because the growth is very promising, also has attracted foreign banks to plunge also in the Islamic banking industry both full-pledged islamic banking and foreign commercial banks which have business units islamic window. Influential forces affecting the competitive environment on the performance of Islamic banking in particular through the introduction of new entrants of foreign banks into Islamic banking industry is evidenced by the results of research conducted by Hassan et. al. 2013). The results of research by using econometric models and using 14 samples from 24 countries who have foreign Islamic banks and Islamic banks with domestic observation period financial statements (financial statements) ofthe 149 Islamic banks domestic and foreign Islamic banks during 1996 to 2010 concluded that: In general, foreign Islamic banks as new competitors enjoy more Linggi performance in the form of net profit margin in 7 countries ofthe 24 countries sampled, but instead get the net profit margin is very low in 5 other countries. Another finding is the rate of returns (in the form of ROE and ROA) plays an important role in the decisions of foreign Islamic banks to entry into the market of Islamic banking in the country, macroeconomic conditions only act as a supporting role, considered tax policy plays a role in the decision-hostile entry decision and the presence of foreign Islamic banks, the financial crisis did not significantly affect the entry decision. Meanwhile, the analysis ofthe influence of foreign Islamic bank entry on the performance ofthe domestic Islamic banks, among others, show the profitability ofthe domestic Islamic
During cooling, the crystallisation of cast iron deviates from the equilibrium state. This means that the austenite gets supersaturated with carbon and chromium, which greatly reduces the temperature of its transformation. Under these conditions, it is possible to obtain at room temperature the matrix of austenitic or austenitic-pearlitic character, as shown by respective microstructures. Total content ofthe carbide phase can be determined from F. Maratray’s  formula, namely: